Handbook of Civil Engineering Calculations

829 Pages · 2012 · 12.29 MB · English

  • Handbook of Civil Engineering Calculations




    Tyler G. Hicks, RE., Editor

    International Engineering Associates

    Member: American Society of Mechanical Engineers

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

    United States Naval Institute


    New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota

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    Sydney Tokyo Toronto Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Hicks, Tyler Gregory

    Handbook of civil engineering calculations / Tyler G. Hicks.

    p. cm.

    ISBN 0-07-028814-3

    1. Engineering mathematics Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Civil

    engineering—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title.

    TA332.H53 1999

    324'.Ol'51—dc21 99-29073


    McGraw-Hill &y


    A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies

    Copyright © 2000 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

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    prior written permission of the publisher.

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    ISBN 0-07-028814-3

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    Information contained in this work has been obtained by The

    McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ("McGraw-Hill") from sources be-

    lieved to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors

    guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information pub-

    lished herein and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be re-

    sponsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use

    of this information. This work is published with the understanding

    that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are

    not attempting to render engineering or other professional services.

    If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate pro-

    fessional should be sought. To civil engineers—everywhere: The results of your design and

    construction skills are with all civilized humanity every day of

    their lives. There is little anyone can do without enjoying the result

    of your labors. May this handbook help your work be more widely

    recognized and appreciated—worldwide. About the Editor

    Tyler E. Hicks, P.E., is editor of Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations,

    Standard Handbook of Mechanical Engineering Calculations, McGraw-Hill's

    Interactive Chemical Engineer's Solutions Suite, McGraw-Hill's Interactive Civil

    Engineer's Solutions Suite, and other bestselling titles. He is also a consulting engineer

    with International Engineering Associates. PREFACE

    This handbook presents a comprehensive collection of civil engineering calculation

    procedures useful to practicing civil engineers, surveyors, structural designers, draft-

    ers, candidates for professional engineering licenses, and students. Engineers in other

    disciplines—mechanical, electrical, chemical, environmental, etc.—will also find this

    handbook useful for making occasional calculations outside their normal field of


    Each calculation procedure presented in this handbook gives numbered steps for per-

    forming the calculation, along with a numerical example illustrating the important con-

    cepts in the procedure. Many procedures include "Related Calculations" comments which

    expand the application of the computation method presented. All calculation procedures

    in this handbook use both the USCS (United States Customary System) and the SI (Sys-

    tem International) for numerical units. Hence, the calculation procedures presented are

    useful to engineers throughout the world.

    Major calculation procedures presented in this handbook include stress and strain,

    flexural analysis, deflection of beams, statically indeterminate structures, steel beams and

    columns, riveted and welded connections, composite members, plate girders, load and re-

    sistance factor design method (LRFD) for structural steel design, plastic design of steel

    structures, reinforced and prestressed concrete engineering and design, surveying, route

    design, highway bridges, timber engineering, soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, pumps,

    piping, water supply and water treatment, wastewater treatment and disposal, hydro pow-

    er, and engineering economics.

    Each section of this handbook is designed to furnish comprehensive coverage of the

    topics in it. Where there are major subtopics within a section, the section is divided into

    parts to permit in-depth coverage of each subtopic.

    Civil engineers design buildings, bridges, highways, airports, water supply, sewage

    treatment, and a variety of other key structures and facilities throughout the world. Be-

    cause of the importance of such structures and facilities to the civilized world, civil engi-

    neers have long needed a handbook which would simplify and speed their daily design

    calculations. This handbook provides an answer to that need.

    While there are computer programs that help the civil engineer with a variety of engi-

    neering calculations, such programs are highly specialized and do not have the breadth of

    coverage this handbook provides. Further, such computer programs are usually expen-

    sive. Because of their high cost, these computer programs can be justified only when a

    civil engineer makes a number of repetitive calculations on almost a daily basis. In con-

    trast, this handbook can be used in the office, field, drafting room, or laboratory. It pro-

    vides industry-wide coverage in a convenient and affordable package. As such, this hand-

    book fills a long-existing need felt by civil engineers worldwide.

    In contrast, civil engineers using civil-engineering computer programs often find data-

    entry time requirements are excessive for quick one-off-type calculations. When one-off-

    type calculations are needed, most civil engineers today turn to their electronic calculator,

    desktop or laptop computer and perform the necessary steps to obtain the solution desired.

    But where repetitive calculations are required, a purchased computer program will save

    time and energy in the usual medium-size or large civil-engineering design office. Small

    civil-engineering offices generally resort to manual calculation for even repetitive proce- dures because the investment for one or more major calculation programs is difficult to

    justify in economic terms.

    Even when purchased computer programs are extensively used, careful civil engineers

    still insist on manually checking results on a random basis to be certain the program is ac-

    curate. This checking can be speeded by any of the calculation procedures given in this

    handbook. Many civil engineers remark to the author that they feel safer, knowing they

    have manually verified the computer results on a spot-check basis. With liability for civil-

    engineering designs extending beyond the lifetime of the designer, every civil engineer

    seeks the "security blanket" provided by manual verification of the results furnished by a

    computer program run on a desktop, laptop, or workstation computer. This handbook

    gives the tools needed for manual verification of some 2,000 civil-engineering calculation


    Each section in this handbook is written by one or more experienced professional en-

    gineers who is a specialist in the field covered. The contributors draw on their wide expe-

    rience in their field to give each calculation procedure an in-depth coverage of its topic.

    So the person using the procedure gets step-by-step instructions for making the calcula-

    tion plus background information on the subject which is the topic of the procedure.

    And since the handbook is designed for worldwide use, both earlier, and more modern

    topics, are covered. For example, the handbook includes concise coverage of riveted gird-

    ers, columns, and connections. While today's civil engineer may say that riveted con-

    struction is a method long past its prime, there are millions of existing structures world-

    wide that were built using rivets. So when a civil engineer is called on to expand,

    rehabilitate, or tear down such a structure, he or she must be able to analyze the riveted

    portions of the structure. This handbook provides that capability in a convenient and con-

    cise form.

    In the realm of modern design techniques, the load and resistance factor method

    (LRFD) is covered with more than ten calculation procedures showing its use in various

    design situations. The LRFD method is ultimately expected to replace the well-known

    and widely used allowable stress design (ASD) method for structural steel building

    frameworks. In today's design world many civil engineers are learning the advantages of

    the LRFD method and growing to prefer it over the ASD method.

    Also included in this handbook is a comprehensive section titled "How to Use This

    Handbook." It details the variety of ways a civil engineer can use this handbook in his or

    her daily engineering work. Included as part of this section are steps showing the civil en-

    gineer how to construct a private list of SI conversion factors for the specific work the en-

    gineer specializes in.

    The step-by-step practical and applied calculation procedures in this handbook are

    arranged so they can be followed by anyone with an engineering or scientific background.

    Each worked-out procedure presents fully explained and illustrated steps for solving sim-

    ilar problems in civil-engineering design, research, field, academic, or license-examina-

    tion situations. For any applied problem, all the civil engineer need do is place his or her

    calculation sheets alongside this handbook and follow the step-by-step procedure line for

    line to obtain the desired solution for the actual real-life problem. By following the calcu-

    lation procedures in this handbook, the civil engineer, scientist, or technician will obtain

    accurate results in minimum time with least effort. And the approaches and solutions pre-

    sented are modern throughout.

    The editor hopes this handbook is helpful to civil engineers worldwide. If the hand-

    book user finds procedures which belong in the book but have been left out, he urges the

    engineer to send the title of the procedure to him, in care of the publisher. If the procedure

    is useful, the editor will ask for the entire text. And if the text is publishable, the editor

    will include the calculation procedure in the next edition of the handbook. Full credit will be given to the person sending the procedure to the editor. And if users find any errors in

    the handbook, the editor will be grateful for having these called to his attention. Such er-

    rors will be corrected in the next printing of the handbook. In closing, the editor hopes

    that civil engineers worldwide find this handbook helpful in their daily work.

    Tyler G. Hicks HOWTO USETHIS


    There are two ways to enter this handbook to obtain the maximum benefit from the time

    invested. The first entry is through the index; the second is through the table of contents

    of the section covering the discipline, or related discipline, concerned. Each method is

    discussed in detail below.

    Index. Great care and considerable time were expended on preparation of the index

    of this handbook so that it would be of maximum use to every reader. As a general guide,

    enter the index using the generic term for the type of calculation procedure being consid-

    ered. Thus, for the design of a beam, enter at beam(s). From here, progress to the specific

    type of beam being considered—such as continuous, of steel. Once the page number or

    numbers of the appropriate calculation procedure are determined, turn to them to find the

    step-by-step instructions and worked-out example that can be followed to solve the prob-

    lem quickly and accurately.

    Contents. The contents of each section lists the titles of the calculation procedures

    contained in that section. Where extensive use of any section is contemplated, the editor

    suggests that the reader might benefit from an occasional glance at the table of contents of

    that section. Such a glance will give the user of this handbook an understanding of the

    breadth and coverage of a given section, or a series of sections. Then, when he or she

    turns to this handbook for assistance, the reader will be able more rapidly to find the cal-

    culation procedure he or she seeks.

    Calculation Procedures. Each calculation procedure is a unit in itself. However, any

    given calculation procedure will contain subprocedures that might be useful to the reader.

    Thus, a calculation procedure on pump selection will contain subprocedures on pipe fric-

    tion loss, pump static and dynamic heads, etc. Should the reader of this handbook wish to

    make a computation using any of such subprocedures, he or she will find the worked-out

    steps that are presented both useful and precise. Hence, the handbook contains numerous

    valuable procedures that are useful in solving a variety of applied civil engineering prob-


    One other important point that should be noted about the calculation procedures pre-

    sented in this handbook is that many of the calculation procedures are equally applicable

    in a variety of disciplines. Thus, a beam-selection procedure can be used for civil-, chem-

    ical-, mechanical-, electrical-, and nuclear-engineering activities, as well as some others.

    Hence, the reader might consider a temporary neutrality for his or her particular specialty

    when using the handbook because the calculation procedures are designed for universal


    Any of the calculation procedures presented can be programmed on a computer. Such

    programming permits rapid solution of a variety of design problems. With the growing

    use of low-cost time sharing, more engineering design problems are being solved using a

    remote terminal in the engineering office. The editor hopes that engineers throughout the

    world will make greater use of work stations and portable computers in solving applied

    engineering problems. This modern equipment promises greater speed and accuracy for

    nearly all the complex design problems that must be solved in today's world of engineer-

    ing. To make the calculation procedures more amenable to computer solution (while main-

    taining ease of solution with a handheld calculator), a number of the algorithms in the

    handbook have been revised to permit faster programming in a computer environment.

    This enhances ease of solution for any method used—work station, portable computer, or


    SI Usage. The technical and scientific community throughout the world accepts the SI

    (System International) for use in both applied and theoretical calculations. With such

    widespread acceptance of SI, every engineer must become proficient in the use of this

    system of units if he or she is to remain up-to-date. For this reason, every calculation pro-

    cedure in this handbook is given in both the United States Customary System (USCS) and

    SI. This will help all engineers become proficient in using both systems of units. In this

    handbook the USCS unit is generally given first, followed by the SI value in parentheses

    or brackets. Thus, if the USCS unit is 10 ft, it will be expressed as 10 ft (3 m).

    Engineers accustomed to working in USCS are often timid about using SI. There real-

    ly aren't any sound reasons for these fears. SI is a logical, easily understood, and readily

    manipulated group of units. Most engineers grow to prefer SI, once they become familiar

    with it and overcome their fears. This handbook should do much to "convert" USCS-user

    engineers to SI because it presents all calculation procedures in both the known and un-

    known units.

    Overseas engineers who must work in USCS because they have a job requiring its us-

    age will find the dual-unit presentation of calculation procedures most helpful. Knowing

    SI, they can easily convert to USCS because all procedures, tables, and illustrations are

    presented in dual units.

    Learning SI. An efficient way for the USCS-conversant engineer to learn SI follows

    these steps:

    1. List the units of measurement commonly used in your daily work.

    2. Insert, opposite each USCS unit, the usual SI unit used; Table 1 shows a variety of

    commonly used quantities and the corresponding SI units.

    3. Find, from a table of conversion factors, such as Table 2, the value to use to convert

    the USCS unit to SI, and insert it in your list. (Most engineers prefer a conversion fac-

    tor that can be used as a multiplier of the USCS unit to give the SI unit.)

    4. Apply the conversion factors whenever you have an opportunity. Think in terms of SI

    when you encounter a USCS unit.

    5. Recognize—here and now—that the most difficult aspect of SI is becoming comfort-

    able with the names and magnitude of the units. Numerical conversion is simple, once

    you've set up your own conversion table. So think pascal whenever you encounter

    pounds per square inch pressure, newton whenever you deal with a force in pounds,


    SI Table for a Civil Engineer. Let's say you're a civil engineer and you wish to con-

    struct a conversion table and SI literacy document for yourself. List the units you com-

    monly meet in your daily work; Table 1 is the list compiled by one civil engineer. Next,

    list the SI unit equivalent for the USCS unit. Obtain the equivalent from Table 2. Then,

    using Table 2 again, insert the conversion multiplier in Table 1.

    Keep Table 1 handy at your desk and add new units to it as you encounter them in

    your work. Over a period of time you will build a personal conversion table that will be

    valuable to you whenever you must use SI units. Further, since you compiled the table, it

    will have a familiar and nonfrightening look, which will give you greater confidence in

    using SI.

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