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French Grammar in Context

282 Pages · 2014 · 1.93 MB · English

  • French Grammar in Context

    French Grammar in Context


    FOURTH EDITION


    French Grammar in Contextpresents a unique and exciting approach to learning


    grammar.


    Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as


    the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French


    grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken


    exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a tool essential to


    enjoying French, understanding native speakers and communicating effectively


    with them.


    Literary texts and poems are taken from renowned French authors such as Albert


    Camus, Zola, André Malraux, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Stendhal and Jacques Prévert.


    News sources include Libération, Le Point, Marianne, and Le Monde Diplomatique,


    in addition to articles from regional papers such as Ouest-Franceand La Voix du


    Nord. Lifestyle articles are included from magazines such as Elle.


    This fourth edition has been updated to include new extracts from writers such as


    Christiane Rochefort, Raymond Queneau and Roch Carrier. In addition to extra


    exercises within the book, this new edition is supported by a companion website


    that offers a wealth of additional interactive exercises to practise and reinforce the


    material covered.


    French Grammar in Contextis aimed at intermediate and advanced students and is


    ideal for both independent and class-based study.


    Margaret Jubbis Senior Lecturer in French at the University of Aberdeen.


    Annie Rouxevillewas previously Senior Lecturer in French and Tutor at TILL,


    University of Sheffield. LANGUAGES IN CONTEXT


    The Languages in Contextseries presents students with an engaging way of learning


    grammar while also acquiring cultural and topical knowledge. Each book in the


    series uses authentic texts, drawn from a generous variety of sources, as the starting


    point for the explanation of key areas of grammar. Grammar points are then


    consolidated with a wide range of exercises to test students’ understanding.


    Aimed at intermediate to advanced students, The Languages in Context series is


    suitable for both class use and independent study.


    The following books are available in this series:


    French Grammar in Context


    Spanish Grammar in Context


    German Grammar in Context French Grammar in Context


    FOURTH EDITION


    MARGARET JUBB


    and


    ANNIE ROUXEVILLE Dedicated to the memory of Geneviève Wilkinson


    Fourth edition published in 2014 by Routledge


    2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN


    Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada


    by Routledge


    711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017


    Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business


    © 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2014 Margaret Jubb and Annie Rouxeville


    The right of Margaret Jubb and Annie Rouxeville to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by them in


    accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,


    mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any


    information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.


    Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for


    identification and explanation without intent to infringe.


    First published in Great Britain in 1998, Second Edition published in 2003, Third Edition published in 2008 by Hodder


    Education, part of Hachette UK, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH


    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library


    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


    A catalog record for this book has been requested


    ISBN: 978-0-415-70669-8 (hbk)


    ISBN: 978-0-415-70668-1 (pbk)


    ISBN: 978-1-315-87992-5 (ebk)


    Typeset in 10/14pt Minion by


    Servis Filmsetting Ltd, Stockport, Cheshire Contents


    Acknowledgements vii


    Preface to the first edition ix


    Preface to the second edition xi


    Preface to the third edition xii


    Preface to the fourth edition xiii


    1 The present tense 1


    2 The passé composé 6


    3 The imperfect 12


    4 The pluperfect 17


    5 The past historic and past anterior 20


    6 The future and future perfect 28


    7 The conditional (present and past) 36


    8 The negative 42


    9 Interrogatives 48


    10 Personal pronouns 55


    11 Relative pronouns 65


    12 Nouns 71


    13 Articles and quantifiers 80


    14 Demonstratives 88


    15 Possessives 94


    16 Adjectives 100


    17 Adverbs and adverbial phrases 108


    18 Comparatives and superlatives 116


    19 The imperative 123


    20 Pronominal verbs 128


    21 The passive 133 vi French Grammar in Context


    22 The infinitive and present participle 140


    23 Verbs with à and de 150


    24 Devoir, pouvoir, vouloir, savoir 156


    25 Impersonal verbs 163


    26 The subjunctive (present and perfect) 169


    27 The subjunctive (imperfect and pluperfect) 180


    28 Prepositions 186


    29 Conjunctions 195


    30 Word order 201


    31 Highlighting and emphasis 209


    Revision text 1 216


    Revision text 2 218


    Revision text 3 221


    Revision text 4 223


    Revision text 5 226


    Revision text 6 230


    Keys 233


    Bibliography 259


    Index 260 Acknowledgements


    This book developed from collaborative work undertaken some years ago under the auspices of


    the Association for French Language Studies Grammar Initiative. We gratefully acknowledge the


    impetus and support given to our work by AFLS. We are also grateful to Lesley Riddle of Edward


    Arnold for helping us to refocus and extend our earlier work with a view to publication, and to


    an unidentified reader selected by Edward Arnold for commenting on a first draft of the present


    work. In producing the original three AFLS Brochures Grammaire, we worked with two


    colleagues, Carol Chapman of the University of Liverpool, and the late Geneviève Wilkinson of


    the University of Hull.


    Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge the owners of copyright. The publishers


    will be glad to make suitable arrangements with any copyright holders whom it has not been


    possible to contact.


    The authors and publisher would like to thank the following for permission to use copyright


    material in this book:


    Label France: Corinne Tonarelli, ‘La Provence, terre de lumière’, no. 24, June 1996 and Mélina


    Gazsi, ‘Cent ans de laïcité à la française’, no. 60, 2005; Éditions Gallimard© Albert Camus,


    L’Étranger, ‘J’ai retourné ma chaise’, 1957, André Malraux, La Condition Humaine, ‘L’auto de


    Chang-Kaï-shek’, 1946, Jacques Prévert, ‘Le Dromadaire mécontent’, ‘Contes pour les enfants pas


    sages’ in Histoires et autres histoires, 1963, and Simone de Beauvoir, Mémoires d’une jeune fille


    rangée, ‘La plupart des garçons que je connaissais’, Collection Folio, 1958, Raymond Queneau,


    Exercises de style, 1947, www.gallimard.fr; Société Nouvelle des Éditions Pauvert: Jehanne Jean-


    Charles, Les plumes du corbeau, ‘Cet après-midi, j’ai poussé’, 1962; Methuen Educational Ltd:


    R. Vailland, Un jeune homme seul, ‘Michel Favart, l’ingénieur’, 1985, Claire Etcherelli, Élise ou la


    vraie vie, ‘Je cherchai Arezki’, ed. J. Roach, 1985 and Paul Éluard, ‘Ma morte vivante’, Anthologie


    Éluard, ed. C. Scott, 1983; Libération: ‘Le temps aujourd’hui, région par région’, 28 October 1996,


    J.-C. Schmitt, ‘Un mythe composite’, 9 February 1994, Éric Jozsef, ‘Votre diplôme n’est pas


    valable’, 11 March 2002, © Marion Chaudru, Libération Voyages, 2 April 2013 and Libération


    Quotidien, Kara Walker and Sean James Rose, ‘Le besoin cathartique de faire un retour en arrière’,


    31 July 2007; InfoMatin: ‘Enfant d’une secte’, 29–30 December 1995; Regards: Daniel Le Scornet,


    ‘Aujourd’hui, une catégorie entière de la population française’, 22 December 1995; Service M:


    ‘Donnez-moi un quart d’heure le soir’; Éditions de Minuit: Alain Robbe-Grillet, Djinn, ‘De


    nouveau, la méfiance’, ‘Ensuite Jean m’a offert’, ‘Mais non, se dit-il’, ‘Tout cela paraissait absurde’


    and ‘Comment t’appelles-tu?’, 1981; Le Monde: Thomas Ferenczi, ‘Faits divers’, 17 November 1984 viii Acknowledgements


    and Philippe Sollers, ‘Le Diable à Florence’, 27 September 1996; Institut de Formation au


    Marketing: ‘Après le patron’; Le Nouvel Observateur, M.O., ‘Ne lisez surtout pas’, February 1995,


    W. Legros, ‘Nous sommes tous polyglottes’, 8–14 September 1994, C. Brizard, ‘Pollution urbaine,


    les vrais dangers’, 11–17 May 1995, Claude Roy, ‘L’Observatoire de la planète Terre’, 2–8 March


    1995, Fabien Gruhier and Michel de Pracontal, ‘Le secret du cerveau de Mozart’, 9–15 February


    1995 and Marc Ferro, ‘Un bilan globalement négatif’, 8 December 2005; Le Monde Diplomatique:


    Bernard Cassen, ‘Le mur de l’anglais’, May 1995; L’Entreprise: Jean Boissonnat, ‘Tour du monde’,


    October 1989; Le Point: E. Saint-Martin, ‘Championnat d’échecs – Un Grand Maître de 14 ans’,


    29 March 1997, Marie-Sandrine Sgherri, ‘Ces escrocs qui s’attaquent aux vieux’, 3 May 2002 and


    Gilles Pudlowski, ‘Nice, baie des arts’, 29 March 1997; Ouest-France: ‘Un cimetière marin au large


    de Tunis’, 1 August 1997 and Julien Redon, ‘Sous tension’, 23 July 2002; Elle: Sylvie Tardrow, ‘Tieb


    de Daurade’, 4 November 1996 and ‘News Beauté’, 4 November 1996; Éditions Atlas: ‘Toulouse’,


    Atlas Air France, 1989; La Voix du Nord: Denis Sénié, ‘Tintin au pays des pixels’, 12 November


    1996; La Lettre du Gouvernement: ‘Préserver l’air, c’est protéger notre santé’, 24 April 1996; Le


    Monde de l’Éducation: Caroline Helfter, ‘Vers le bilinguisme’, July–August 1996 and Macha Séry,


    ‘La langue de Molière au secours de la langue de bois’, July–August 1996; L’Événement du Jeudi:


    Nicolas Domenach, ‘Ces réseaux qui gouvernent la France’, 25–31 July 1996; Actualquarto:


    ‘Biosphère II, la Terre bis’, no. 3, 1990–91; Okapi: ‘Le Tabloïd’, 11–24 March 1995, ‘Les grands


    débats’ and ‘Les aventuriers sous la mer’, 1–15 September 1994; Éditions Bernard Grasset: Colette,


    La Chatte, 1933, ‘Il aimait ses songes’, Christiane Rochefort, Les Petits Enfants du siècle, 1961; Bien-


    Dire: ‘Sur les quais’, no. 2, Winter 1997; Le Figaro: Anne Muratori-Philip, ‘Napoléon: le testament


    que l’on croyait perdu’, 2 May 1996; Sciences et Avenir:B.A., ‘Quand les cathédrales étaient


    peintes’, 26 July 2002; Présence Africaine: Joseph Zobel, La Rue Cases-Nègres, 1974; Éditions


    Caribéennes: Joseph Zobel, Et si la mer n’était pas bleue..., ‘Le Retour de Mamzelle Annette’,


    1982; Ça m’intéresse, © F. Karpyta, ‘Pourquoi les filles parlent plus tôt que les garçons’, no. 295,


    September 2005 and © Vincent Nouyrigat, ‘Ces poussières qui font le tour du monde’ no. 318,


    August 2007; La Pèlerine, ‘Randonnées accompagnées, l’hébergement’, 2007; Willy et Colette,


    Claudine à l’école, Livre de Poche, 1961, with the kind permission of Éditions Albin Michel; Frantz


    Fanon, Peau noire, Masques blancs, © Éditions du Seuil, 1952, Collection Points Essais, 1971 and


    Ahmadou Kourouma, Les Soleils des Indépendances, © Éditions du Seuil, 1970, Collection Points,


    1995; Marianne, Pierre Feydel et Erwan Seznec, ‘Les Parasites, les Profiteurs’, no. 536, July 2007;


    Éditions Stanké, Roch Carrier, Les Enfants du bonhomme dans la Lune, 1979 Preface to the first edition


    This book is intended for intermediate and more advanced students of French, both those


    approaching the end of high-school or secondary education and those in their first or second


    year at university, who need to consolidate and extend their knowledge of French grammar and


    to develop their ability to use this knowledge in speech and writing. Unlike a reference grammar,


    it does not aim to be exhaustive in its coverage. Instead, it focuses on key areas of grammar,


    selected both for their perceived usefulness and for the difficulties which they often cause the


    Anglophone student.


    The starting point is always an authentic text, chosen for its intrinsic interest no less than for


    its richness as a source of examples of grammar in context. In the analysis which follows the text,


    the function and form of the relevant grammar topic are first explored as seen in the text, before


    a development section headed ‘Discover more about X’ amplifies the coverage with illustrated


    commentary on further important points, including any significant divergences of practice


    between different registers both in writing and in speech. Page references to the relevant sections


    of five standard reference grammars are provided, so that students may seek further information


    as they require. Cross-references are also made to relevant sections of other grammar units


    within the book itself. It is essential that both sections of analysis, ‘X in the text’ and ‘Discover


    more about X’, should be studied before the student attempts any of the exercises which follow.


    The exercises continue the emphasis on grammar in context by including a considerable


    proportion of text-based exercises and also some communicative activities and translation


    exercises. A key is provided to all the exercises, except for the more open-ended communicative


    ones, so that students may use the book for private study. However, there is ample scope for the


    book to be used also in class. For example, each text naturally contains examples of other


    grammar points apart from the main point which it has been chosen to illustrate. Accordingly, a


    detailed listing of the further grammatical features of each text is provided as guidance for


    teachers, so that they may exploit the material in different ways.


    The revision texts at the end of the book provide students with an opportunity to integrate the


    work which they have done in the preceding units. First, a series of analysis questions exploits the


    fact that each text contains examples of many different grammatical features. Students are


    required to demonstrate their understanding by providing their own commentary on highlighted


    features. A key with cross-references back to the analysis sections in the various units enables


    them to check their work. Finally, in order to ensure that passive knowledge and understanding


    have been translated into an ability to make active use of language, and that language observed


    has been internalized, a series of gap-filling exercises based on the texts is provided.


    In the revision section, as in the rest of the book, the emphasis is on grammar in context and


    on grammar with a functional and communicative purpose. This is reflected most importantly in


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