Global Warming

Global Warming

Global Warming

383 Pages ·2013·4.11 MB ·English

Global Warming

This page intentionally left blank Global Warming


TheCompleteBriefing


ThirdEdition


Global warming and the resulting climate change are among the most


serious environmental problems facing the world community. Global


Warming:TheCompleteBriefingisthemostcomprehensiveguideavail-


able to the subject. A world-renowned expert, Sir John Houghton ex-


plores the scientific basis of global warming and the likely impacts of


climatechangeonhumansociety,beforeaddressingtheactionthatcould


betakenbygovernments,byindustryandbyindividualstomitigatethe


effects.Thefirsttwoeditionsreceivedexcellentreviews,andthiscom-


pletelyupdatedneweditionwillprovetobethebestbriefingthestudent


orinterestedgeneralreadercouldwishfor.


uf773uf769uf772 uf76auf76fuf768uf76e uf774. uf768uf76fuf775uf767uf768uf774uf76fuf76e uf763uf762uf765, uf766uf772uf773 is a former Chairman of the


Scientific Assessment Working Group of the Intergovernmental Panel


on Climate Change, Chairman of the UK’s Royal Commission on


Environmental Pollution, Vice President of the World Meteorological


Organization, President of the Royal Meteorological Society, and


Professor of Atmospheric Physics at Oxford University. He was Chief


ExecutiveoftheUKMeteorologicalOfficefrom1983tohisretirement


in1991.Aswellasthepreviouseditionsofthisbook,heisauthorofThe


PhysicsofAtmospheres(CambridgeUniversityPress,inthreeeditions),


and has published numerous research papers and contributed to many


influential research documents. Sir John and his wife Sheila live in


Wales.


Fromreviewsofpreviouseditions


‘ItisdifficulttoimaginehowHoughton’sexpositionofthiscomplexbodyof


informationmightbesubstantiallyimprovedupon...Seldomhassucha


complextopicbeenpresentedwithsuchremarkablesimplicity,directnessand


crystallineclarity...Houghton’scompletebriefingiswithout doubtthebest


briefingtheconcernedcitizencouldhopetofindwithinthepagesofa


pocketablebook.’


JohnPerry,BulletinoftheAmericanMeteorologicalSociety


‘Icanrecommend(thisbook)toanyonewhowantstogetabetterperspective


onthetopicofglobalwarming...averyreadableandcomprehensiveguideto


thechangesthatareoccurringnow,andcouldoccurinthefuture,asaresultof humanaction...bringstheglobalwarmingdebaterightuptodate...Read


Houghton’sbookifyoureallywanttounderstandboththescientificand


politicalissuesinvolved.’


WilliamHarston,TheIndependent


‘...preciseaccountofthescience,accompaniedbyfigures,graphs,boxeson


specificpoints,andsummariesattheendofeachchapter,withquestionsfor


students...rangesbeyondthescienceintothediplomacy,politics,economics


andethicsoftheproblem,whichtogetherpresentaformidablechallengeto


humanunderstandingandcapacityforaction.’


SirCrispinTickell,TheTimesHigherEducationSupplement


‘...awidelypraisedbookonglobalwarminganditsconsequences.’


TheEconomist


‘...aninterestingaccountofthetopicforthegeneralreader.’


EnvironmentalAssessment


‘...verythoroughandpresentsabalanced,impartialpicture.’


JonathanShanklin,JournaloftheBritishAstronomicalAssociation


‘Iwouldthoroughlyrecommendthisbooktoanyoneconcernedaboutglobal


warming.Itprovidesanexcellentessentiallynon-technicalguideonscientific


andpoliticalaspectsofthesubject.Itisanessentialbriefingforstudentsand


scienceteachers.’


TonyWaters,TheObservatory


‘Forthenon-technicalreader,thebestprogramguidetothepoliticaland


scientificdebateisJohnHoughton’sbookGlobalWarming:TheComplete


Briefing.Withthisbookinhandyouarereadytomakesenseofthedebateand


reachyourownconclusions.’


AlanHecht,ClimateChange


‘Thisisaremarkablebook...Itisamodelofclearexpositionand


comprehensiblewriting...Quiteapartfromitsvalueasabackgroundreader


forscienceteachersandstudents,itwouldmakeasplendidbasisforacollege


generalcourse.’


AndrewBishop,AssociationforScienceEducation


‘GlobalWarmingremainsthebestsingle-volumeguidetothescienceof


climatechange.’


GregTerrill,TimesLiterarySupplement


‘Thisveryreadableandinformativebookisvaluableforanyonewantinga


broadoverviewofwhatweknowaboutclimatechange,itspotentialimpactson


societyandthenaturalworld,andwhatcouldbedonetomitigateoradaptto


globalwarming.Tothisend,discussionquestionsareincludedattheendof


eachchapter.Thepaperbackeditionisespeciallygoodvalue...Houghton’s compactbookisanaccessible,well-researched,andbroadlybasedintroduction


totheimmenselycomplicatedglobalwarmingproblem.’


DennisL.Hartmann,DepartmentofAtmosphericSciences,UniversityofWashington,


Seattle,USA


‘Ihavenohesitationinendorsingthisimportantbook.’


WilfridBach,InternationalJournalofClimatology


‘...ausefulbookforstudentsandlaymentounderstandsomeofthe


complexitiesoftheglobalwarmingissue.Questionsandessaytopicsattheend


ofeachchapterprovideusefulfollow-upworkandtherangeofmaterial


providedunderonecoverisimpressive.Atastudent-friendlyprice,thisisa


booktobuyforyourselfandnotrelyonthelibrarycopy.’


AllenPerry,Holocene


‘InsummaryIwouldthoroughlyrecommendthisbooktoanyoneconcerned


aboutglobalwarming.Itprovidesanexcellentnon-technicalguideon


scientificandpoliticalaspectsofthesubject.Itisanessentialbriefingfor


studentsandscienceteachers.’


TonyWaters,Weather


‘ThisbookisoneofthebestIhaveencountered,thatdealwithclimatechange


andsomeofitsanthropogeniccauses.Wellwritten,wellorganised,richly


illustratedandreferenced,itshouldberequiredreadingforanybodyconcerned


withthefateofourplanet.’


ElmarR.Reiter,MeteorologyandAtmosphericPhysics


‘SirJohnHoughtonisoneofthefewpeoplewhocanlegitimatelyusethe


phrase“thecompletebriefing”asasubtitleforabookonglobalwarming...Sir


Johnhasdoneusallagreatfavourinpresentingsuchawealthofmaterialso


clearlyandaccessiblyandindrawingattentiontotheethicalunderpinningsof


ourinterpretationofthisareaofenvironmentalscience.’


ProgressinPhysicalGeography


‘...thiscompletebriefingonglobalwarmingisremarkablyfactualand


inclusive.Houghton’sconcernaboutplanetEarthanditspeopleblendswell


withthishishopesforglobalcooperationinconcertwiththespiritofthe


IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.’


Choice


‘Throughoutthebookthisargumentiswelldevelopedandexplainedinaway


thattheaveragereadercouldunderstandespeciallybecausetherearemany


diagrams,tables,graphsandmapswhichareeasytointerpret.’


SATYA


‘...thisbookisthemostcomprehensiveguideavailable.Ignoreitatyourperil.’


TheCanadianField-Naturalist Global Warming


The Complete Briefing


THIRD EDITION


Sir John Houghton cambridge university press


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 2ru, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


www.cambridge.org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521528740


© C J. T. Houghton 1994, 1997, 2004


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in print format 2004


isbn-13 978-0-511-21276-5eBook (EBL)


isbn-10 0-511-21276-3 eBook (EBL)


isbn-13 978-0-521-52874-0paperback


isbn-10 0-521-52874-7 paperback


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


guaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriate. Tomygrandchildren,


Daniel,Hannah,Esther,Max,Jonathan,JemimaandSamand


theirgeneration


This page intentionally left blank Global Warming


TheCompleteBriefing


ThirdEdition


Global warming and the resulting climate change are among the most


serious environmental problems facing the world community. Global


Warming:TheCompleteBriefingisthemostcomprehensiveguideavail-


able to the subject. A world-renowned expert, Sir John Houghton ex-


plores the scientific basis of global warming and the likely impacts of


climatechangeonhumansociety,beforeaddressingtheactionthatcould


betakenbygovernments,byindustryandbyindividualstomitigatethe


effects.Thefirsttwoeditionsreceivedexcellentreviews,andthiscom-


pletelyupdatedneweditionwillprovetobethebestbriefingthestudent


orinterestedgeneralreadercouldwishfor.


uf773uf769uf772 uf76auf76fuf768uf76e uf774. uf768uf76fuf775uf767uf768uf774uf76fuf76e uf763uf762uf765, uf766uf772uf773 is a former Chairman of the


Scientific Assessment Working Group of the Intergovernmental Panel


on Climate Change, Chairman of the UK’s Royal Commission on


Environmental Pollution, Vice President of the World Meteorological


Organization, President of the Royal Meteorological Society, and


Professor of Atmospheric Physics at Oxford University. He was Chief


ExecutiveoftheUKMeteorologicalOfficefrom1983tohisretirement


in1991.Aswellasthepreviouseditionsofthisbook,heisauthorofThe


PhysicsofAtmospheres(CambridgeUniversityPress,inthreeeditions),


and has published numerous research papers and contributed to many


influential research documents. Sir John and his wife Sheila live in


Wales.


Fromreviewsofpreviouseditions


‘ItisdifficulttoimaginehowHoughton’sexpositionofthiscomplexbodyof


informationmightbesubstantiallyimprovedupon...Seldomhassucha


complextopicbeenpresentedwithsuchremarkablesimplicity,directnessand


crystallineclarity...Houghton’scompletebriefingiswithout doubtthebest


briefingtheconcernedcitizencouldhopetofindwithinthepagesofa


pocketablebook.’


JohnPerry,BulletinoftheAmericanMeteorologicalSociety


‘Icanrecommend(thisbook)toanyonewhowantstogetabetterperspective


onthetopicofglobalwarming...averyreadableandcomprehensiveguideto


thechangesthatareoccurringnow,andcouldoccurinthefuture,asaresultof humanaction...bringstheglobalwarmingdebaterightuptodate...Read


Houghton’sbookifyoureallywanttounderstandboththescientificand


politicalissuesinvolved.’


WilliamHarston,TheIndependent


‘...preciseaccountofthescience,accompaniedbyfigures,graphs,boxeson


specificpoints,andsummariesattheendofeachchapter,withquestionsfor


students...rangesbeyondthescienceintothediplomacy,politics,economics


andethicsoftheproblem,whichtogetherpresentaformidablechallengeto


humanunderstandingandcapacityforaction.’


SirCrispinTickell,TheTimesHigherEducationSupplement


‘...awidelypraisedbookonglobalwarminganditsconsequences.’


TheEconomist


‘...aninterestingaccountofthetopicforthegeneralreader.’


EnvironmentalAssessment


‘...verythoroughandpresentsabalanced,impartialpicture.’


JonathanShanklin,JournaloftheBritishAstronomicalAssociation


‘Iwouldthoroughlyrecommendthisbooktoanyoneconcernedaboutglobal


warming.Itprovidesanexcellentessentiallynon-technicalguideonscientific


andpoliticalaspectsofthesubject.Itisanessentialbriefingforstudentsand


scienceteachers.’


TonyWaters,TheObservatory


‘Forthenon-technicalreader,thebestprogramguidetothepoliticaland


scientificdebateisJohnHoughton’sbookGlobalWarming:TheComplete


Briefing.Withthisbookinhandyouarereadytomakesenseofthedebateand


reachyourownconclusions.’


AlanHecht,ClimateChange


‘Thisisaremarkablebook...Itisamodelofclearexpositionand


comprehensiblewriting...Quiteapartfromitsvalueasabackgroundreader


forscienceteachersandstudents,itwouldmakeasplendidbasisforacollege


generalcourse.’


AndrewBishop,AssociationforScienceEducation


‘GlobalWarmingremainsthebestsingle-volumeguidetothescienceof


climatechange.’


GregTerrill,TimesLiterarySupplement


‘Thisveryreadableandinformativebookisvaluableforanyonewantinga


broadoverviewofwhatweknowaboutclimatechange,itspotentialimpactson


societyandthenaturalworld,andwhatcouldbedonetomitigateoradaptto


globalwarming.Tothisend,discussionquestionsareincludedattheendof


eachchapter.Thepaperbackeditionisespeciallygoodvalue...Houghton’s compactbookisanaccessible,well-researched,andbroadlybasedintroduction


totheimmenselycomplicatedglobalwarmingproblem.’


DennisL.Hartmann,DepartmentofAtmosphericSciences,UniversityofWashington,


Seattle,USA


‘Ihavenohesitationinendorsingthisimportantbook.’


WilfridBach,InternationalJournalofClimatology


‘...ausefulbookforstudentsandlaymentounderstandsomeofthe


complexitiesoftheglobalwarmingissue.Questionsandessaytopicsattheend


ofeachchapterprovideusefulfollow-upworkandtherangeofmaterial


providedunderonecoverisimpressive.Atastudent-friendlyprice,thisisa


booktobuyforyourselfandnotrelyonthelibrarycopy.’


AllenPerry,Holocene


‘InsummaryIwouldthoroughlyrecommendthisbooktoanyoneconcerned


aboutglobalwarming.Itprovidesanexcellentnon-technicalguideon


scientificandpoliticalaspectsofthesubject.Itisanessentialbriefingfor


studentsandscienceteachers.’


TonyWaters,Weather


‘ThisbookisoneofthebestIhaveencountered,thatdealwithclimatechange


andsomeofitsanthropogeniccauses.Wellwritten,wellorganised,richly


illustratedandreferenced,itshouldberequiredreadingforanybodyconcerned


withthefateofourplanet.’


ElmarR.Reiter,MeteorologyandAtmosphericPhysics


‘SirJohnHoughtonisoneofthefewpeoplewhocanlegitimatelyusethe


phrase“thecompletebriefing”asasubtitleforabookonglobalwarming...Sir


Johnhasdoneusallagreatfavourinpresentingsuchawealthofmaterialso


clearlyandaccessiblyandindrawingattentiontotheethicalunderpinningsof


ourinterpretationofthisareaofenvironmentalscience.’


ProgressinPhysicalGeography


‘...thiscompletebriefingonglobalwarmingisremarkablyfactualand


inclusive.Houghton’sconcernaboutplanetEarthanditspeopleblendswell


withthishishopesforglobalcooperationinconcertwiththespiritofthe


IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange.’


Choice


‘Throughoutthebookthisargumentiswelldevelopedandexplainedinaway


thattheaveragereadercouldunderstandespeciallybecausetherearemany


diagrams,tables,graphsandmapswhichareeasytointerpret.’


SATYA


‘...thisbookisthemostcomprehensiveguideavailable.Ignoreitatyourperil.’


TheCanadianField-Naturalist Global Warming


The Complete Briefing


THIRD EDITION


Sir John Houghton cambridge university press


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


Cambridge University Press


The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 2ru, UK


Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


www.cambridge.org


Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521528740


© C J. T. Houghton 1994, 1997, 2004


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


First published in print format 2004


isbn-13 978-0-511-21276-5eBook (EBL)


isbn-10 0-511-21276-3 eBook (EBL)


isbn-13 978-0-521-52874-0paperback


isbn-10 0-521-52874-7 paperback


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls


for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not


guaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriate. Tomygrandchildren,


Daniel,Hannah,Esther,Max,Jonathan,JemimaandSamand


theirgeneration


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