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Greening the Economy with Agriculture - Food and Agriculture

288 Pages · 2012 · 1.92 MB · English

  • Greening the Economy with Agriculture - Food and Agriculture

    the


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    conomy


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    Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft


    Confédération suisse


    Confederazione Svizzera


    Confederaziun svizra


    Swiss Confederation E


    Food and agriculture organization oF the united nations - 2012 The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression


    of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)


    concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the


    delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether


    or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference


    to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The views expressed in this information product are those of the


    author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.


    All rights reserved. FAO encourages the reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product.


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    Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all queries concerning rights and


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    Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.


    © FAO 2012


    Photo Credits


    © FAO/R. Faidutti, © M. Marzot


    © FAO/R. Faidutti


    © FAO/T. Brekke


    © FAO/G. Napolitano


    © FAO/G. Bizzarri Preparation of this document


    This document has been prepared with the generous support of the Federal Office for


    Agriculture of Switzerland.


    The document includes a series of four working papers seeking to support discussions


    on the green economy of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development


    (Rio+20) process. The draft papers were presented and discussed at an FAO/OECD Expert


    Meeting on Greening the Economy with Agriculture (GEA), held in Paris, France, 5-7


    September 2011. This formed the basis of the GEA summary presented to, and endorsed


    by, the 143th Session of the FAO Council in November 2011.


    greening the economy with agriculture


    Extract from the FAO Council document CL 143/18: Status of preparation of FAO contributions


    to the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development: Governance for Greening the


    Economy with Agriculture.


    Working Paper 1


    gea - availability


    Food availability and natural resource use in a green economy context


    coordination: Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Natural Resources Management and Environment Department


    Writers: Martin Khor, Tristan Le Cotty, Cesare Pacini and Sabine Zileki (consultants)


    Working Paper 2


    gea - access


    decent rural livelihoods and rights in a green economy environment


    coordination: Paolo Groppo, Natural Resources Management and Environment Department


    Writer: Catherine Hill (consultant)


    Working Paper 3


    gea - stability


    stability of food security in a green economy environment


    coordination: Lesley Lipper, Economic and Social Department


    Writer: Paul McMahon (consultant)


    Working Paper 4


    gea - utilization


    improving food systems for sustainable diets in a green economy


    coordination: Alexandre Meybeck, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department


    Writer: Ruth Raymond (consultant)


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture                                         iii The preparation of Working Papers 1 to 4 resulted from the collaborative efforts of FAO


    staff in the Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, Forestry Department,


    Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Economic and Social Department and Natural


    Resources Management and Environment Department, including: Mario Acunzo, Nadine


    Azzu, Caterina Batello, Anne Bogdanski, Sally Bunning, Barbara Burlingame, Jacop Burke,


    Gerard Ciparisse, Piero Conforti, Luisa Cruz, Renato Cumani, Julien Custot, Carlos Da


    Silva, Julien De Meyer, Sandro Dernini, Olivier Dubois, Marie-Aude Even, Thierry Facon,


    Lauren Flejzor, Nicole Franz, Pierre Gerber, Paolo Groppo, Vincent Gitz, Panagiotis


    Karfakis, Peter Kenmore, Mary Kenny, Yianna Lambrou, Andreanne Lavoie, Francesco


    Tubiello, Theodor Friedrich, David Hallam, Peter Kenmore, Walter Kollert, Dominique


    Lantieri, John Latham, Michael Macleod, Irini Maltsoglu, Alexandre Meybeck, Frank


    Mischler, Jamie Morrison, Noemi Nemes, David Neven, Daniela Ottaviani, Alexandra


    Röttger, John Ryder, Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Florence Tartanac, Brian Thompson, Heiner


    Thofern, Nick Van der Graaf, Robert Van Otterdijk, Margret Vidar and Rolf Willmann.


    The material presented in this document further benefited from the comments of the


    participants to the FAO/OECD Expert Meeting (see www.fao.org/nr/sustainability).


    In particular, constructive contributions and encouragements have been received from:


    Kwesi Atta-Krah (Bioversity International), Rajeev Baruah (BioRe), Svetlana Boincean


    (International Union of Workers), Cissokho Cheikh Mouhamady (ROPPA), Myrna


    Cunningham  (UNFPII),  Willy  Douma  (Hivos),  David  Edwards  (Prince  of  Wales


    Sustainability),  Tewolde Egziabher (Ethiopia), Moustafa Fouda (Egypt), Nikolai Fuchs


    (Nexus Foundation), Cristina Grandi (IFOAM), Niels Halberg (ICROFS), Hans Herren


    (Millennium  Institute),  Ulrich  Hoffmann  (UNCTAD),  Parick  Holden  (Sustainable


    Food Trust), Teava Iro (Titikaveka Growers), Harriet Kuhnlein (McGill University),


    Aileen Kwa (South Centre), Juergern Matern (Metro), Sebastian Mathew (International


    Fishworkers Collective), Marcel Mazoyer (Agroparistech), Monique Mikhail (Oxfam),


    Aksel Naerstad (More and Better), Asad Naqvi (UNEP), Urs Niggli (FiBL), François


    Pythoud (Switzerland), Kung Wai Ong (CertAll Alliance) , Aldo Ravazzi (Italy), Luca


    Ruini (Barilla), Reyes Tirado (Greenpeace), Isobel Tomlinson (Soil Association), Sébastien


    Treyer (IDDRI), Gaëtan VanLonqueren (UN Right to Food), Edith vanWalsum (ILEA),


    Keith Wheeler (IUCN) and Darko Znaor.




    The GEA initiative was conceived and coordinated by Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Natural


    Resources Management and Environment Department, FAO.


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture                                         iv Table of contents


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture (GEA)


    page 1


    Working Paper 1    GEA - Availability


    Food availability and natural resource use,


    in a green economy context


    page 7


    Working Paper 2    GEA - Access


    Decent rural livelihoods and rights


    in a green economy environment


    page 75


    Working Paper 3    GEA - Stability


    Stability of food security


    in a green economy environment


    page 123


    Working Paper 4    GEA - Utilization


    Improving food systems for sustainable diets


    in a green economy


    page 185


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture                                         v List of boxes


    Box 1.  Women and labour in international trade ...........................................................................86


    Box 2.  Land acquisition in Africa......................................................................................................94


    Box 3.  Insurance schemes for smallholder farmers .....................................................................98


    Box 4.  Fisheries and land entitlements: diverse and complex regulations and norms .........100


    Box 5.  Local rights and local level participation in resource management:


    a case from Mozambique ....................................................................................................106


    Box 6.  Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of


    Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security ........................107


    Box 7.  Burkina Faso farmers establish green jobs .....................................................................112


    Box 8.  Green jobs, green agriculture.............................................................................................114


    Box 9.  Factors affecting livelihood resilience for different household groups in Kenya ......138


    Box 10.  Price transmission – from global to local .........................................................................154


    Box 11.  Mitigating the food security risks of rising temperatures in rural Nicaragua ............162


    Box 12.  Transitioning to climate-smart agriculture to improve resilience ................................165


    Box 13.  National Biogas Programme, Viet Nam ............................................................................169


    Box 14.  The G20 and the AMIS system ...........................................................................................173


    Box 15.  Social safety net cash transfer programmes ..................................................................174


    Box 16.  Strengthening governance of food security and nutrition through CFS .....................180


    Box 17.  Linking and leveraging alternative sources of finance


    to support the GEA transition..............................................................................................182


    Box 18.  Linking farmers’ knowledge to plant breeding programmes ........................................183


    Box 19.  Food systems and food chains: definitions ......................................................................191


    Box 20.  The case of fish .....................................................................................................................201


    Box 21.  Reconnecting with food traditions ....................................................................................209


    Box 22.  Direct sales in the USA ........................................................................................................229


    Box 23.  Nakornchaisri Pummelo (Thailand) ...................................................................................232


    Box 24.  Private initiatives and public-private partnerships .........................................................237


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture                                         vi List of tables and figures


    Table 1.  Annual long-term average renewable water resources and irrigation water


    withdrawal 2006/2050 .............................................................................................................20


    Table 2.  Consumption (availability) prospect ....................................................................................38


    Table 3.  Expected economic growth ..................................................................................................38


    Table 4.  Expected under-nourishment ...............................................................................................38


    Table 5.  Expected annual crop production growth ..........................................................................39


    Table 6.  Total arable land: past and projected ..................................................................................41


    Table 7.  Fertilizer consumption per hectare......................................................................................42


    Table 8.  Summary of regional needs and constraints .....................................................................51


    Table 9.  Key elements for a paradigm shift as identified by the International Conference


    on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development ...................................................................118


    Table 10.  Action areas for addressing risk in food systems ...........................................................159


    Figure 1.  Regional share of change in global wheat production capacity in current cultivated


    land for rainfed cultivation at a global level at high and low input levels/management


    based on future climate projections (HadCM3-A2 model for 2050s) relative to


    reference climate data (1961–1990).....................................................................................49


    Figure 2.  Agro-ecosystems’ functional and structural properties and indicators .......................55


    Figure 3.  Number of undernourished in the world (1969-1971) .....................................................129


    Figure 4.  Monthly real food price (2002-2004=100) ..........................................................................129


    Figure 5.  Vulnerability of different groups to types of instability ...................................................134


    Figure 6.  Resilience Index by Livelihood Strategy Group in Kenya ..............................................138


    Figure 7.  Global distribution of risks associated with main agricultural production systems..146


    Figure 8.  Crude oil prices drive sugar prices....................................................................................147


    Figure 9.  LDC imports and exports of food (1961-2008) ...................................................................155


    Figure 10. Education has the greatest impact on reducing vulnerability ......................................163


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture                                         vii Greening the


    Economy with


    Agriculture


    (GEA) G E A


    Introduction


    The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), through Resolution 64/236 of 24


    December 2009, decided to organize the United Nations Conference on Sustainable


    Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3 to 6 June 2012 (UNCSD, also referred to as Rio+20).


    The two main stated themes decided by the UNGA for UNCSD are: a green economy


    in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication; and the institutional


    framework for sustainable development. The preparatory process foresees three sessions


    of the preparatory Committee and three inter-sessional meetings.


    The Second Preparatory Committee of UNCSD, held in March 2011, has invited


    “Member  States,  the  relevant  United  Nations  system  organizations,  and  relevant


    stakeholders to provide their inputs and contributions in writing by 1 November 2011 for


    inclusion in a compilation document to serve as basis for the preparation of the zero-draft


    of the outcome document”.


    Since May 2010, FAO’s active contribution to the preparatory process of UNCSD has


    resulted in the inclusion of food security among the priority areas under consideration.


    FAO is particularly contributing to shaping the green economy agenda of UNCSD by


    providing elements pertaining to its mandate. To this end, an analysis has been carried


    out on the interactions between the green economy and the food and agriculture sector,


    including opportunities and constraints. The Greening the Economy with Agriculture


    (GEA) Initiative seeks to contribute to the definition and implementation of the green


    economy, with a particular emphasis on food security. As part of this initiative, FAO


    organized  broad  stakeholder  consultations  through  an  FAO/UNCTAD/Biovision


    side event in New York on 8 March 2011, and a joint FAO/OECD Expert Meeting on


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture in Paris, France, 5 to 7 September 2011. An


    informal seminar was held with Permanent Representatives to FAO on 4 November 2011


    to brief them on progress made thus far.


    GEA aims to promote a dialogue between the agriculture, forestry and fisheries


    constituencies and other partners, on sustainable development strategies, as well as


    the overall participation of food and agriculture stakeholders into the Rio+20 process


    and beyond, with a view to facilitating their access to the resources and institutional


    arrangements that will be put in place in order to effectively move towards sustainable


    development. By taking a proactive role in international, regional and national debates


    Greening the Economy with Agriculture                                         2


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