History of Philosophy

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  • History of Philosophy



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    3 T1S3 DOQSTTOS 5 History of Philosophy




    Boston, U.S.A., and London


    C!)e Sttbetiseatn press Entered at Stationers' Hall

    Copyright, 1903



    24.9 PREFACE

    The purpose of the writer in compiling this text-book has

    been so to set forth the succession of schools and systems

    of philosophy as to accord to Scholasticism a presentation in

    some degree adequate to its importance in the history of

    speculative thought.

    Of the text-books that are at present available for use in the

    lecture room, some dismiss the Scholastic period with a para-

    graph ; others, while dealing with it more sympathetically, treat

    it from the point of view of German transcendentalism. The

    result is that even works which succeed in doing justice to

    the schoolmen are practically useless to students who are more

    familiar with the terminology of Scholasticism than with that

    of Hegelianism.

    The scope of the work has determined not only the general

    arrangement of the volume, but also the selection of material and

    of bibliographical references. Under the title " Sources," the

    student will find mention of the most recent publications and of

    one or two standard works which have been selected as being

    most easy of access. Bibliography is rapidly becoming a dis-

    tinct branch of study in the different departments of philosophy.

    Dr. Rand's Bibliography ofPhilosophy, which is to be published

    as the third volume of Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and

    Psychology, willdoubtless meet thedemandas faras completeness

    is concerned, and will render unnecessary the attempt to furnish PREFACE


    complete lists of sources in a text-book such as this is intended

    to be. It is, therefore, with a view to inculcate a proper idea of

    historical method rather than to supply a complete bibliography

    that a paragraph entitled " Sources" is prefixed to each chapter.

    Similarly, it is for the purpose of impressing on the student

    the importance of estimating the value of systems and schools

    of philosophy that, at the end of each chapter, suggestions for

    criticism are offered under the title "Historical Position." No

    one is more keenly alive than the author himself to the absurdity

    of regarding such criticisms as possessing more than a rela-

    tive value. If they sometimes convey to the reader a sense of

    intended finality, allowance will perhaps be made for the impos-

    sibility of finding, within the limits of a text-book, space for a

    more ample discussion of questions which are far from being

    finally and incontrovertibly settled.

    The plan of the work precludes much claim to originality.

    Use has been made of primary sources wherever it was possible

    to do so. In dealing with Scholastic philosophy, especially,

    recourse has been had to the works of the schoolmen, experience

    having abundantly shown the danger of relying on secondary

    authorities for this period. The frequent mention, both in

    the text and in the notes, of Zeller's PJiilosopJiie der Griechen,

    of Stockl's LeJirbiich dcr Geschichte der PJiilosophie, of the

    Geschichte dcr PJiilosophie des Mittelalters by the same author,

    of De Wulf's Histoire de la philosophic medicvalc, of Gonzalez'

    Historiade lafilosofia, and of Falckenberg's and Hoffding's his-

    tories of modern philosophy, indicates the principal secondary

    sources which have been used, but does not represent the full

    extent of the writer's indebtedness to those works. In revising

    the manuscript and in reading the proofs use has been made

    of the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology edited by

    Professor M. Baldwin.


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