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Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition

433 Pages · 2007 · 2.36 MB · English

  • Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition

    Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition


    Edited by


    J.P.F. D’Mello


    Biotechnology Department


    The Scottish Agricultural College


    Edinburgh


    UK


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    copyright owners.


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library,


    London, UK.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Farm animal metabolism and nutrition : critical reviews / edited by J.P.F. D’Mello.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references.


    ISBN 0-85199-378-8 (alk. paper)


    1. Animal nutrition. 2. Livestock--Metabolism. I. D’Mello, J. P. Felix.


    SF95 .F32 2000



    636.085--dc21


    99-048241


    ISBN 0 85199 378 8


    Typeset by Columns Design Ltd, Reading.


    Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, Guildford and King’s Lynn. Contents


    CONTRIBUTORS vii


    PREFACE ix


    PARTI: ABSORPTIONANDMETABOLISMOFNUTRIENTS 1


    CHAPTER1 Amino Acid and Peptide Transport Systems 3


    J.C. Matthews


    CHAPTER2 Measurement and Significance of Protein Turnover 25


    J.A. Rathmacher


    CHAPTER3 Inter-organ Amino Acid Flux 49


    C.J.Seal and D.S. Parker


    CHAPTER4 Phenethanolamine Repartitioning Agents 65


    D.E. Moody, D.L. Hancock and D.B. Anderson


    CHAPTER5 Lipid Metabolism 97


    J.K. Drackley


    CHAPTER6 Glucose Availability and Associated Metabolism 121


    R.W.Russell and S.A.Gahr


    CHAPTER7 Aspects of Cellular Energetics 149


    N.S. Jessop


    CHAPTER8 Trace Element Dynamics 161


    W.T. Buckley


    PARTII: FEEDEVALUATIONMETHODOLOGIES 183


    CHAPTER9 Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy 185


    J.B.Reeves III


    v vi Contents


    CHAPTER10 Gas Production Methods 209


    P.Schofield


    CHAPTER11 In SaccoMethods 233


    P. Nozière and B. Michalet-Doreau


    CHAPTER12 Use of Markers 255


    J.P. Marais


    CHAPTER13 Methods for Measuring Ileal Amino Acid


    Digestibility in Pigs 279


    W.C. Sauer, M.Z. Fan, R. Mosenthin and W. Drochner


    CHAPTER14 Rapid Metabolizable Energy Assays 307


    J.M. McNab


    PARTIII: INTAKEANDUTILIZATION 317


    CHAPTER15 Physiological and Metabolic Aspects of


    Feed Intake Control 319


    J.M.Forbes


    CHAPTER16 Feed Intake in Ruminants: Kinetic Aspects 335


    W.C. Ellis, D. Poppi and J.H. Matis


    CHAPTER17 Feeding Behaviour 365


    R.J. Grant and J.L. Albright


    CHAPTER18 Anti-nutritional Factors and Mycotoxins 383


    J.P.F. D’Mello


    CHAPTER19 Feed Enzymes 405


    D.I. Officer


    INDEX 427 Contributors


    Albright, J.L. Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN


    47907, USA


    Anderson, D.B. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


    Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


    Buckley, W.T. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon Research Centre, Brandon,


    Canada R7A 5Y3


    D’Mello, J.P.F. Biotechnology Department, The Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains


    Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK


    Drackley, J.K. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801,


    USA


    Drochner, W. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, D-70573 Stuttgart,


    Germany


    Ellis, W.C. Department of Animal Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


    77843–2471, USA


    Fan, M.Z. Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph,


    Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1


    Forbes, J.M. Centre for Animal Sciences, School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds


    LS2 9JT, UK


    Gahr, S.A. Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, PO


    Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506–6108, USA


    Grant, R.J. Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE


    68583–0908, USA


    Hancock, D.L. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


    Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


    Jessop, N.S. Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, The University of


    Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK


    Marais, J.P. Biochemistry Section, KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, Private


    Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, Republic of South Africa, 3200


    Matis, J.H. Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


    77843–2471, USA


    Matthews, J.C. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY


    40546–0215, USA


    vii viii Contributors


    McNab, J.M. Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK


    Michalet-Doreau, B. Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, Unité de


    Recherches sur les Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France


    Moody, D.E. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


    Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


    Mosenthin, R. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, D-70573 Stuttgart,


    Germany


    Nozière, P. Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, Unité de Recherches sur les


    Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France


    Officer, D.I. NSW Agriculture, Agricultural Research and Advisory Station, Grafton,


    NSW, Australia


    Parker, D.S. Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture


    and Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU,


    UK; Present address: Novus Europe s.a./n.v., Rue Gulledellestraat 94, B-1200


    Brussels, Belgium


    Poppi, D. Department of Agriculture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane,


    Queensland 4072, Australia


    Rathmacher, J.A. Metabolic Technologies Inc., Ames, IA 50010, USA


    Reeves, J.B., III Nutrient Conservation and Metabolism Laboratory, Livestock and


    Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD


    20705, USA


    Russell, R.W. Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, PO


    Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506–6108, USA


    Sauer, W.C. Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of


    Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5


    Schofield, P. Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA


    Seal, C.J. Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and


    Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK Preface


    There is, once more, a need for an advanced experience in teaching final year students


    textbook in animal biochemistry and nutri- at Edinburgh who have at times expressed


    tion that covers the specialist requirements difficulty with or particular interest in


    of final year undergraduates and new post- specialist topics. The needs of our commer-


    graduate students. The existing books have cial clients have not been ignored either, as


    long become out of date, and currently my will be seen from my choice of authors and


    students are directed to reviews published review topics. In the rapidly changing and


    within the proceedings of various expansive fields of farm animal metabolism


    symposia and workshops. However, this and nutrition, the limitations of existing


    approach is less than satisfactory as the general texts are all too evident. No single


    reviews are distributed in diverse books author can be expected to keep abreast of


    and journals that are both physically and innovation in all aspects of these fields. I


    financially out of reach of these students. have attempted to overcome these problems


    Increasingly these days, libraries resort to by selecting authors who are actively pub-


    restricted lending of journals containing lishing refereed papers and who have an


    up-to-date reviews and, furthermore, the enviable track record in their respective


    common practice of holding single copies specialisms. Furthermore, my collaborating


    of conference proceedings is of limited authors have been selected from major


    value to the large groups of students we teaching and research establishments


    have to teach. Moreover, students still have around the world.


    the problem of consulting different issues Farm Animal Metabolism and


    of journals and conference proceedings to Nutrition is divided into three sections to


    acquire a comprehensive picture. reflect major developments. The first sec-


    In Farm Animal Metabolism and tion comprises eight chapters within the


    Nutrition, I have attempted to overcome theme of ‘Absorption and Metabolism of


    most if not all of these limitations by pro- Nutrients’. The second section on ‘Feed


    viding a graduated and structured series of Evaluation Methodologies’ contains six


    critical reviews by international experts, at chapters, while the third section on ‘Intake


    an affordable price. Current programmes and Utilization’ is based on five chapters.


    for final year undergraduate and MSc Every book attracts both favourable com-


    courses at Edinburgh form the basis of the ments and criticism. Fortunately for me,


    topics selected for this book. In addition, most reviews of my previous titles have


    my choice of subjects has been based on been positive, and these have been much


    ix x Preface


    appreciated. While I accept the occasional their valuable time in writing, proofreading


    negative review as an occupational hazard, and preparing the index, sometimes under


    I am keen to learn from past failings. As difficult conditions. Their enthusiasm for


    regards Farm Animal Metabolism and the entire project has been salutary and I


    Nutrition, I accept that important areas hope that the book will provide inspiration


    have not been reviewed. Clearly, for exam- to students the world over.


    ple, the whole issue of quantitative nutri- Finally, this book contains references


    tion comprising analytical and predictive to various commercial products including


    models also needs attention, but this may computer software, which are given in


    well form the basis of a further volume. In good faith. No endorsement of these


    the meantime, current books in the CAB products is implied or should be attributed


    International stable should serve to bridge to the editor or CAB International, and we


    this gap. Selected titles will be found on cannot assume responsibility for the conse-


    the rear cover of this book. quences of their use.


    As always, I am indebted to my team


    of authors who have made this book J.P.F. D’Mello


    possible and who have invested so much of


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