
Handbook of Civil Engineering Calculations
HANDBOOK OF
CIVIL ENGINEERING
CALCULATIONS
Tyler G. Hicks, RE., Editor
International Engineering Associates
Member: American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
United States Naval Institute
MCGRAWHILL
New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota
Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan
Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore
Sydney Tokyo Toronto Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Hicks, Tyler Gregory
Handbook of civil engineering calculations / Tyler G. Hicks.
p. cm.
ISBN 0070288143
1. Engineering mathematics Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Civil
engineering—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title.
TA332.H53 1999
324'.Ol'51—dc21 9929073
CIP
McGrawHill &y
fr6
A Division of The McGrawHill Companies
Copyright © 2000 by The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. All rights
reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as
permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of
this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by
any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the
prior written permission of the publisher.
4 5 7 8 90 DOC/DOC 0 4 3 21
ISBN 0070288143
The sponsoring editor for this book was Larry Hager and the production
supervisor was Sherri Souffrance. It was set in Times Roman by
Ampersand Graphics, Ltd. Printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons
McGrawHill books are available at special quantity discounts to
use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate
training programs. For more information, please write to Director
of Special Sales, McGrawHill, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY
101212298. Or contact your local bookstore.
This book was printed on recycled, acidfree paper
containing a minimum of 50% recycled deinked fiber.
Information contained in this work has been obtained by The
McGrawHill Companies, Inc. ("McGrawHill") from sources be
lieved to be reliable. However, neither McGrawHill nor its authors
guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information pub
lished herein and neither McGrawHill nor its authors shall be re
sponsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use
of this information. This work is published with the understanding
that McGrawHill and its authors are supplying information but are
not attempting to render engineering or other professional services.
If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate pro
fessional should be sought. To civil engineers—everywhere: The results of your design and
construction skills are with all civilized humanity every day of
their lives. There is little anyone can do without enjoying the result
of your labors. May this handbook help your work be more widely
recognized and appreciated—worldwide. About the Editor
Tyler E. Hicks, P.E., is editor of Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations,
Standard Handbook of Mechanical Engineering Calculations, McGrawHill's
Interactive Chemical Engineer's Solutions Suite, McGrawHill's Interactive Civil
Engineer's Solutions Suite, and other bestselling titles. He is also a consulting engineer
with International Engineering Associates. PREFACE
This handbook presents a comprehensive collection of civil engineering calculation
procedures useful to practicing civil engineers, surveyors, structural designers, draft
ers, candidates for professional engineering licenses, and students. Engineers in other
disciplines—mechanical, electrical, chemical, environmental, etc.—will also find this
handbook useful for making occasional calculations outside their normal field of
specialty.
Each calculation procedure presented in this handbook gives numbered steps for per
forming the calculation, along with a numerical example illustrating the important con
cepts in the procedure. Many procedures include "Related Calculations" comments which
expand the application of the computation method presented. All calculation procedures
in this handbook use both the USCS (United States Customary System) and the SI (Sys
tem International) for numerical units. Hence, the calculation procedures presented are
useful to engineers throughout the world.
Major calculation procedures presented in this handbook include stress and strain,
flexural analysis, deflection of beams, statically indeterminate structures, steel beams and
columns, riveted and welded connections, composite members, plate girders, load and re
sistance factor design method (LRFD) for structural steel design, plastic design of steel
structures, reinforced and prestressed concrete engineering and design, surveying, route
design, highway bridges, timber engineering, soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, pumps,
piping, water supply and water treatment, wastewater treatment and disposal, hydro pow
er, and engineering economics.
Each section of this handbook is designed to furnish comprehensive coverage of the
topics in it. Where there are major subtopics within a section, the section is divided into
parts to permit indepth coverage of each subtopic.
Civil engineers design buildings, bridges, highways, airports, water supply, sewage
treatment, and a variety of other key structures and facilities throughout the world. Be
cause of the importance of such structures and facilities to the civilized world, civil engi
neers have long needed a handbook which would simplify and speed their daily design
calculations. This handbook provides an answer to that need.
While there are computer programs that help the civil engineer with a variety of engi
neering calculations, such programs are highly specialized and do not have the breadth of
coverage this handbook provides. Further, such computer programs are usually expen
sive. Because of their high cost, these computer programs can be justified only when a
civil engineer makes a number of repetitive calculations on almost a daily basis. In con
trast, this handbook can be used in the office, field, drafting room, or laboratory. It pro
vides industrywide coverage in a convenient and affordable package. As such, this hand
book fills a longexisting need felt by civil engineers worldwide.
In contrast, civil engineers using civilengineering computer programs often find data
entry time requirements are excessive for quick oneofftype calculations. When oneoff
type calculations are needed, most civil engineers today turn to their electronic calculator,
desktop or laptop computer and perform the necessary steps to obtain the solution desired.
But where repetitive calculations are required, a purchased computer program will save
time and energy in the usual mediumsize or large civilengineering design office. Small
civilengineering offices generally resort to manual calculation for even repetitive proce dures because the investment for one or more major calculation programs is difficult to
justify in economic terms.
Even when purchased computer programs are extensively used, careful civil engineers
still insist on manually checking results on a random basis to be certain the program is ac
curate. This checking can be speeded by any of the calculation procedures given in this
handbook. Many civil engineers remark to the author that they feel safer, knowing they
have manually verified the computer results on a spotcheck basis. With liability for civil
engineering designs extending beyond the lifetime of the designer, every civil engineer
seeks the "security blanket" provided by manual verification of the results furnished by a
computer program run on a desktop, laptop, or workstation computer. This handbook
gives the tools needed for manual verification of some 2,000 civilengineering calculation
procedures.
Each section in this handbook is written by one or more experienced professional en
gineers who is a specialist in the field covered. The contributors draw on their wide expe
rience in their field to give each calculation procedure an indepth coverage of its topic.
So the person using the procedure gets stepbystep instructions for making the calcula
tion plus background information on the subject which is the topic of the procedure.
And since the handbook is designed for worldwide use, both earlier, and more modern
topics, are covered. For example, the handbook includes concise coverage of riveted gird
ers, columns, and connections. While today's civil engineer may say that riveted con
struction is a method long past its prime, there are millions of existing structures world
wide that were built using rivets. So when a civil engineer is called on to expand,
rehabilitate, or tear down such a structure, he or she must be able to analyze the riveted
portions of the structure. This handbook provides that capability in a convenient and con
cise form.
In the realm of modern design techniques, the load and resistance factor method
(LRFD) is covered with more than ten calculation procedures showing its use in various
design situations. The LRFD method is ultimately expected to replace the wellknown
and widely used allowable stress design (ASD) method for structural steel building
frameworks. In today's design world many civil engineers are learning the advantages of
the LRFD method and growing to prefer it over the ASD method.
Also included in this handbook is a comprehensive section titled "How to Use This
Handbook." It details the variety of ways a civil engineer can use this handbook in his or
her daily engineering work. Included as part of this section are steps showing the civil en
gineer how to construct a private list of SI conversion factors for the specific work the en
gineer specializes in.
The stepbystep practical and applied calculation procedures in this handbook are
arranged so they can be followed by anyone with an engineering or scientific background.
Each workedout procedure presents fully explained and illustrated steps for solving sim
ilar problems in civilengineering design, research, field, academic, or licenseexamina
tion situations. For any applied problem, all the civil engineer need do is place his or her
calculation sheets alongside this handbook and follow the stepbystep procedure line for
line to obtain the desired solution for the actual reallife problem. By following the calcu
lation procedures in this handbook, the civil engineer, scientist, or technician will obtain
accurate results in minimum time with least effort. And the approaches and solutions pre
sented are modern throughout.
The editor hopes this handbook is helpful to civil engineers worldwide. If the hand
book user finds procedures which belong in the book but have been left out, he urges the
engineer to send the title of the procedure to him, in care of the publisher. If the procedure
is useful, the editor will ask for the entire text. And if the text is publishable, the editor
will include the calculation procedure in the next edition of the handbook. Full credit will be given to the person sending the procedure to the editor. And if users find any errors in
the handbook, the editor will be grateful for having these called to his attention. Such er
rors will be corrected in the next printing of the handbook. In closing, the editor hopes
that civil engineers worldwide find this handbook helpful in their daily work.
Tyler G. Hicks HOWTO USETHIS
HANDBOOK
There are two ways to enter this handbook to obtain the maximum benefit from the time
invested. The first entry is through the index; the second is through the table of contents
of the section covering the discipline, or related discipline, concerned. Each method is
discussed in detail below.
Index. Great care and considerable time were expended on preparation of the index
of this handbook so that it would be of maximum use to every reader. As a general guide,
enter the index using the generic term for the type of calculation procedure being consid
ered. Thus, for the design of a beam, enter at beam(s). From here, progress to the specific
type of beam being considered—such as continuous, of steel. Once the page number or
numbers of the appropriate calculation procedure are determined, turn to them to find the
stepbystep instructions and workedout example that can be followed to solve the prob
lem quickly and accurately.
Contents. The contents of each section lists the titles of the calculation procedures
contained in that section. Where extensive use of any section is contemplated, the editor
suggests that the reader might benefit from an occasional glance at the table of contents of
that section. Such a glance will give the user of this handbook an understanding of the
breadth and coverage of a given section, or a series of sections. Then, when he or she
turns to this handbook for assistance, the reader will be able more rapidly to find the cal
culation procedure he or she seeks.
Calculation Procedures. Each calculation procedure is a unit in itself. However, any
given calculation procedure will contain subprocedures that might be useful to the reader.
Thus, a calculation procedure on pump selection will contain subprocedures on pipe fric
tion loss, pump static and dynamic heads, etc. Should the reader of this handbook wish to
make a computation using any of such subprocedures, he or she will find the workedout
steps that are presented both useful and precise. Hence, the handbook contains numerous
valuable procedures that are useful in solving a variety of applied civil engineering prob
lems.
One other important point that should be noted about the calculation procedures pre
sented in this handbook is that many of the calculation procedures are equally applicable
in a variety of disciplines. Thus, a beamselection procedure can be used for civil, chem
ical, mechanical, electrical, and nuclearengineering activities, as well as some others.
Hence, the reader might consider a temporary neutrality for his or her particular specialty
when using the handbook because the calculation procedures are designed for universal
use.
Any of the calculation procedures presented can be programmed on a computer. Such
programming permits rapid solution of a variety of design problems. With the growing
use of lowcost time sharing, more engineering design problems are being solved using a
remote terminal in the engineering office. The editor hopes that engineers throughout the
world will make greater use of work stations and portable computers in solving applied
engineering problems. This modern equipment promises greater speed and accuracy for
nearly all the complex design problems that must be solved in today's world of engineer
ing. To make the calculation procedures more amenable to computer solution (while main
taining ease of solution with a handheld calculator), a number of the algorithms in the
handbook have been revised to permit faster programming in a computer environment.
This enhances ease of solution for any method used—work station, portable computer, or
calculator.
SI Usage. The technical and scientific community throughout the world accepts the SI
(System International) for use in both applied and theoretical calculations. With such
widespread acceptance of SI, every engineer must become proficient in the use of this
system of units if he or she is to remain uptodate. For this reason, every calculation pro
cedure in this handbook is given in both the United States Customary System (USCS) and
SI. This will help all engineers become proficient in using both systems of units. In this
handbook the USCS unit is generally given first, followed by the SI value in parentheses
or brackets. Thus, if the USCS unit is 10 ft, it will be expressed as 10 ft (3 m).
Engineers accustomed to working in USCS are often timid about using SI. There real
ly aren't any sound reasons for these fears. SI is a logical, easily understood, and readily
manipulated group of units. Most engineers grow to prefer SI, once they become familiar
with it and overcome their fears. This handbook should do much to "convert" USCSuser
engineers to SI because it presents all calculation procedures in both the known and un
known units.
Overseas engineers who must work in USCS because they have a job requiring its us
age will find the dualunit presentation of calculation procedures most helpful. Knowing
SI, they can easily convert to USCS because all procedures, tables, and illustrations are
presented in dual units.
Learning SI. An efficient way for the USCSconversant engineer to learn SI follows
these steps:
1. List the units of measurement commonly used in your daily work.
2. Insert, opposite each USCS unit, the usual SI unit used; Table 1 shows a variety of
commonly used quantities and the corresponding SI units.
3. Find, from a table of conversion factors, such as Table 2, the value to use to convert
the USCS unit to SI, and insert it in your list. (Most engineers prefer a conversion fac
tor that can be used as a multiplier of the USCS unit to give the SI unit.)
4. Apply the conversion factors whenever you have an opportunity. Think in terms of SI
when you encounter a USCS unit.
5. Recognize—here and now—that the most difficult aspect of SI is becoming comfort
able with the names and magnitude of the units. Numerical conversion is simple, once
you've set up your own conversion table. So think pascal whenever you encounter
pounds per square inch pressure, newton whenever you deal with a force in pounds,
etc.
SI Table for a Civil Engineer. Let's say you're a civil engineer and you wish to con
struct a conversion table and SI literacy document for yourself. List the units you com
monly meet in your daily work; Table 1 is the list compiled by one civil engineer. Next,
list the SI unit equivalent for the USCS unit. Obtain the equivalent from Table 2. Then,
using Table 2 again, insert the conversion multiplier in Table 1.
Keep Table 1 handy at your desk and add new units to it as you encounter them in
your work. Over a period of time you will build a personal conversion table that will be
valuable to you whenever you must use SI units. Further, since you compiled the table, it
will have a familiar and nonfrightening look, which will give you greater confidence in
using SI.
Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file 
You May Also Like
Related PPT Template in the same category.

HotFree download PDF Pile Design and Construction Practice, Fifth edition  Civil engineering

HotFree download PDF Financial Engineering Principles

HotFree download PDF Machine Drawing 3rd Edition

HotFree download PDF Fundamentals of Probability and Statistics for Engineers

HotFree download PDF Modeling Tools for Environmental Engineers and Scientists