294 Pages · 2006 · 4.36 MB · English




    Martin Rogers

    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering

    Dublin Institute of Technology



    Science To Margaret,for all her love,support and encouragement © 2003 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd First published 2003

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    Copyright,Designs and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved.No part of this publication may

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    and Patents Act 1988,without the prior permission

    of the publisher. Contents



    1 The Transportation Planning Process,1

    1.1 Why are highways so important? 1

    1.2 The administration of highway schemes,1

    1.3 Sources of funding,2

    1.4 Highway planning,3

    1.4.1 Introduction,3

    1.4.2 Travel data,4

    1.4.3 Highway planning strategies,6

    1.4.4 Transportation studies,7

    1.5 The decision-making process in highway and transport planning,9

    1.5.1 Introduction,9

    1.5.2 Economic assessment,10

    1.5.3 Environmental assessment,11

    1.5.4 Public consultation,12

    1.6 Summary,13

    1.7 References,14

    2 Forecasting Future Traffic Flows,15

    2.1 Basic principles of traffic demand analysis,15

    2.2 Demand modelling,16

    2.3 Land use models,18

    2.4 Trip generation,19

    2.5 Trip distribution,22

    2.5.1 Introduction,22

    2.5.2 The gravity model,23

    2.5.3 Growth factor models,26

    2.5.4 The Furness method,27

    2.6 Modal split,31

    2.7 Traffic assignment,34

    2.8 A full example of the four-stage transportation modelling process,36 viii Contents

    2.8.1 Trip production,36

    2.8.2 Trip distribution,37

    2.8.3 Modal split,40

    2.8.4 Trip assignment,41

    2.9 Concluding comments,42

    2.10 References,43

    3 Scheme Appraisal for Highway Projects,44

    3.1 Introduction,44

    3.2 Economic appraisal of highway schemes,45

    3.3 Cost-benefit analysis,46

    3.3.1 Introduction,46

    3.3.2 Identifying the main project options,46

    3.3.3 Identifying all relevant costs and benefits,48

    3.3.4 Economic life,residual value and the discount rate,50

    3.3.5 Use of economic indicators to assess basic economic viability,51

    3.3.6 Highway CBA worked example,53

    3.3.7 COBA,56

    3.3.8 Advantages and disadvantages of cost-benefit analysis,58

    3.4 Payback analysis,59

    3.5 Environmental appraisal of highway schemes,61

    3.6 The new approach to appraisal (NATA),66

    3.7 Summary,72

    3.8 References,72

    4 Basic Elements of Highway Traffic Analysis,73

    4.1 Introduction,73

    4.2 Speed,flow and density of a stream of traffic,73

    4.2.1 Speed-density relationship,74

    4.2.2 Flow-density relationship,76

    4.2.3 Speed-flow relationship,76

    4.3 Determining the capacity of a highway,78

    4.4 The ‘level of service’approach,79

    4.4.1 Introduction,79

    4.4.2 Some definitions,80

    4.4.3 Maximum service flow rates for multi-lane highways,81

    4.4.4 Maximum service flow rates for 2-lane highways,86

    4.4.5 Sizing a road using the Highway Capacity Manual approach,90

    4.5 The UK approach for rural roads,92

    4.5.1 Introduction,92

    4.5.2 Estimation of AADT for a rural road in its year of opening,92

    4.6 The UK approach for urban roads,95

    4.6.1 Introduction,95

    4.6.2 Forecast flows on urban roads,96 Contents ix

    4.7 Expansion of 12 and 16-hour traffic counts into AADT flows,97

    4.8 Concluding comments,101

    4.9 References,101

    5 The Design of Highway Intersections,103

    5.1 Introduction,103

    5.2 Deriving design reference flows from baseline traffic figures,104

    5.2.1 Existing junctions,104

    5.2.2 New junctions,104

    5.2.3 Short-term variations in flow,104

    5.2.4 Conversion of AADT to highest hourly flows,105

    5.3 Major/minor priority intersections,105

    5.3.1 Introduction,105

    5.3.2 Equations for determining capacities and delays,110

    5.3.3 Geometric layout details,117

    5.4 Roundabout intersections,119

    5.4.1 Introduction,119

    5.4.2 Types of roundabout,120

    5.4.3 Traffic capacity at roundabouts,125

    5.4.4 Geometric details,130

    5.5 Basics of traffic signal control:optimisation and delays,132

    5.5.1 Introduction,132

    5.5.2 Phasing at a signalised intersection,133

    5.5.3 Saturation flow,133

    5.5.4 Effective green time,138

    5.5.5 Optimum cycle time,139

    5.5.6 Average vehicle delays at the approach to a signalised


    5.5.7 Average queue lengths at the approach to a signalised


    5.5.8 Signal linkage,146

    5.6 Concluding remarks,151

    5.7 References,151

    6 Geometric Alignment and Design,153

    6.1 Basic physical elements of a highway,153

    6.2 Design speed,stopping and overtaking sight distances,155

    6.2.1 Introduction,155

    6.2.2 Urban roads,156

    6.2.3 Rural roads,157

    6.3 Geometric parameters dependent on design speed,162

    6.4 Sight distances,163

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