Forest Products, Livelihoods and Conservation

Forest Products, Livelihoods and Conservation

Forest Products, Livelihoods and Conservation

349 Pages ·2004·10.72 MB ·English

Forest Products, Livelihoods and Conservation

Forest Products,


Livelihoods and


Conservation


Case Studies of Non-Timber Forest Product Systems


VOLUME 2 - AFRICA


Editors


Terry Sunderland and Ousseynou Ndoye Forest Products, Livelihoods


and Conservation


Case Studies of Non-Timber Forest Product Systems


VOLUME 2 - AFRICA


Editors


Terry Sunderland and Ousseynou Ndoye © 2004 by CIFOR


All rights reserved. Published in 2004


Printed by Indonesia Printer


Cover photo by Brian Belcher


ISBN 979-3361-25-5


ISBN 979-3361-23-9 (Volumes 1-3)


Copy-editing: Henning Pape-Santos


Illustrations: Iskak Syamsudin and Lucy Smith


Design: Gideon Suharyanto, Yoeli Setiawan and Eko Prianto


Maps: Andy Darmawan


National Library of Indonesia Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Forest Products, Livelihoods and Conservation. Case Studies of Non-Timber


Forest Product Systems. Volume 2 x96 Africa / edited by Terry Sunderland and


Ousseynou Ndoye


p.cm.


ISBN 979-3361-25-5


1. Non-timber forest products 2. Livelihoods 3. Conservation 4. Case studies


5. Africa


Published by


Center for International Forestry Research


Mailing address: P.O. Box 6596 JKPWB, Jakarta 10065, Indonesia


Office address: Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang,


Bogor Barat 16680, Indonesia


Tel: +62 (251) 622622


Fax: +62 (251) 622100


E-mail: cifor@cgiar.org


Web site: http://www.cifor.cgiar.org Contents


Contributors vi


Acknowledgements ix


Foreword by His Excellency, Henri Djombo x


Foreword by J.E. Michael Arnold xii


Chapter 1


Commercialisation of non-timber forest products in Africa:


history, context and prospects 1


Terry C.H. Sunderland, Susan T. Harrison and Ousseynou Ndoye


MEDICINAL, HYGIENE AND COSMETIC PLANTS


Chapter 2


Dental hygiene and livelihoods: a case of chewing sticks in Ghana 25


Dominic Blay


Chapter 3


x91Chop, but no broke potx92: the case of Prunus africana on


Mount Cameroon 37


Nouhou Ndam and Mahop Tonye Marcelin


Chapter 4


Achieving a fair and sustainable trade


in devilx92s claw (Harpagophytum spp.) 53


Rachel Wynberg


Chapter 5


The informal trade of Cassipourea flanaganii


as a cosmetic in South Africa 73


Michelle Cocks and Tony Dold iv


FRUITS AND OILS


Chapter 6


The contribution of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertner)


to local livelihoods in Benin 91


Kathrin Schreckenberg


Chapter 7


A case study of Garcinia kola nut production-to-consumption


system in J4 area of Omo forest reserve, South-west Nigeria 115


Atilade Akanmu Adebisi


Chapter 8


Potential for development and conservation of Dacryodes edulis


in Sakpoba Forest Reserve, Edo State, in the Niger Delta area


of Nigeria 133


Hassan Gbadebo Adewusi


WOODCARVING AND WOOD PRODUCTS


Chapter 9


The woodcarving industry in Kenya 149


Simon Kosgei Choge


Chapter 10


Carved wooden drums and trade in Mpigi district, Uganda 169


Patrick Omeja, Joseph Obua and Anthony B. Cunningham


Chapter 11


Trading forest products in South-Eastern Zimbabwe: ecology,


economics and politics of woodcarving 183


Wavell Standa-Gunda and Oliver Braedt


Chapter 12


The Pterocarpus angolensis DC. based woodcraft industry


in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa 203


Sheona E. Shackleton and Charlie M. Shackleton


Chapter 13


Fuelwood in the Maroua area of the Far North Province


of Cameroon 229


Tata Precillia Ijang v


FIBRES AND WEAVING MATERIALS


Chapter 14


Palm utilisation for basketry in Xini Ward, Sengwe communal


areas, Zimbabwe 245


Phosiso Sola


Chapter 15


The rattan industry in the Ashanti and western regions of Ghana 263


Charles Adu-Anning


Chapter 16


The rattan sector of Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea 275


Terry C.H. Sunderland, Michael B. Balinga and Mercy A. Dione


Chapter 17


Rattan exploitation in the Yaoundé Region of Cameroon 291


Louis Defo


ANIMAL PRODUCTS


Chapter 18


Sport hunting of elephant in Zimbabwe: a case study of


Kanyurira Ward in Guruve district 317


Dale Doré and Ivan Bond


Sources used for illustrations 333 vi


Contributors


Atilade Akanmu Adebisi Dominic Blay


CENRAD Forestry Research Institute of Ghana


P.M.B. 5052 University Box 63, Kumasi


5 Akinola Maja Street Ghana


Jericho Hills, Ibadan E-mail: dblay@forig.org


Nigeria


E-mail: cenrad@mail.skannet.com; Ivan Bond


cenrad@ibadan.skannet.com World Wide Fund for Nature


(Southern Africa Region


Hassan Gbadebo Adewusi Programme Office)


Department of Forest Resources Almond Tree Cottage


Management Long Wittenham Road


University of Ibadan North Moreton, Nr Didcot


Nigeria Oxon OX11 9AZ


E-mail: ajilete@hotmail.com United Kingdom


E-mail:


Charles Adu-Anning leebee@atcottage.freeserve.co.uk


Department of Agroforestry


Institute of Renewable Natural Oliver Braedt


Resources Federal Research Centre for


Kwame Nkrumah University of Forestry and Forest Products (BFH)


Science and Technology Leuschnerstrasse 91


Kumasi D-21031, Hamburg


Ghana Germany


E-mail: canning@forig.org; E-mail: braedt@holz.uni-hamburg.de


canning_01@yahoo.com


Simon Kosgei Choge


Michael B. Balinga Kenya Forestry Research Institute


African Rattan Research Programme PO. Box 20412, Nairobi


c/o Limbe Botanic Garden Kenya


P.O. Box 437, Limbe E-mail: skchoge2002@yahoo.com;


Cameroon kefri@arcc.or.ke


E-mail: mpbalinga@yahoo.fr vii


Michelle Cocks Tata Precillia Ijang


Institute of Social & Economic Ministry of Scientific and Technical


Research, Rhodes University Research in Cameroon


P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 Institute of Agricultural Research


South Africa for Development, Dschang


E-mail: M.Cocks@ru.ac.za c/o Presbyterian Church Dschang


P.O.Box 353 Dschang


Anthony B. Cunningham Cameroon


People and Plants Initiative E-mail: ijang2001@yahoo.fr


84 Watkins Street


White Gum Valley, Fremantle Nouhou Ndam


Australia Limbe Botanic Garden


E-mail: peopleplants@bigpond.com P.O. Box 437, Limbe


Cameroon


Louis Defo E-mail: Lbg@bifunde.com;


University of Leiden, WOTRO Ph.D Lbgmcp@camnet.cm


fellowship programme


P.O. Box 8297 Yaounde Ousseynou Ndoye


Cameroon CIFOR Cameroon


E-mail: defotls@yahoo.fr c/o IITA Humid Forest Station


B.P. 2008, Yaounde


Mercy A. Dione Cameroon


University of Buea E-mail: o.ndoye@cgiar.org


SW Province


Cameroon Joseph Obua


Department of Forest Biology and


Tony Dold Ecosystems Management


Selmar Schonland Herbarium Faculty of Forestry and Nature


Rhodes University Conservation, Makerere University


P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 P.O.Box 7062, Kampala


South Africa Uganda


E-mail: T.Dold@ru.ac.za E-mail: obua@forest.mak.ac.ug


Dale Doré Patrick Omeja


SHANDUKO: Centre for Agrarian and Faculty of Forestry & Nature


Environmental Research Conservation


195 Fife Avenue, Harare Makeree University


Zimbabwe PO. Box 7062, Kampala


E-mail: daledore@zol.co.zw Uganda


E-mail: omejap@hotmail.com


Susan Tarka Harrison


Department of Botany Kathrin Schreckenberg


Natural History Museum, London Forest Policy and Environment


Cromwell Road Group, Overseas Development


London SW7 5BD Institute (ODI)


United Kingdom 111 Westminster Bridge Road


E-mail: tarkaharrison@yahoo.com London SE1 7JD


United Kingdom


E-mail: k.schreckenberg@odi.org.uk viii


Charlie M. Shackleton Mahop Tonye Marcelin


Environmental Science Department PhD student Queen Mary College


Rhodes University University of London


Grahamstown, 6140 E-mail: tonyemah@yahoo.com


South Africa


E-mail: c.shackleton@ru.ac.za Rachel Wynberg


Graduate School of Environmental


Sheona Elizabeth Shackleton Studies


Environmental Science Department University of Strathclyde


Rhodes University P.O. Box 83, Kalk Bay 7990


Grahamstown 6140 South Africa


South Africa E-mail: rachel@iafrica.com


E-mail: s.shackleton@ru.ac.za


Phosiso Sola


SAFIRE


10 Lawson Ave, Milton Park


Box BExa0398 Belverdere, Harare


Zimbabwe


E-mail: afpc2a@bangor.ac.uk;


sola@safire.co.zw


xa0


Wavell Standa Gunda


Center for International Forestry


Research


Regional Office for Eastern &


Southern Africa


73 Harare Drive


Mt. Pleasant, Harare


Zimbabwe


E-mail: w.standa@cgiar.org


Terry C.H. Sunderland


African Rattan Research Programme


c/o Limbe Botanic Garden


P.O. Box 437, Limbe


Cameroon


E-mail: afrirattan@aol.com;


TCHSunderland@aol.com ix


Acknowledgements


We express our thanks to all people who contributed to the content and


production of this book, including: Manuel Ruiz-Pérez, Brian Belcher, Bruce


Campbell, Julius Tieguhong Chupezi, Laurie Clark, James Acworth, Tony


Cunningham, Ramadhani Achdiawan, Koen Kusters, Jeff Sayer, Eyebe Antoine,


Citlalli Lopez, Mike Arnold, Titin Suhartini and Munoh Florence. We thank


Michelle Cocks and Sheona Shackleton for organising a regional workshop.


The work was supported by the UK Department for International Development


(DFID) and CIFOR core funding.


Forest Products,


Livelihoods and


Conservation


Case Studies of Non-Timber Forest Product Systems


VOLUME 2 - AFRICA


Editors


Terry Sunderland and Ousseynou Ndoye Forest Products, Livelihoods


and Conservation


Case Studies of Non-Timber Forest Product Systems


VOLUME 2 - AFRICA


Editors


Terry Sunderland and Ousseynou Ndoye © 2004 by CIFOR


All rights reserved. Published in 2004


Printed by Indonesia Printer


Cover photo by Brian Belcher


ISBN 979-3361-25-5


ISBN 979-3361-23-9 (Volumes 1-3)


Copy-editing: Henning Pape-Santos


Illustrations: Iskak Syamsudin and Lucy Smith


Design: Gideon Suharyanto, Yoeli Setiawan and Eko Prianto


Maps: Andy Darmawan


National Library of Indonesia Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Forest Products, Livelihoods and Conservation. Case Studies of Non-Timber


Forest Product Systems. Volume 2 x96 Africa / edited by Terry Sunderland and


Ousseynou Ndoye


p.cm.


ISBN 979-3361-25-5


1. Non-timber forest products 2. Livelihoods 3. Conservation 4. Case studies


5. Africa


Published by


Center for International Forestry Research


Mailing address: P.O. Box 6596 JKPWB, Jakarta 10065, Indonesia


Office address: Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang,


Bogor Barat 16680, Indonesia


Tel: +62 (251) 622622


Fax: +62 (251) 622100


E-mail: cifor@cgiar.org


Web site: http://www.cifor.cgiar.org Contents


Contributors vi


Acknowledgements ix


Foreword by His Excellency, Henri Djombo x


Foreword by J.E. Michael Arnold xii


Chapter 1


Commercialisation of non-timber forest products in Africa:


history, context and prospects 1


Terry C.H. Sunderland, Susan T. Harrison and Ousseynou Ndoye


MEDICINAL, HYGIENE AND COSMETIC PLANTS


Chapter 2


Dental hygiene and livelihoods: a case of chewing sticks in Ghana 25


Dominic Blay


Chapter 3


x91Chop, but no broke potx92: the case of Prunus africana on


Mount Cameroon 37


Nouhou Ndam and Mahop Tonye Marcelin


Chapter 4


Achieving a fair and sustainable trade


in devilx92s claw (Harpagophytum spp.) 53


Rachel Wynberg


Chapter 5


The informal trade of Cassipourea flanaganii


as a cosmetic in South Africa 73


Michelle Cocks and Tony Dold iv


FRUITS AND OILS


Chapter 6


The contribution of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertner)


to local livelihoods in Benin 91


Kathrin Schreckenberg


Chapter 7


A case study of Garcinia kola nut production-to-consumption


system in J4 area of Omo forest reserve, South-west Nigeria 115


Atilade Akanmu Adebisi


Chapter 8


Potential for development and conservation of Dacryodes edulis


in Sakpoba Forest Reserve, Edo State, in the Niger Delta area


of Nigeria 133


Hassan Gbadebo Adewusi


WOODCARVING AND WOOD PRODUCTS


Chapter 9


The woodcarving industry in Kenya 149


Simon Kosgei Choge


Chapter 10


Carved wooden drums and trade in Mpigi district, Uganda 169


Patrick Omeja, Joseph Obua and Anthony B. Cunningham


Chapter 11


Trading forest products in South-Eastern Zimbabwe: ecology,


economics and politics of woodcarving 183


Wavell Standa-Gunda and Oliver Braedt


Chapter 12


The Pterocarpus angolensis DC. based woodcraft industry


in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa 203


Sheona E. Shackleton and Charlie M. Shackleton


Chapter 13


Fuelwood in the Maroua area of the Far North Province


of Cameroon 229


Tata Precillia Ijang v


FIBRES AND WEAVING MATERIALS


Chapter 14


Palm utilisation for basketry in Xini Ward, Sengwe communal


areas, Zimbabwe 245


Phosiso Sola


Chapter 15


The rattan industry in the Ashanti and western regions of Ghana 263


Charles Adu-Anning


Chapter 16


The rattan sector of Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea 275


Terry C.H. Sunderland, Michael B. Balinga and Mercy A. Dione


Chapter 17


Rattan exploitation in the Yaoundé Region of Cameroon 291


Louis Defo


ANIMAL PRODUCTS


Chapter 18


Sport hunting of elephant in Zimbabwe: a case study of


Kanyurira Ward in Guruve district 317


Dale Doré and Ivan Bond


Sources used for illustrations 333 vi


Contributors


Atilade Akanmu Adebisi Dominic Blay


CENRAD Forestry Research Institute of Ghana


P.M.B. 5052 University Box 63, Kumasi


5 Akinola Maja Street Ghana


Jericho Hills, Ibadan E-mail: dblay@forig.org


Nigeria


E-mail: cenrad@mail.skannet.com; Ivan Bond


cenrad@ibadan.skannet.com World Wide Fund for Nature


(Southern Africa Region


Hassan Gbadebo Adewusi Programme Office)


Department of Forest Resources Almond Tree Cottage


Management Long Wittenham Road


University of Ibadan North Moreton, Nr Didcot


Nigeria Oxon OX11 9AZ


E-mail: ajilete@hotmail.com United Kingdom


E-mail:


Charles Adu-Anning leebee@atcottage.freeserve.co.uk


Department of Agroforestry


Institute of Renewable Natural Oliver Braedt


Resources Federal Research Centre for


Kwame Nkrumah University of Forestry and Forest Products (BFH)


Science and Technology Leuschnerstrasse 91


Kumasi D-21031, Hamburg


Ghana Germany


E-mail: canning@forig.org; E-mail: braedt@holz.uni-hamburg.de


canning_01@yahoo.com


Simon Kosgei Choge


Michael B. Balinga Kenya Forestry Research Institute


African Rattan Research Programme PO. Box 20412, Nairobi


c/o Limbe Botanic Garden Kenya


P.O. Box 437, Limbe E-mail: skchoge2002@yahoo.com;


Cameroon kefri@arcc.or.ke


E-mail: mpbalinga@yahoo.fr vii


Michelle Cocks Tata Precillia Ijang


Institute of Social & Economic Ministry of Scientific and Technical


Research, Rhodes University Research in Cameroon


P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 Institute of Agricultural Research


South Africa for Development, Dschang


E-mail: M.Cocks@ru.ac.za c/o Presbyterian Church Dschang


P.O.Box 353 Dschang


Anthony B. Cunningham Cameroon


People and Plants Initiative E-mail: ijang2001@yahoo.fr


84 Watkins Street


White Gum Valley, Fremantle Nouhou Ndam


Australia Limbe Botanic Garden


E-mail: peopleplants@bigpond.com P.O. Box 437, Limbe


Cameroon


Louis Defo E-mail: Lbg@bifunde.com;


University of Leiden, WOTRO Ph.D Lbgmcp@camnet.cm


fellowship programme


P.O. Box 8297 Yaounde Ousseynou Ndoye


Cameroon CIFOR Cameroon


E-mail: defotls@yahoo.fr c/o IITA Humid Forest Station


B.P. 2008, Yaounde


Mercy A. Dione Cameroon


University of Buea E-mail: o.ndoye@cgiar.org


SW Province


Cameroon Joseph Obua


Department of Forest Biology and


Tony Dold Ecosystems Management


Selmar Schonland Herbarium Faculty of Forestry and Nature


Rhodes University Conservation, Makerere University


P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 P.O.Box 7062, Kampala


South Africa Uganda


E-mail: T.Dold@ru.ac.za E-mail: obua@forest.mak.ac.ug


Dale Doré Patrick Omeja


SHANDUKO: Centre for Agrarian and Faculty of Forestry & Nature


Environmental Research Conservation


195 Fife Avenue, Harare Makeree University


Zimbabwe PO. Box 7062, Kampala


E-mail: daledore@zol.co.zw Uganda


E-mail: omejap@hotmail.com


Susan Tarka Harrison


Department of Botany Kathrin Schreckenberg


Natural History Museum, London Forest Policy and Environment


Cromwell Road Group, Overseas Development


London SW7 5BD Institute (ODI)


United Kingdom 111 Westminster Bridge Road


E-mail: tarkaharrison@yahoo.com London SE1 7JD


United Kingdom


E-mail: k.schreckenberg@odi.org.uk viii


Charlie M. Shackleton Mahop Tonye Marcelin


Environmental Science Department PhD student Queen Mary College


Rhodes University University of London


Grahamstown, 6140 E-mail: tonyemah@yahoo.com


South Africa


E-mail: c.shackleton@ru.ac.za Rachel Wynberg


Graduate School of Environmental


Sheona Elizabeth Shackleton Studies


Environmental Science Department University of Strathclyde


Rhodes University P.O. Box 83, Kalk Bay 7990


Grahamstown 6140 South Africa


South Africa E-mail: rachel@iafrica.com


E-mail: s.shackleton@ru.ac.za


Phosiso Sola


SAFIRE


10 Lawson Ave, Milton Park


Box BExa0398 Belverdere, Harare


Zimbabwe


E-mail: afpc2a@bangor.ac.uk;


sola@safire.co.zw


xa0


Wavell Standa Gunda


Center for International Forestry


Research


Regional Office for Eastern &


Southern Africa


73 Harare Drive


Mt. Pleasant, Harare


Zimbabwe


E-mail: w.standa@cgiar.org


Terry C.H. Sunderland


African Rattan Research Programme


c/o Limbe Botanic Garden


P.O. Box 437, Limbe


Cameroon


E-mail: afrirattan@aol.com;


TCHSunderland@aol.com ix


Acknowledgements


We express our thanks to all people who contributed to the content and


production of this book, including: Manuel Ruiz-Pérez, Brian Belcher, Bruce


Campbell, Julius Tieguhong Chupezi, Laurie Clark, James Acworth, Tony


Cunningham, Ramadhani Achdiawan, Koen Kusters, Jeff Sayer, Eyebe Antoine,


Citlalli Lopez, Mike Arnold, Titin Suhartini and Munoh Florence. We thank


Michelle Cocks and Sheona Shackleton for organising a regional workshop.


The work was supported by the UK Department for International Development


(DFID) and CIFOR core funding.


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