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How Learning Works

328 Pages · 2014 · 2.33 MB · English

  • How Learning Works

    (Continued from front fl ap)


    Praise for How Learning Works


    foster it. This vital resource is grounded Ambrose


    in learning theory and based on research


    “ How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new Bridges


    evidence, while being easy to understand and


    research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystifi ed DiPietro


    apply to college teaching.


    a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of


    Lovett


    great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book


    Norman


    is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students’


    Susan A. Ambrose is associate provost for


    learning.”


    education, director of the Eberly Center


    — Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of


    for Teaching Excellence, and teaching California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching SH


    Any conversation about effective teaching


    professor in the Department of History at e


    vO must begin with a consideration of how


    Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, e


    “ This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been n students learn. However, instructors may fi nd


    Pennsylvania. teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many RW a gap between resources that focus on the


    e


    of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching.” s technical research on learning and those that


    Michael W. Bridges is director of faculty e


    — Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. a provide practical classroom strategies. How


    development at UPMC St. Margaret Hospital Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of rcL Learning Works provides the bridge for such


    in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education hE a gap.


    -


    BA


    Michele DiPietro is associate director for as In this volume, the authors introduce seven


    graduate programs at the Eberly Center and “ Tinhaacnckes ysoiub lCe atorn thegoisee Mofe ullso wnh foor a mrea nkoint gle aacrcneisnsgib slcei ewnhtiastt sh.a Yso purre fvoicouuss loyn b teheen e ssence edR general principles of learning, distilled from


    instructor in the Department of Statistics at PN the research literature as well as from


    of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and


    Carnegie Mellon. clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this rin twenty-seven years of experience working


    book to all my colleagues.” cIN one-on-one with college faculty. They have


    Marsha C. Lovett is associate director for ip drawn on research from a breadth of perspec-


    — Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the


    l


    faculty development at the Eberly Center Advancement of Teaching esG 7 tives (cognitive, developmental, and social


    and associate teaching professor in the f psychology; educational research; anthro-


    Department of Psychology at Carnegie or pology; demographics; and organizational


    Mellon. “ As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will SW Research-Based Principles behavior) to identify a set of key principles


    fi nd advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to m


    underlying learning—from how effective


    Marie K. Norman is a teaching consultant college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and arO organization enhances retrieval and use


    experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously t


    and research associate at the Eberly Center T for Smart Teaching of information to what impacts motivation.


    and adjunct professor of anthropology at share it with you in this organized and readable book.” eaR These principles provide instructors with an


    — From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa


    Carnegie Mellon. cK understanding of student learning that can


    Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning h


    help them see why certain teaching approach-


    inS


    es are or are not supporting student learning,


    The Eberly Center for Teaching g


    generate or refi ne teaching approaches and


    Excellence at Carnegie Mellon University


    strategies that more effectively foster student


    was created in 1982 with a mission to distill


    Susan A. Ambrose learning in specifi c contexts, and transfer and


    the research on learning for faculty and EDUCATION/HIGHER


    apply these principles to new courses.


    graduate students and to collaborate with


    Michael W. Bridges | Michele DiPietro


    them to design and implement meaningful


    For anyone who wants to improve his or her


    educational experiences. The center’s work


    www.josseybass.com Marsha C. Lovett | Marie K. Norman students’ learning, it is crucial to understand


    is based on the idea that combining the


    how that learning works and how to best


    science and art of teaching empowers


    college faculty to create the conditions


    for students to learn and, through this Jacket design byJudy Brooks FOREWORD BY RICHARD E. MAYER


    and Michael Cook (Continued on back fl ap)


    learning, transform their world. How


    Learning


    Works How


    Learning


    Works


    Seven Research-Based


    Principles for Smart Teaching


    Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges,


    Michele DiPietro, Marsha C. Lovett,


    Marie K. Norman


    Foreword by Richard E. Mayer Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.


    Published by Jossey-Bass


    A Wiley Imprint


    989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741—www.josseybass.com


    The book is based on the seven “Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning,” which are


    used with permission of Carnegie Mellon University’s Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence.


    Figures created by Judy Brooks.


    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in


    any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or


    otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright


    Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through


    payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222


    Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at


    www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the


    Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030,


    201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.


    Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further


    information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it


    is read.


    Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best


    efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the


    accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifi cally disclaim any implied


    warranties of merchantability or fi tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created


    or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies


    contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a


    professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of


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    Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass


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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    How learning works : seven research-based principles for smart teaching /


    Susan A. Ambrose . . . [et al.] ; foreword by Richard E. Mayer. – 1st ed.


    p. cm. – (The Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series)


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-0-470-48410-4 (cloth)


    1. Effective teaching–Case studies. 2. Educational innovations–Case studies. 3. School


    improvement programs–Case studies. 4. Learning, Psychology of–Case studies. I. Ambrose,


    Susan A. II. Title: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching.


    LB1025.3.H68 2010


    371.102–dc22


    2010003939


    Printed in the United States of America


    FIRST EDITION


    HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 T H E J O S S E Y uf6ba B A S S H I G H E R


    A N D A D U LT E D U C AT I O N


    S E R I E S


    CO N T E N T S


    List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits ix


    Foreword xiii


    Richard E. Mayer


    Acknowledgments xvii


    About the Authors xix


    Introduction Bridging Learning Research and Teaching


    Practice 1


    1 How Does Students’ Prior Knowledge Affect Their


    Learning? 10


    2 How Does the Way Students Organize Knowledge


    Affect Their Learning? 40


    3 What Factors Motivate Students to Learn? 66


    4 How Do Students Develop Mastery? 91


    5 What Kinds of Practice and Feedback Enhance


    Learning? 121


    6 Why Do Student Development and Course Climate


    Matter for Student Learning? 153


    7 How Do Students Become Self-Directed Learners? 188


    Conclusion Applying the Seven Principles to Ourselves 217


    vii Contents


    Appendices


    Appendix A What Is Student Self-Assessment and


    How Can We Use It? 225


    Appendix B What Are Concept Maps and How Can


    We Use Them? 228


    Appendix C What Are Rubrics and How Can We


    Use Them? 231


    Appendix D What Are Learning Objectives and How


    Can We Use Them? 244


    Appendix E What Are Ground Rules and How Can We


    Use Them? 248


    Appendix F What Are Exam Wrappers and How Can We


    Use Them? 251


    Appendix G What Are Checklists and How Can We


    Use Them? 255


    Appendix H What Is Reader Response/Peer Review and


    How Can We Use It? 257


    References 261


    Name Index 285


    Subject Index 291


    viii


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