How Learning Works

328 Pages · 2014 · 2.33 MB · English

  • How Learning Works

    (Continued from front fl ap)

    Praise for How Learning Works

    foster it. This vital resource is grounded Ambrose

    in learning theory and based on research

    “ How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new Bridges

    evidence, while being easy to understand and

    research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystifi ed DiPietro

    apply to college teaching.

    a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of


    great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book


    is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students’

    Susan A. Ambrose is associate provost for


    education, director of the Eberly Center

    — Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of

    for Teaching Excellence, and teaching California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching SH

    Any conversation about effective teaching

    professor in the Department of History at e

    vO must begin with a consideration of how

    Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, e

    “ This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been n students learn. However, instructors may fi nd

    Pennsylvania. teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many RW a gap between resources that focus on the


    of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching.” s technical research on learning and those that

    Michael W. Bridges is director of faculty e

    — Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. a provide practical classroom strategies. How

    development at UPMC St. Margaret Hospital Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of rcL Learning Works provides the bridge for such

    in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education hE a gap.



    Michele DiPietro is associate director for as In this volume, the authors introduce seven

    graduate programs at the Eberly Center and “ Tinhaacnckes ysoiub lCe atorn thegoisee Mofe ullso wnh foor a mrea nkoint gle aacrcneisnsgib slcei ewnhtiastt sh.a Yso purre fvoicouuss loyn b teheen e ssence edR general principles of learning, distilled from

    instructor in the Department of Statistics at PN the research literature as well as from

    of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and

    Carnegie Mellon. clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this rin twenty-seven years of experience working

    book to all my colleagues.” cIN one-on-one with college faculty. They have

    Marsha C. Lovett is associate director for ip drawn on research from a breadth of perspec-

    — Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the


    faculty development at the Eberly Center Advancement of Teaching esG 7 tives (cognitive, developmental, and social

    and associate teaching professor in the f psychology; educational research; anthro-

    Department of Psychology at Carnegie or pology; demographics; and organizational

    Mellon. “ As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will SW Research-Based Principles behavior) to identify a set of key principles

    fi nd advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to m

    underlying learning—from how effective

    Marie K. Norman is a teaching consultant college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and arO organization enhances retrieval and use

    experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously t

    and research associate at the Eberly Center T for Smart Teaching of information to what impacts motivation.

    and adjunct professor of anthropology at share it with you in this organized and readable book.” eaR These principles provide instructors with an

    — From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa

    Carnegie Mellon. cK understanding of student learning that can

    Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning h

    help them see why certain teaching approach-


    es are or are not supporting student learning,

    The Eberly Center for Teaching g

    generate or refi ne teaching approaches and

    Excellence at Carnegie Mellon University

    strategies that more effectively foster student

    was created in 1982 with a mission to distill

    Susan A. Ambrose learning in specifi c contexts, and transfer and

    the research on learning for faculty and EDUCATION/HIGHER

    apply these principles to new courses.

    graduate students and to collaborate with

    Michael W. Bridges | Michele DiPietro

    them to design and implement meaningful

    For anyone who wants to improve his or her

    educational experiences. The center’s work

    www.josseybass.com Marsha C. Lovett | Marie K. Norman students’ learning, it is crucial to understand

    is based on the idea that combining the

    how that learning works and how to best

    science and art of teaching empowers

    college faculty to create the conditions

    for students to learn and, through this Jacket design byJudy Brooks FOREWORD BY RICHARD E. MAYER

    and Michael Cook (Continued on back fl ap)

    learning, transform their world. How


    Works How



    Seven Research-Based

    Principles for Smart Teaching

    Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges,

    Michele DiPietro, Marsha C. Lovett,

    Marie K. Norman

    Foreword by Richard E. Mayer Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Published by Jossey-Bass

    A Wiley Imprint

    989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741—www.josseybass.com

    The book is based on the seven “Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning,” which are

    used with permission of Carnegie Mellon University’s Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence.

    Figures created by Judy Brooks.

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in

    any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or

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    Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best

    efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the

    accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifi cally disclaim any implied

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    How learning works : seven research-based principles for smart teaching /

    Susan A. Ambrose . . . [et al.] ; foreword by Richard E. Mayer. – 1st ed.

    p. cm. – (The Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series)

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-0-470-48410-4 (cloth)

    1. Effective teaching–Case studies. 2. Educational innovations–Case studies. 3. School

    improvement programs–Case studies. 4. Learning, Psychology of–Case studies. I. Ambrose,

    Susan A. II. Title: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching.

    LB1025.3.H68 2010



    Printed in the United States of America


    HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 T H E J O S S E Y uf6ba B A S S H I G H E R

    A N D A D U LT E D U C AT I O N

    S E R I E S

    CO N T E N T S

    List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits ix

    Foreword xiii

    Richard E. Mayer

    Acknowledgments xvii

    About the Authors xix

    Introduction Bridging Learning Research and Teaching

    Practice 1

    1 How Does Students’ Prior Knowledge Affect Their

    Learning? 10

    2 How Does the Way Students Organize Knowledge

    Affect Their Learning? 40

    3 What Factors Motivate Students to Learn? 66

    4 How Do Students Develop Mastery? 91

    5 What Kinds of Practice and Feedback Enhance

    Learning? 121

    6 Why Do Student Development and Course Climate

    Matter for Student Learning? 153

    7 How Do Students Become Self-Directed Learners? 188

    Conclusion Applying the Seven Principles to Ourselves 217

    vii Contents


    Appendix A What Is Student Self-Assessment and

    How Can We Use It? 225

    Appendix B What Are Concept Maps and How Can

    We Use Them? 228

    Appendix C What Are Rubrics and How Can We

    Use Them? 231

    Appendix D What Are Learning Objectives and How

    Can We Use Them? 244

    Appendix E What Are Ground Rules and How Can We

    Use Them? 248

    Appendix F What Are Exam Wrappers and How Can We

    Use Them? 251

    Appendix G What Are Checklists and How Can We

    Use Them? 255

    Appendix H What Is Reader Response/Peer Review and

    How Can We Use It? 257

    References 261

    Name Index 285

    Subject Index 291


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