396 Pages · 2007 · 7.25 MB · English


    The Project Gutenberg EBook of History of the United States

    by Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard

    This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with

    almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or

    re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included

    with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

    Title: History of the United States

    Author: Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard

    Release Date: October 28, 2005 [EBook #16960]

    Language: English

    Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1



    Produced by Curtis Weyant, M and the Online Distributed

    Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net


    OF THE








    All rights reserved

    Copyright, 1921,


    Set up and electrotyped. Published March, 1921.

    Norwood Press

    J.S. Cushing Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.

    Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.


    As things now stand, the course of instruction in American history in our public schools embraces three

    distinct treatments of the subject. Three separate books are used. First, there is the primary book, which is

    usually a very condensed narrative with emphasis on biographies and anecdotes. Second, there is the

    advanced text for the seventh or eighth grade, generally speaking, an expansion of the elementary book by

    the addition of forty or fifty thousand words. Finally, there is the high school manual. This, too, ordinarily

    follows the beaten path, giving fuller accounts of the same events and characters. To put it bluntly, we do

    not assume that our children obtain permanent possessions from their study of history in the lower grades.

    If mathematicians followed the same method, high school texts on algebra and geometry would include

    the multiplication table and fractions.

    There is, of course, a ready answer to the criticism advanced above. It is that teachers have learned from

    bitter experience how little history their pupils retain as they pass along the regular route. No teacher of

    history will deny this. Still it is a standing challenge to existing methods of historical instruction. If the

    study of history cannot be made truly progressive like the study of mathematics, science, and languages,

    then the historians assume a grave responsibility in adding their subject to the already overloaded

    curriculum. If the successive historical texts are only enlarged editions of the first text—more facts, more

    dates, more words—then history deserves most of the sharp criticism which it is receiving from teachers of

    science, civics, and economics.

    In this condition of affairs we find our justification for offering a new high school text in American

    history. Our first contribution is one of omission. The time-honored stories of exploration and the

    biographies of heroes are left out. We frankly hold that, if pupils know little or nothing about Columbus,

    Cortes, Magellan, or Captain John Smith by the time they reach the high school, it is useless to tell the

    same stories for perhaps the fourth time. It is worse than useless. It is an offense against the teachers of

    those subjects that are demonstrated to be progressive in character.

    In the next place we have omitted all descriptions of battles. Our reasons for this are simple. The strategy

    of a campaign or of a single battle is a highly technical, and usually a highly controversial, matter about which experts differ widely. In the field of military and naval operations most writers and teachers of

    history are mere novices. To dispose of Gettysburg or the Wilderness in ten lines or ten pages is equally

    absurd to the serious student of military affairs. Any one who compares the ordinary textbook account of a

    single Civil War campaign with the account given by Ropes, for instance, will ask for no further comment.

    No youth called upon to serve our country in arms would think of turning to a high school manual for

    information about the art of warfare. The dramatic scene or episode, so useful in arousing the interest of

    the immature pupil, seems out of place in a book that deliberately appeals to boys and girls on the very

    threshold of life's serious responsibilities.

    It is not upon negative features, however, that we rest our case. It is rather upon constructive features.

    First. We have written a topical, not a narrative, history. We have tried to set forth the important aspects,

    problems, and movements of each period, bringing in the narrative rather by way of illustration.

    Second. We have emphasized those historical topics which help to explain how our nation has come to be

    what it is to-day.

    Third. We have dwelt fully upon the social and economic aspects of our history, especially in relation to

    the politics of each period.

    Fourth. We have treated the causes and results of wars, the problems of financing and sustaining armed

    forces, rather than military strategy. These are the subjects which belong to a history for civilians. These

    are matters which civilians can understand—matters which they must understand, if they are to play well

    their part in war and peace.

    Fifth. By omitting the period of exploration, we have been able to enlarge the treatment of our own time.

    We have given special attention to the history of those current questions which must form the subject

    matter of sound instruction in citizenship.

    Sixth. We have borne in mind that America, with all her unique characteristics, is a part of a general

    civilization. Accordingly we have given diplomacy, foreign affairs, world relations, and the reciprocal

    influences of nations their appropriate place.

    Seventh. We have deliberately aimed at standards of maturity. The study of a mere narrative calls mainly

    for the use of the memory. We have aimed to stimulate habits of analysis, comparison, association,

    reflection, and generalization—habits calculated to enlarge as well as inform the mind. We have been at

    great pains to make our text clear, simple, and direct; but we have earnestly sought to stretch the intellects

    of our readers—to put them upon their mettle. Most of them will receive the last of their formal instruction

    in the high school. The world will soon expect maturity from them. Their achievements will depend upon

    the possession of other powers than memory alone. The effectiveness of their citizenship in our republic

    will be measured by the excellence of their judgment as well as the fullness of their information.



    New York City,



    BASSETT, J.S. A Short History of the United States

    ELSON, H.W. History of the United States of America


    "Epochs of American History," edited by A.B. Hart

    HART, A.B. Formation of the Union

    THWAITES, R.G. The Colonies

    WILSON, WOODROW. Division and Reunion

    "Riverside Series," edited by W.E. Dodd

    BECKER, C.L. Beginnings of the American People

    DODD, W.E. Expansion and Conflict

    JOHNSON, A. Union and Democracy

    PAXSON, F.L. The New Nation



    chapter page

    I.The Great Migration to America 1

    The Agencies of American Colonization 2

    The Colonial Peoples 6

    The Process of Colonization 12

    II.Colonial Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 20

    The Land and the Westward Movement 20

    Industrial and Commercial Development 28

    III.Social and Political Progress 38

    The Leadership of the Churches 39

    Schools and Colleges 43

    The Colonial Press 46

    The Evolution in Political Institutions 48

    IV.The Development of Colonial Nationalism 56

    Relations with the Indians and the French 57

    The Effects of Warfare on the Colonies 61 Colonial Relations with the British Government 64

    Summary of Colonial Period 73


    V.The New Course in British Imperial Policy 77

    George III and His System 77

    George III's Ministers and Their Colonial Policies 79

    Colonial Resistance Forces Repeal 83

    Resumption of British Revenue and Commercial Policies 87

    Renewed Resistance in America 90

    Retaliation by the British Government 93

    From Reform to Revolution in America 95

    VI.The American Revolution 99

    Resistance and Retaliation 99

    American Independence 101

    The Establishment of Government and the New Allegiance 108

    Military Affairs 116

    The Finances of the Revolution 125

    The Diplomacy of the Revolution 127

    Peace at Last 132

    Summary of the Revolutionary Period 135


    VII.The Formation of the Constitution 139

    The Promise and the Difficulties of America 139

    The Calling of a Constitutional Convention 143

    The Framing of the Constitution 146

    The Struggle over Ratification 157

    VIII.The Clash of Political Parties 162

    The Men and Measures of the New Government 162

    The Rise of Political Parties 168

    Foreign Influences and Domestic Politics 171

    IX.The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power 186

    Republican Principles and Policies 186

    The Republicans and the Great West 188

    The Republican War for Commercial Independence 193

    The Republicans Nationalized 201

    The National Decisions of Chief Justice Marshall 208

    Summary of Union and National Politics 212

    PART IV. THE WEST AND JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY X.The Farmers beyond the Appalachians 217

    Preparation for Western Settlement 217

    The Western Migration and New States 221

    The Spirit of the Frontier 228

    The West and the East Meet 230

    XI.Jacksonian Democracy 238

    The Democratic Movement in the East 238

    The New Democracy Enters the Arena 244

    The New Democracy at Washington 250

    The Rise of the Whigs 260

    The Interaction of American and European Opinion 265

    XII.The Middle Border and the Great West 271

    The Advance of the Middle Border 271

    On to the Pacific—Texas and the Mexican War 276

    The Pacific Coast and Utah 284

    Summary of Western Development and National Politics 292


    XIII.The Rise of the Industrial System 295

    The Industrial Revolution 296

    The Industrial Revolution and National Politics 307

    XIV.The Planting System and National Politics 316

    Slavery—North and South 316

    Slavery in National Politics 324

    The Drift of Events toward the Irrepressible Conflict 332

    XV.The Civil War and Reconstruction 344

    The Southern Confederacy 344

    The War Measures of the Federal Government 350

    The Results of the Civil War 365

    Reconstruction in the South 370

    Summary of the Sectional Conflict 375


    XVI.The Political and Economic Evolution of the South 379

    The South at the Close of the War 379

    The Restoration of White Supremacy 382

    The Economic Advance of the South 389

    XVII.Business Enterprise and the Republican Party 401

    Railways and Industry 401

    The Supremacy of the Republican Party (1861-1885) 412

    The Growth of Opposition to Republican Rule 417 XVIII.The Development of the Great West 425

    The Railways as Trail Blazers 425

    The Evolution of Grazing and Agriculture 431

    Mining and Manufacturing in the West 436

    The Admission of New States 440

    The Influence of the Far West on National Life 443

    XIX.Domestic Issues before the Country(1865-1897) 451

    The Currency Question 452

    The Protective Tariff and Taxation 459

    The Railways and Trusts 460

    The Minor Parties and Unrest 462

    The Sound Money Battle of 1896 466

    Republican Measures and Results 472

    XX.America a World Power(1865-1900) 477

    American Foreign Relations (1865-1898) 478

    Cuba and the Spanish War 485

    American Policies in the Philippines and the Orient 497

    Summary of National Growth and World Politics 504


    XXI.The Evolution of Republican Policies(1901-1913) 507

    Foreign Affairs 508

    Colonial Administration 515

    The Roosevelt Domestic Policies 519

    Legislative and Executive Activities 523

    The Administration of President Taft 527

    Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912 530

    XXII.The Spirit of Reform in America 536

    An Age of Criticism 536

    Political Reforms 538

    Measures of Economic Reform 546

    XXIII.The New Political Democracy 554

    The Rise of the Woman Movement 555

    The National Struggle for Woman Suffrage 562

    XXIV.Industrial Democracy 570

    Coöperation between Employers and Employees 571

    The Rise and Growth of Organized Labor 575

    The Wider Relations of Organized Labor 577

    Immigration and Americanization 582

    XXV.President Wilson and the World War 588

    Domestic Legislation 588 Colonial and Foreign Policies 592

    The United States and the European War 596

    The United States at War 604

    The Settlement at Paris 612

    Summary of Democracy and the World War 620

    Appendix 627

    A Topical Syllabus 645

    Index 655



    The Original Grants (color map) Facing 4

    German and Scotch-Irish Settlements 8

    Distribution of Population in 1790 27

    English, French, and Spanish Possessions in America, 1750 (color map) Facing 59

    The Colonies at the Time of the Declaration of Independence (color map)Facing 108

    North America according to the Treaty of 1783 (color map) Facing 134

    The United States in 1805 (color map) Facing 193

    Roads and Trails into Western Territory (color map) Facing 224

    The Cumberland Road 233

    Distribution of Population in 1830 235

    Texas and the Territory in Dispute 282

    The Oregon Country and the Disputed Boundary 285

    The Overland Trails 287

    Distribution of Slaves in Southern States 323

    The Missouri Compromise 326

    Slave and Free Soil on the Eve of the Civil War 335

    The United States in 1861 (color map) Facing 345

    Railroads of the United States in 1918 405

    The United States in 1870 (color map) Facing 427

    The United States in 1912 (color map) Facing 443

    American Dominions in the Pacific (color map) Facing 500

    The Caribbean Region (color map) Facing 592

    Battle Lines of the Various Years of the World War 613

    Europe in 1919 (color map) Between618-619 ILLUSTRATIONS

    The Nations of the West

    John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company

    William Penn, Proprietor of Pennsylvania

    A Glimpse of Old Germantown

    Old Dutch Fort and English Church Near Albany

    Southern Plantation Mansion

    A New England Farmhouse

    Domestic Industry: Dipping Tallow Candles

    The Dutch West India Warehouse in New Amsterdam (New York City)

    A Page from a Famous Schoolbook

    The Royal Governor's Palace at New Berne

    Virginians Defending Themselves against the Indians

    Braddock's Retreat

    Benjamin Franklin

    George III

    Patrick Henry

    Samuel Adams

    Spirit of 1776

    Thomas Paine

    Thomas Jefferson Reading His Draft of the Declaration

    Mobbing the Tories

    George Washington

    Robert Morris

    Alexander Hamilton

    An Advertisement of The Federalist

    Celebrating the Ratification

    First United States Bank at Philadelphia

    Louis XVI in the Hands of the Mob

    A Quarrel between a Federalist and a Republican

    New England Jumping into the Hands of George III

    John Marshall

    A Log Cabin—Lincoln's Birthplace

    An Early Mississippi Steamboat Thomas Dorr Arousing His Followers

    Andrew Jackson

    Daniel Webster

    An Old Cartoon Ridiculing Clay's Tariff

    Santa Barbara Mission

    San Francisco in 1849

    A New England Mill Built in 1793

    An Early Railway

    Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1838

    John C. Calhoun

    Henry Clay

    An Old Cartoon Representing Webster "Stealing Clay's Thunder"

    Harriet Beecher Stowe

    Jefferson Davis

    The Draft Riots in New York City

    A Blockade Runner

    John Bright

    William H. Seward

    Abraham Lincoln

    General Ulysses S. Grant

    General Robert E. Lee

    The Federal Military Hospital at Gettysburg

    Steel Mills—Birmingham, Alabama

    A Southern Cotton Mill in a Cotton Field

    A Glimpse of Memphis, Tennessee

    A Corner in the Bethlehem Steel Works

    John D. Rockefeller

    Wall Street, New York City

    A Town on the Prairie


    The Canadian Building

    Commodore Perry's Men Making Presents to the Japanese

    William J. Bryan in 1898

    President McKinley and His Cabinet

    Grover Cleveland

    An old cartoon.A Sight Too Bad

    Cuban Revolutionists

    A Philippine Home

    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.