Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology - LEG/UFPR

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology - LEG/UFPR

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology - LEG/UFPR

458 Pages ·2011·5.2 MB ·English

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology - LEG/UFPR

FIFTY YEARS


OF INVASION


ECOLOGY Companion website


A companion resources site for this book is available at:


www.wiley.com/go/richardson/invasionecology F I F T Y   Y E A R S


O F   I N VA S I O N


E C O L O G Y


The  Legacy  of


Charles  Elton


Edited by David M. Richardson


Centre for Invasion Biology


Department of Botany & Zoology


Stellenbosch University


A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication This edition fi rst published 2011 © 2011 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing program has been merged


with Wiley’s global Scientifi c, Technical and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.


Registered offi ce: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK


Editorial offi ces:  9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK


The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK


111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA


For details of our global editorial offi ces, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse


the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.


The right of the author to be identifi ed as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright,


Designs and Patents Act 1988.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form


or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright,


Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.


Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and


product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective


owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to


provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that


the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required,


the services of a competent professional should be sought.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Fifty years of invasion ecology : the legacy of Charles Elton / edited by David M. Richardson.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 978-1-4443-3585-9 (hardcover : alk. paper) – ISBN 978-1-4443-3586-6 (pbk. : alk. paper)


1. Biological invasions.  2. Biological invasions–Study and teaching–History..  3. Elton, Charles S.


(Charles Sutherland), 1900–1991.  I. Richardson, D. M. (David M.), 1958-  II. Title: 50 years of invasion ecology.


QH353.F54 2011


577’.18–dc22


2010030974


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.


This book is published in the following electronic formats: ePDF 978-1-4443-2999-5;


Wiley Online Library 978-1-4443-2998-8; ePub 978-1-4443-3000-7


Set in 9/11pt PhotinaMT by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited


1  2011 Contents


Contributors, vii  6 Invasion ecology and restoration ecology:


parallel evolution in two fi elds of endeavour, 61


Foreword, xi RICHARD J. HOBBS AND


DAVID M. RICHARDSON


Introduction, xiii


PART 3  NEW TAKES ON INVASION


PATTERNS, 71


PART 1  HISTORICAL


PERSPECTIVES, 1


7 Biological invasions in Europe 50 years after


Elton: time to sound the ALARM, 73


1 A world of thought: ‘The Ecology of Invasions


PETR PYŠEK AND PHILIP E. HULME


by Animals and Plants’ and Charles Elton’s


life’s work, 3


8 Fifty years of tree pest and pathogen invasions,


ROGER L. KITCHING


increasingly threatening world forests, 89


MICHAEL J. WINGFIELD, BERNARD SLIPPERS,


2 Charles Elton: neither founder nor siren,  JOLANDA ROUX AND BRENDA D. WINGFIELD


but prophet, 11


DANIEL SIMBERLOFF


PART 4  THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF


3 The inviolate sea? Charles Elton and  INVASION ECOLOGY,101


biological invasions in the world’s oceans, 25


JAMES T. CARLTON  9 A movement ecology approach to study seed


dispersal and plant invasion: an overview and


application of seed dispersal by fruit bats, 103


4 The rise and fall of biotic nativeness:


ASAF TSOAR, DAVID SHOHAMI


a historical perspective, 35


AND RAN NATHAN


MATTHEW K. CHEW AND


ANDREW L. HAMILTON


10 Biodiversity as a bulwark against invasion:


conceptual threads since Elton, 121


JASON D. FRIDLEY


PART 2  EVOLUTION AND


CURRENT DIMENSIONS OF  11 Soil biota and plant invasions: biogeographical


INVASION ECOLOGY, 49 effects on plant–microbe interactions, 131


RAGAN M. CALLAWAY AND MARNIE E. ROUT


5 Patterns and rate of growth of studies


in invasion ecology, 51 12 Mutualisms: key drivers of invasions ... key


HUGH J. MACISAAC, RAHEL A. TEDLA  casualties of invasions, 143


AND ANTHONY RICCIARDI ANNA TRAVESET AND DAVID M. RICHARDSON


v vi    Contents


13 Fifty years on: confronting Elton’s  22 DNA barcoding of invasive species, 289


hypotheses about invasion success  HUGH B. CROSS, ANDREW J. LOWE,


with data from exotic birds, 161 C. FREDERICO D. GURGEL


TIM M. BLACKBURN, JULIE L. LOCKWOOD


AND PHILLIP CASSEY 23 Biosecurity: the changing face of


invasion biology, 301


14 Is rapid adaptive evolution important


PHILIP E. HULME


in successful invasions?, 175


ELEANOR E. DORMONTT, ANDREW J. LOWE  24 Elton and the economics of


AND PETER J. PRENTIS biological invasions, 315


CHARLES PERRINGS


15 Why reproductive systems matter


for the invasion biology of plants, 195


25 Modelling spread in invasion ecology:


SPENCER C.H. BARRETT


a synthesis, 329


16 Impacts of biological invasions on  CANG HUI, RAINER M. KRUG


freshwater ecosystems, 211 AND DAVID M. RICHARDSON


ANTHONY RICCIARDI AND HUGH J. MACISAAC


26 Responses of invasive species to a changing


17 Expanding the propagule pressure concept


climate and atmosphere, 345


to understand the impact of biological


JEFFREY S. DUKES


invasions, 225


ANTHONY RICCIARDI, LISA A. JONES, ÅSA M.


27 Conceptual clarity, scientifi c rigour and ‘The


KESTRUP AND JESSICA M. WARD


Stories We Are’: engaging with two challenges


to the objectivity of invasion biology, 359


PART 5  POSTER-CHILD INVADERS,  JOHAN HATTINGH


THEN AND NOW, 237


28 Changing perspectives on managing biological


18 Elton’s insights into the ecology of ant  invasions: insights from South Africa and the


invasions: lessons learned and lessons  Working for Water programme, 377


still to be learned, 239 BRIAN W. VAN WILGEN, AHMED KHAN


NATHAN J. SANDERS AND ANDREW V. SUAREZ AND CHRISTO MARAIS


19 Fifty years of ‘Waging war on cheatgrass’:


research advances, while meaningful


PART 7  CONCLUSIONS, 395


control languishes, 253


RICHARD N. MACK


29 Invasion science: the roads travelled and the


roads ahead, 397


PART 6  NEW DIRECTIONS  DAVID M. RICHARDSON


AND TECHNOLOGIES, NEW


CHALLENGES, 267 30 A compendium of essential concepts and


terminology in invasion ecology, 409


20 Researching invasive species 50 years after Elton:  DAVID M. RICHARDSON, PETR PYSˇEK


a cautionary tale, 269 AND JAMES T. CARLTON


MARK A. DAVIS


21 Invasions and ecosystems: vulnerabilities and  Taxonomic Index, 421


the contribution of new technologies, 277


PETER M. VITOUSEK, CARLA M. D’ANTONIO  General Index, 425


AND GREGORY P. ASNER


A companion resources site for this book is available at:


www.wiley.com/go/richardson/invasionecology Contributors


GREGORY P. ASNER, D epartment of Global Ecology,    CARLA  M.  D’  ANTONIO,   Department  of  Ecology,


Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA 94305,  Evolution  and  Marine  Biology  and  Program  in


USA.  [ gpa@stanford.edu ]   Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa


Barbara, CA 93106, USA.  [ dantonio@lifesci.ucsb.edu ]


SPENCER C.H. BARRETT,D  epartment of Ecology and


Evolutionary  Biology,  University  of  Toronto,  Toronto,    MARK A. DAVIS, D epartment of Biology, Macalester


Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada.  [s pencer.barrett@utoronto. College, Saint Paul, MN 55105, USA.  [ davis@maca-


ca ]   laster.edu ]


TIM M. BLACKBURN, I nstitute of Zoology, Zoological    ELEANOR  E.  DORMONTT, A ustralian  Centre  for


Society of London, Regent ’ s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK.   Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth


[ tim.blackburn@ioz.ac.uk ]   and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA


5005, Australia.  [ eleanor.dormontt@adelaide.edu.au ]


RAGAN M. CALLAWAY,D  ivision of Biological Sciences,


University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.  [ ray.   JEFFREY  S.  DUKES, D epartment  of  Forestry  and


callaway@mso.umt.edu ]


Natural Resources and Department of Biological Sciences,


Purdue  University, West  Lafayette,  IN  47907 - 2061,


JAMES  T.  CARLTON, M  aritime  Studies  Program,  USA.  [ jsdukes@purdue.edu ]


Williams  College - Mystic  Seaport,  Mystic,  CT  06355,


USA.  [ James.T.Carlton@williams.edu ]


JASON D. FRIDLEY, D epartment of Biology, Syracuse


University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.  [ fridley@syr.


PHILLIP CASSEY, S chool of Biosciences, Birmingham


edu ]


University,  Edgbaston,  UK;  and  School  of  Earth  and


Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005,


C. FREDERICO D. GURGEL, S chool of Earth and


Australia.  [ p.cassey@bham.ac.uk ]


Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North


Terrace, SA 5005, Australia; and State Herbarium of


MATTHEW K. CHEW, A rizona State University School


South  Australia,  Department  of  Environment  and


of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287 - 4501, USA.  [ mchew@


Natural Resources; and South Australian Research and


asu.edu ]


Development Institute, Aquatic Sciences.  [ fred.gurgel@


adelaide.edu.au ]


HUGH B. CROSS, S tate Herbarium of South Australia,


Science Resource Centre, Department of Environment and


ANDREW  L.  HAMILTON, A rizona State University


Natural Resources, and Australian Centre for Evolutionary


School of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287 - 4501 USA.


Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental


[ andrew.l.hamilton@asu.edu ]


Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005,


Australia.  [ hugh.cross@adelaide.edu.au ]


vii viii    Contributors


JOHAN  HATTINGH,  D epartment  of  Philosophy,    HUGH  J.  MACISAAC, G reat  Lakes  Institute  for


Stellenbosch University, South Africa.  [ jph2@sun.ac.za ]   Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor,


Ontario, Canada.  [ hughm@uwindsor.ca ]


RICHARD  J.  HOBBS, S chool  of  Plant  Biology,


University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009,    RICHARD  N.  MACK, S chool of Biological Sciences,


Australia.  [ rhobbs@cyllene.uwa.edu.au ]   Washington  State  University,  Pullman,  WA  99164,


USA.  [ rmack@wsu.edu ]


CANG  HUI, C entre for Invasion Biology, Department


of  Botany  &     Zoology,  Stellenbosch  University,  7602    CHRISTO  MARAIS, W  orking for Water Programme,


Matieland, South Africa.  [ chui@sun.ac.za ]   Cape Town, South Africa.  [ MaraisC@dwa.gov.za ]


PHILIP E. HULME, T he Bio - Protection Research Centre,    HAROLD A. MOONEY,D  epartment of Biology, Stanford


Lincoln  University,  PO  Box  84,  Christchurch,  New  University,  Stanford,  CA  94305,  USA.   [ hmooney@


Zealand.  [ philip.hulme@lincoln.ac.nz ]   stanford.edu]


LISA A. JONES, R edpath Museum and Department of    RAN  NATHAN,  M  ovement  Ecology  Laboratory,


Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6,  Department  of  Ecology,  Evolution,  and  Behavior,


Canada.  [ lisa.jones@mcgill.ca ]   Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew


University  of  Jerusalem,  Jerusalem  91904,  Israel.


[ rnathan@cc.huji.ac.il ]


AHMED KHAN, W  orking for Water Programme, Cape


Town, South Africa.  [ KhanA@dwa.gov.za ]


CHARLES PERRINGS, S chool of Life Sciences, Arizona


State  University,  Tempe,  AZ  85287,  USA.   [ Charles.


ÅS A M. KESTRUP, R  edpath Museum and Department


Perrings@asu.edu ]


of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A


2K6, Canada.  [ asa.kestrup@mcgill.ca ]


PETER J. PRENTIS, S chool of Land, Crop and Food


Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072,


ROGER  L.  KITCHING,  G riffi th  School  of  the


Australia.  [ p.prentis@uq.edu.au ]


Environment, Griffi th University, Brisbane, QLD 4111,


Australia.  [ r.kitching@griffi th.edu.au ]


PETR PYŠ  EK,  Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences


of  the  Czech  Republic,  CZ - 252  43  Pr u˚ honice,  Czech


RAINER  M.  KRUG, C entre  for  Invasion  Biology,  Republic; and Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science,


Department of Botany &    Zoology, Stellenbosch University,  Charles University, Vini cˇ n á  7, CZ - 128 01 Praha 2, Czech


7602 Matieland, South Africa.  [ Rainer@krugs.de ]   Republic.  [e - mail:  pysek@ibot.cas.cz ]


JULIE  L.  LOCKWOOD, D epartment  of  Ecology,    ANTHONY  RICCIARDI, R edpath  Museum,  McGill


Evolution  and  Natural  Resources,  Rutgers  University,  University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada.  [ tony.


New Brunswick, NJ 08901- 8  551, USA.  [ lockwood@ ricciardi@mcgill.ca]


aesop.rutgers.edu ]


DAVID M. RICHARDSON, C entre for Invasion Biology,


ANDREW J. LOWE,S  tate Herbarium of South Australia,  Department of Botany &    Zoology, Stellenbosch University,


Science Resource Centre, Department of Environment and  7602 Matieland, South Africa.  [ rich@sun.ac.za ]


Natural Resources, and Australian Centre for Evolutionary


Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental    MARNIE E. ROUT, D  ivision of Biological Sciences,


Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005,  University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.


Australia.  [ Andrew.Lowe@sa.gov.au ]   [ marnie.rout@mso.umt.edu ]


FIFTY YEARS


OF INVASION


ECOLOGY Companion website


A companion resources site for this book is available at:


www.wiley.com/go/richardson/invasionecology F I F T Y   Y E A R S


O F   I N VA S I O N


E C O L O G Y


The  Legacy  of


Charles  Elton


Edited by David M. Richardson


Centre for Invasion Biology


Department of Botany & Zoology


Stellenbosch University


A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication This edition fi rst published 2011 © 2011 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing program has been merged


with Wiley’s global Scientifi c, Technical and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell.


Registered offi ce: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK


Editorial offi ces:  9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK


The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK


111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA


For details of our global editorial offi ces, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse


the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell.


The right of the author to be identifi ed as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright,


Designs and Patents Act 1988.


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form


or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright,


Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.


Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and


product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective


owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to


provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that


the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required,


the services of a competent professional should be sought.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Fifty years of invasion ecology : the legacy of Charles Elton / edited by David M. Richardson.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 978-1-4443-3585-9 (hardcover : alk. paper) – ISBN 978-1-4443-3586-6 (pbk. : alk. paper)


1. Biological invasions.  2. Biological invasions–Study and teaching–History..  3. Elton, Charles S.


(Charles Sutherland), 1900–1991.  I. Richardson, D. M. (David M.), 1958-  II. Title: 50 years of invasion ecology.


QH353.F54 2011


577’.18–dc22


2010030974


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.


This book is published in the following electronic formats: ePDF 978-1-4443-2999-5;


Wiley Online Library 978-1-4443-2998-8; ePub 978-1-4443-3000-7


Set in 9/11pt PhotinaMT by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited


1  2011 Contents


Contributors, vii  6 Invasion ecology and restoration ecology:


parallel evolution in two fi elds of endeavour, 61


Foreword, xi RICHARD J. HOBBS AND


DAVID M. RICHARDSON


Introduction, xiii


PART 3  NEW TAKES ON INVASION


PATTERNS, 71


PART 1  HISTORICAL


PERSPECTIVES, 1


7 Biological invasions in Europe 50 years after


Elton: time to sound the ALARM, 73


1 A world of thought: ‘The Ecology of Invasions


PETR PYŠEK AND PHILIP E. HULME


by Animals and Plants’ and Charles Elton’s


life’s work, 3


8 Fifty years of tree pest and pathogen invasions,


ROGER L. KITCHING


increasingly threatening world forests, 89


MICHAEL J. WINGFIELD, BERNARD SLIPPERS,


2 Charles Elton: neither founder nor siren,  JOLANDA ROUX AND BRENDA D. WINGFIELD


but prophet, 11


DANIEL SIMBERLOFF


PART 4  THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF


3 The inviolate sea? Charles Elton and  INVASION ECOLOGY,101


biological invasions in the world’s oceans, 25


JAMES T. CARLTON  9 A movement ecology approach to study seed


dispersal and plant invasion: an overview and


application of seed dispersal by fruit bats, 103


4 The rise and fall of biotic nativeness:


ASAF TSOAR, DAVID SHOHAMI


a historical perspective, 35


AND RAN NATHAN


MATTHEW K. CHEW AND


ANDREW L. HAMILTON


10 Biodiversity as a bulwark against invasion:


conceptual threads since Elton, 121


JASON D. FRIDLEY


PART 2  EVOLUTION AND


CURRENT DIMENSIONS OF  11 Soil biota and plant invasions: biogeographical


INVASION ECOLOGY, 49 effects on plant–microbe interactions, 131


RAGAN M. CALLAWAY AND MARNIE E. ROUT


5 Patterns and rate of growth of studies


in invasion ecology, 51 12 Mutualisms: key drivers of invasions ... key


HUGH J. MACISAAC, RAHEL A. TEDLA  casualties of invasions, 143


AND ANTHONY RICCIARDI ANNA TRAVESET AND DAVID M. RICHARDSON


v vi    Contents


13 Fifty years on: confronting Elton’s  22 DNA barcoding of invasive species, 289


hypotheses about invasion success  HUGH B. CROSS, ANDREW J. LOWE,


with data from exotic birds, 161 C. FREDERICO D. GURGEL


TIM M. BLACKBURN, JULIE L. LOCKWOOD


AND PHILLIP CASSEY 23 Biosecurity: the changing face of


invasion biology, 301


14 Is rapid adaptive evolution important


PHILIP E. HULME


in successful invasions?, 175


ELEANOR E. DORMONTT, ANDREW J. LOWE  24 Elton and the economics of


AND PETER J. PRENTIS biological invasions, 315


CHARLES PERRINGS


15 Why reproductive systems matter


for the invasion biology of plants, 195


25 Modelling spread in invasion ecology:


SPENCER C.H. BARRETT


a synthesis, 329


16 Impacts of biological invasions on  CANG HUI, RAINER M. KRUG


freshwater ecosystems, 211 AND DAVID M. RICHARDSON


ANTHONY RICCIARDI AND HUGH J. MACISAAC


26 Responses of invasive species to a changing


17 Expanding the propagule pressure concept


climate and atmosphere, 345


to understand the impact of biological


JEFFREY S. DUKES


invasions, 225


ANTHONY RICCIARDI, LISA A. JONES, ÅSA M.


27 Conceptual clarity, scientifi c rigour and ‘The


KESTRUP AND JESSICA M. WARD


Stories We Are’: engaging with two challenges


to the objectivity of invasion biology, 359


PART 5  POSTER-CHILD INVADERS,  JOHAN HATTINGH


THEN AND NOW, 237


28 Changing perspectives on managing biological


18 Elton’s insights into the ecology of ant  invasions: insights from South Africa and the


invasions: lessons learned and lessons  Working for Water programme, 377


still to be learned, 239 BRIAN W. VAN WILGEN, AHMED KHAN


NATHAN J. SANDERS AND ANDREW V. SUAREZ AND CHRISTO MARAIS


19 Fifty years of ‘Waging war on cheatgrass’:


research advances, while meaningful


PART 7  CONCLUSIONS, 395


control languishes, 253


RICHARD N. MACK


29 Invasion science: the roads travelled and the


roads ahead, 397


PART 6  NEW DIRECTIONS  DAVID M. RICHARDSON


AND TECHNOLOGIES, NEW


CHALLENGES, 267 30 A compendium of essential concepts and


terminology in invasion ecology, 409


20 Researching invasive species 50 years after Elton:  DAVID M. RICHARDSON, PETR PYSˇEK


a cautionary tale, 269 AND JAMES T. CARLTON


MARK A. DAVIS


21 Invasions and ecosystems: vulnerabilities and  Taxonomic Index, 421


the contribution of new technologies, 277


PETER M. VITOUSEK, CARLA M. D’ANTONIO  General Index, 425


AND GREGORY P. ASNER


A companion resources site for this book is available at:


www.wiley.com/go/richardson/invasionecology Contributors


GREGORY P. ASNER, D epartment of Global Ecology,    CARLA  M.  D’  ANTONIO,   Department  of  Ecology,


Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA 94305,  Evolution  and  Marine  Biology  and  Program  in


USA.  [ gpa@stanford.edu ]   Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa


Barbara, CA 93106, USA.  [ dantonio@lifesci.ucsb.edu ]


SPENCER C.H. BARRETT,D  epartment of Ecology and


Evolutionary  Biology,  University  of  Toronto,  Toronto,    MARK A. DAVIS, D epartment of Biology, Macalester


Ontario M5S 3B2, Canada.  [s pencer.barrett@utoronto. College, Saint Paul, MN 55105, USA.  [ davis@maca-


ca ]   laster.edu ]


TIM M. BLACKBURN, I nstitute of Zoology, Zoological    ELEANOR  E.  DORMONTT, A ustralian  Centre  for


Society of London, Regent ’ s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK.   Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth


[ tim.blackburn@ioz.ac.uk ]   and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA


5005, Australia.  [ eleanor.dormontt@adelaide.edu.au ]


RAGAN M. CALLAWAY,D  ivision of Biological Sciences,


University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.  [ ray.   JEFFREY  S.  DUKES, D epartment  of  Forestry  and


callaway@mso.umt.edu ]


Natural Resources and Department of Biological Sciences,


Purdue  University, West  Lafayette,  IN  47907 - 2061,


JAMES  T.  CARLTON, M  aritime  Studies  Program,  USA.  [ jsdukes@purdue.edu ]


Williams  College - Mystic  Seaport,  Mystic,  CT  06355,


USA.  [ James.T.Carlton@williams.edu ]


JASON D. FRIDLEY, D epartment of Biology, Syracuse


University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.  [ fridley@syr.


PHILLIP CASSEY, S chool of Biosciences, Birmingham


edu ]


University,  Edgbaston,  UK;  and  School  of  Earth  and


Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005,


C. FREDERICO D. GURGEL, S chool of Earth and


Australia.  [ p.cassey@bham.ac.uk ]


Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North


Terrace, SA 5005, Australia; and State Herbarium of


MATTHEW K. CHEW, A rizona State University School


South  Australia,  Department  of  Environment  and


of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287 - 4501, USA.  [ mchew@


Natural Resources; and South Australian Research and


asu.edu ]


Development Institute, Aquatic Sciences.  [ fred.gurgel@


adelaide.edu.au ]


HUGH B. CROSS, S tate Herbarium of South Australia,


Science Resource Centre, Department of Environment and


ANDREW  L.  HAMILTON, A rizona State University


Natural Resources, and Australian Centre for Evolutionary


School of Life Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287 - 4501 USA.


Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental


[ andrew.l.hamilton@asu.edu ]


Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005,


Australia.  [ hugh.cross@adelaide.edu.au ]


vii viii    Contributors


JOHAN  HATTINGH,  D epartment  of  Philosophy,    HUGH  J.  MACISAAC, G reat  Lakes  Institute  for


Stellenbosch University, South Africa.  [ jph2@sun.ac.za ]   Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor,


Ontario, Canada.  [ hughm@uwindsor.ca ]


RICHARD  J.  HOBBS, S chool  of  Plant  Biology,


University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009,    RICHARD  N.  MACK, S chool of Biological Sciences,


Australia.  [ rhobbs@cyllene.uwa.edu.au ]   Washington  State  University,  Pullman,  WA  99164,


USA.  [ rmack@wsu.edu ]


CANG  HUI, C entre for Invasion Biology, Department


of  Botany  &     Zoology,  Stellenbosch  University,  7602    CHRISTO  MARAIS, W  orking for Water Programme,


Matieland, South Africa.  [ chui@sun.ac.za ]   Cape Town, South Africa.  [ MaraisC@dwa.gov.za ]


PHILIP E. HULME, T he Bio - Protection Research Centre,    HAROLD A. MOONEY,D  epartment of Biology, Stanford


Lincoln  University,  PO  Box  84,  Christchurch,  New  University,  Stanford,  CA  94305,  USA.   [ hmooney@


Zealand.  [ philip.hulme@lincoln.ac.nz ]   stanford.edu]


LISA A. JONES, R edpath Museum and Department of    RAN  NATHAN,  M  ovement  Ecology  Laboratory,


Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6,  Department  of  Ecology,  Evolution,  and  Behavior,


Canada.  [ lisa.jones@mcgill.ca ]   Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew


University  of  Jerusalem,  Jerusalem  91904,  Israel.


[ rnathan@cc.huji.ac.il ]


AHMED KHAN, W  orking for Water Programme, Cape


Town, South Africa.  [ KhanA@dwa.gov.za ]


CHARLES PERRINGS, S chool of Life Sciences, Arizona


State  University,  Tempe,  AZ  85287,  USA.   [ Charles.


ÅS A M. KESTRUP, R  edpath Museum and Department


Perrings@asu.edu ]


of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A


2K6, Canada.  [ asa.kestrup@mcgill.ca ]


PETER J. PRENTIS, S chool of Land, Crop and Food


Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072,


ROGER  L.  KITCHING,  G riffi th  School  of  the


Australia.  [ p.prentis@uq.edu.au ]


Environment, Griffi th University, Brisbane, QLD 4111,


Australia.  [ r.kitching@griffi th.edu.au ]


PETR PYŠ  EK,  Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences


of  the  Czech  Republic,  CZ - 252  43  Pr u˚ honice,  Czech


RAINER  M.  KRUG, C entre  for  Invasion  Biology,  Republic; and Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science,


Department of Botany &    Zoology, Stellenbosch University,  Charles University, Vini cˇ n á  7, CZ - 128 01 Praha 2, Czech


7602 Matieland, South Africa.  [ Rainer@krugs.de ]   Republic.  [e - mail:  pysek@ibot.cas.cz ]


JULIE  L.  LOCKWOOD, D epartment  of  Ecology,    ANTHONY  RICCIARDI, R edpath  Museum,  McGill


Evolution  and  Natural  Resources,  Rutgers  University,  University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada.  [ tony.


New Brunswick, NJ 08901- 8  551, USA.  [ lockwood@ ricciardi@mcgill.ca]


aesop.rutgers.edu ]


DAVID M. RICHARDSON, C entre for Invasion Biology,


ANDREW J. LOWE,S  tate Herbarium of South Australia,  Department of Botany &    Zoology, Stellenbosch University,


Science Resource Centre, Department of Environment and  7602 Matieland, South Africa.  [ rich@sun.ac.za ]


Natural Resources, and Australian Centre for Evolutionary


Biology and Biodiversity, School of Earth and Environmental    MARNIE E. ROUT, D  ivision of Biological Sciences,


Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, SA 5005,  University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.


Australia.  [ Andrew.Lowe@sa.gov.au ]   [ marnie.rout@mso.umt.edu ]


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