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HISTORY UNITED STATES

396 Pages · 2007 · 7.25 MB · English

  • HISTORY UNITED STATES

    The Project Gutenberg EBook of History of the United States


    by Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard


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    Title: History of the United States


    Author: Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard


    Release Date: October 28, 2005 [EBook #16960]


    Language: English


    Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


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    HISTORY


    OF THE


    UNITED STATES


    BY


    CHARLES A. BEARD


    AND


    MARY R. BEARD


    New York THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


    1921


    All rights reserved


    Copyright, 1921,


    By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.


    Set up and electrotyped. Published March, 1921.


    Norwood Press


    J.S. Cushing Co.—Berwick & Smith Co.


    Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.


    PREFACE


    As things now stand, the course of instruction in American history in our public schools embraces three


    distinct treatments of the subject. Three separate books are used. First, there is the primary book, which is


    usually a very condensed narrative with emphasis on biographies and anecdotes. Second, there is the


    advanced text for the seventh or eighth grade, generally speaking, an expansion of the elementary book by


    the addition of forty or fifty thousand words. Finally, there is the high school manual. This, too, ordinarily


    follows the beaten path, giving fuller accounts of the same events and characters. To put it bluntly, we do


    not assume that our children obtain permanent possessions from their study of history in the lower grades.


    If mathematicians followed the same method, high school texts on algebra and geometry would include


    the multiplication table and fractions.


    There is, of course, a ready answer to the criticism advanced above. It is that teachers have learned from


    bitter experience how little history their pupils retain as they pass along the regular route. No teacher of


    history will deny this. Still it is a standing challenge to existing methods of historical instruction. If the


    study of history cannot be made truly progressive like the study of mathematics, science, and languages,


    then the historians assume a grave responsibility in adding their subject to the already overloaded


    curriculum. If the successive historical texts are only enlarged editions of the first text—more facts, more


    dates, more words—then history deserves most of the sharp criticism which it is receiving from teachers of


    science, civics, and economics.


    In this condition of affairs we find our justification for offering a new high school text in American


    history. Our first contribution is one of omission. The time-honored stories of exploration and the


    biographies of heroes are left out. We frankly hold that, if pupils know little or nothing about Columbus,


    Cortes, Magellan, or Captain John Smith by the time they reach the high school, it is useless to tell the


    same stories for perhaps the fourth time. It is worse than useless. It is an offense against the teachers of


    those subjects that are demonstrated to be progressive in character.


    In the next place we have omitted all descriptions of battles. Our reasons for this are simple. The strategy


    of a campaign or of a single battle is a highly technical, and usually a highly controversial, matter about which experts differ widely. In the field of military and naval operations most writers and teachers of


    history are mere novices. To dispose of Gettysburg or the Wilderness in ten lines or ten pages is equally


    absurd to the serious student of military affairs. Any one who compares the ordinary textbook account of a


    single Civil War campaign with the account given by Ropes, for instance, will ask for no further comment.


    No youth called upon to serve our country in arms would think of turning to a high school manual for


    information about the art of warfare. The dramatic scene or episode, so useful in arousing the interest of


    the immature pupil, seems out of place in a book that deliberately appeals to boys and girls on the very


    threshold of life's serious responsibilities.


    It is not upon negative features, however, that we rest our case. It is rather upon constructive features.


    First. We have written a topical, not a narrative, history. We have tried to set forth the important aspects,


    problems, and movements of each period, bringing in the narrative rather by way of illustration.


    Second. We have emphasized those historical topics which help to explain how our nation has come to be


    what it is to-day.


    Third. We have dwelt fully upon the social and economic aspects of our history, especially in relation to


    the politics of each period.


    Fourth. We have treated the causes and results of wars, the problems of financing and sustaining armed


    forces, rather than military strategy. These are the subjects which belong to a history for civilians. These


    are matters which civilians can understand—matters which they must understand, if they are to play well


    their part in war and peace.


    Fifth. By omitting the period of exploration, we have been able to enlarge the treatment of our own time.


    We have given special attention to the history of those current questions which must form the subject


    matter of sound instruction in citizenship.


    Sixth. We have borne in mind that America, with all her unique characteristics, is a part of a general


    civilization. Accordingly we have given diplomacy, foreign affairs, world relations, and the reciprocal


    influences of nations their appropriate place.


    Seventh. We have deliberately aimed at standards of maturity. The study of a mere narrative calls mainly


    for the use of the memory. We have aimed to stimulate habits of analysis, comparison, association,


    reflection, and generalization—habits calculated to enlarge as well as inform the mind. We have been at


    great pains to make our text clear, simple, and direct; but we have earnestly sought to stretch the intellects


    of our readers—to put them upon their mettle. Most of them will receive the last of their formal instruction


    in the high school. The world will soon expect maturity from them. Their achievements will depend upon


    the possession of other powers than memory alone. The effectiveness of their citizenship in our republic


    will be measured by the excellence of their judgment as well as the fullness of their information.


    C.A.B.


    M.R.B.


    New York City,


    February 8, 1921. A SMALL LIBRARY IN AMERICAN HISTORY


    SINGLE VOLUMES:


    BASSETT, J.S. A Short History of the United States


    ELSON, H.W. History of the United States of America


    SERIES:


    "Epochs of American History," edited by A.B. Hart


    HART, A.B. Formation of the Union


    THWAITES, R.G. The Colonies


    WILSON, WOODROW. Division and Reunion


    "Riverside Series," edited by W.E. Dodd


    BECKER, C.L. Beginnings of the American People


    DODD, W.E. Expansion and Conflict


    JOHNSON, A. Union and Democracy


    PAXSON, F.L. The New Nation


    CONTENTS


    PART I. THE COLONIAL PERIOD


    chapter page


    I.The Great Migration to America 1


    The Agencies of American Colonization 2


    The Colonial Peoples 6


    The Process of Colonization 12


    II.Colonial Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce 20


    The Land and the Westward Movement 20


    Industrial and Commercial Development 28


    III.Social and Political Progress 38


    The Leadership of the Churches 39


    Schools and Colleges 43


    The Colonial Press 46


    The Evolution in Political Institutions 48


    IV.The Development of Colonial Nationalism 56


    Relations with the Indians and the French 57


    The Effects of Warfare on the Colonies 61 Colonial Relations with the British Government 64


    Summary of Colonial Period 73


    PART II. CONFLICT AND INDEPENDENCE


    V.The New Course in British Imperial Policy 77


    George III and His System 77


    George III's Ministers and Their Colonial Policies 79


    Colonial Resistance Forces Repeal 83


    Resumption of British Revenue and Commercial Policies 87


    Renewed Resistance in America 90


    Retaliation by the British Government 93


    From Reform to Revolution in America 95


    VI.The American Revolution 99


    Resistance and Retaliation 99


    American Independence 101


    The Establishment of Government and the New Allegiance 108


    Military Affairs 116


    The Finances of the Revolution 125


    The Diplomacy of the Revolution 127


    Peace at Last 132


    Summary of the Revolutionary Period 135


    PART III. FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNION AND NATIONAL POLITICS


    VII.The Formation of the Constitution 139


    The Promise and the Difficulties of America 139


    The Calling of a Constitutional Convention 143


    The Framing of the Constitution 146


    The Struggle over Ratification 157


    VIII.The Clash of Political Parties 162


    The Men and Measures of the New Government 162


    The Rise of Political Parties 168


    Foreign Influences and Domestic Politics 171


    IX.The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power 186


    Republican Principles and Policies 186


    The Republicans and the Great West 188


    The Republican War for Commercial Independence 193


    The Republicans Nationalized 201


    The National Decisions of Chief Justice Marshall 208


    Summary of Union and National Politics 212


    PART IV. THE WEST AND JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY X.The Farmers beyond the Appalachians 217


    Preparation for Western Settlement 217


    The Western Migration and New States 221


    The Spirit of the Frontier 228


    The West and the East Meet 230


    XI.Jacksonian Democracy 238


    The Democratic Movement in the East 238


    The New Democracy Enters the Arena 244


    The New Democracy at Washington 250


    The Rise of the Whigs 260


    The Interaction of American and European Opinion 265


    XII.The Middle Border and the Great West 271


    The Advance of the Middle Border 271


    On to the Pacific—Texas and the Mexican War 276


    The Pacific Coast and Utah 284


    Summary of Western Development and National Politics 292


    PART V. SECTIONAL CONFLICT AND RECONSTRUCTION


    XIII.The Rise of the Industrial System 295


    The Industrial Revolution 296


    The Industrial Revolution and National Politics 307


    XIV.The Planting System and National Politics 316


    Slavery—North and South 316


    Slavery in National Politics 324


    The Drift of Events toward the Irrepressible Conflict 332


    XV.The Civil War and Reconstruction 344


    The Southern Confederacy 344


    The War Measures of the Federal Government 350


    The Results of the Civil War 365


    Reconstruction in the South 370


    Summary of the Sectional Conflict 375


    PART VI. NATIONAL GROWTH AND WORLD POLITICS


    XVI.The Political and Economic Evolution of the South 379


    The South at the Close of the War 379


    The Restoration of White Supremacy 382


    The Economic Advance of the South 389


    XVII.Business Enterprise and the Republican Party 401


    Railways and Industry 401


    The Supremacy of the Republican Party (1861-1885) 412


    The Growth of Opposition to Republican Rule 417 XVIII.The Development of the Great West 425


    The Railways as Trail Blazers 425


    The Evolution of Grazing and Agriculture 431


    Mining and Manufacturing in the West 436


    The Admission of New States 440


    The Influence of the Far West on National Life 443


    XIX.Domestic Issues before the Country(1865-1897) 451


    The Currency Question 452


    The Protective Tariff and Taxation 459


    The Railways and Trusts 460


    The Minor Parties and Unrest 462


    The Sound Money Battle of 1896 466


    Republican Measures and Results 472


    XX.America a World Power(1865-1900) 477


    American Foreign Relations (1865-1898) 478


    Cuba and the Spanish War 485


    American Policies in the Philippines and the Orient 497


    Summary of National Growth and World Politics 504


    PART VII. PROGRESSIVE DEMOCRACY AND THE WORLD WAR


    XXI.The Evolution of Republican Policies(1901-1913) 507


    Foreign Affairs 508


    Colonial Administration 515


    The Roosevelt Domestic Policies 519


    Legislative and Executive Activities 523


    The Administration of President Taft 527


    Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912 530


    XXII.The Spirit of Reform in America 536


    An Age of Criticism 536


    Political Reforms 538


    Measures of Economic Reform 546


    XXIII.The New Political Democracy 554


    The Rise of the Woman Movement 555


    The National Struggle for Woman Suffrage 562


    XXIV.Industrial Democracy 570


    Coöperation between Employers and Employees 571


    The Rise and Growth of Organized Labor 575


    The Wider Relations of Organized Labor 577


    Immigration and Americanization 582


    XXV.President Wilson and the World War 588


    Domestic Legislation 588 Colonial and Foreign Policies 592


    The United States and the European War 596


    The United States at War 604


    The Settlement at Paris 612


    Summary of Democracy and the World War 620


    Appendix 627


    A Topical Syllabus 645


    Index 655


    MAPS


    page


    The Original Grants (color map) Facing 4


    German and Scotch-Irish Settlements 8


    Distribution of Population in 1790 27


    English, French, and Spanish Possessions in America, 1750 (color map) Facing 59


    The Colonies at the Time of the Declaration of Independence (color map)Facing 108


    North America according to the Treaty of 1783 (color map) Facing 134


    The United States in 1805 (color map) Facing 193


    Roads and Trails into Western Territory (color map) Facing 224


    The Cumberland Road 233


    Distribution of Population in 1830 235


    Texas and the Territory in Dispute 282


    The Oregon Country and the Disputed Boundary 285


    The Overland Trails 287


    Distribution of Slaves in Southern States 323


    The Missouri Compromise 326


    Slave and Free Soil on the Eve of the Civil War 335


    The United States in 1861 (color map) Facing 345


    Railroads of the United States in 1918 405


    The United States in 1870 (color map) Facing 427


    The United States in 1912 (color map) Facing 443


    American Dominions in the Pacific (color map) Facing 500


    The Caribbean Region (color map) Facing 592


    Battle Lines of the Various Years of the World War 613


    Europe in 1919 (color map) Between618-619 ILLUSTRATIONS


    The Nations of the West


    John Winthrop, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company


    William Penn, Proprietor of Pennsylvania


    A Glimpse of Old Germantown


    Old Dutch Fort and English Church Near Albany


    Southern Plantation Mansion


    A New England Farmhouse


    Domestic Industry: Dipping Tallow Candles


    The Dutch West India Warehouse in New Amsterdam (New York City)


    A Page from a Famous Schoolbook


    The Royal Governor's Palace at New Berne


    Virginians Defending Themselves against the Indians


    Braddock's Retreat


    Benjamin Franklin


    George III


    Patrick Henry


    Samuel Adams


    Spirit of 1776


    Thomas Paine


    Thomas Jefferson Reading His Draft of the Declaration


    Mobbing the Tories


    George Washington


    Robert Morris


    Alexander Hamilton


    An Advertisement of The Federalist


    Celebrating the Ratification


    First United States Bank at Philadelphia


    Louis XVI in the Hands of the Mob


    A Quarrel between a Federalist and a Republican


    New England Jumping into the Hands of George III


    John Marshall


    A Log Cabin—Lincoln's Birthplace


    An Early Mississippi Steamboat Thomas Dorr Arousing His Followers


    Andrew Jackson


    Daniel Webster


    An Old Cartoon Ridiculing Clay's Tariff


    Santa Barbara Mission


    San Francisco in 1849


    A New England Mill Built in 1793


    An Early Railway


    Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1838


    John C. Calhoun


    Henry Clay


    An Old Cartoon Representing Webster "Stealing Clay's Thunder"


    Harriet Beecher Stowe


    Jefferson Davis


    The Draft Riots in New York City


    A Blockade Runner


    John Bright


    William H. Seward


    Abraham Lincoln


    General Ulysses S. Grant


    General Robert E. Lee


    The Federal Military Hospital at Gettysburg


    Steel Mills—Birmingham, Alabama


    A Southern Cotton Mill in a Cotton Field


    A Glimpse of Memphis, Tennessee


    A Corner in the Bethlehem Steel Works


    John D. Rockefeller


    Wall Street, New York City


    A Town on the Prairie


    Logging


    The Canadian Building


    Commodore Perry's Men Making Presents to the Japanese


    William J. Bryan in 1898


    President McKinley and His Cabinet


    Grover Cleveland


    An old cartoon.A Sight Too Bad


    Cuban Revolutionists


    A Philippine Home


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