Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition

Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition

Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition

433 Pages ·2007·2.36 MB ·English

Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition

Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition


Edited by


J.P.F. D’Mello


Biotechnology Department


The Scottish Agricultural College


Edinburgh


UK


CABIPublishing CABI Publishingis a division of CAB International


CABI Publishing CABI Publishing


CAB International 10 E 40th Street


Wallingford Suite 3203


Oxon OX10 8DE New York, NY 10016


UK USA


Tel: +44 (0)1491 832111 Tel: +1 212 481 7018


Fax: +44 (0)1491 833508 Fax: +1 212 686 7993


Email: cabi@cabi.org Email: cabi-nao@cabi.org


Web site: http://www.cabi.org


© CAB International2000. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may


be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by


photocopying,recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the


copyright owners.


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library,


London, UK.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Farm animal metabolism and nutrition : critical reviews / edited by J.P.F. D’Mello.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references.


ISBN 0-85199-378-8 (alk. paper)


1. Animal nutrition. 2. Livestock--Metabolism. I. D’Mello, J. P. Felix.


SF95 .F32 2000



636.085--dc21


99-048241


ISBN 0 85199 378 8


Typeset by Columns Design Ltd, Reading.


Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, Guildford and King’s Lynn. Contents


CONTRIBUTORS vii


PREFACE ix


PARTI: ABSORPTIONANDMETABOLISMOFNUTRIENTS 1


CHAPTER1 Amino Acid and Peptide Transport Systems 3


J.C. Matthews


CHAPTER2 Measurement and Significance of Protein Turnover 25


J.A. Rathmacher


CHAPTER3 Inter-organ Amino Acid Flux 49


C.J.Seal and D.S. Parker


CHAPTER4 Phenethanolamine Repartitioning Agents 65


D.E. Moody, D.L. Hancock and D.B. Anderson


CHAPTER5 Lipid Metabolism 97


J.K. Drackley


CHAPTER6 Glucose Availability and Associated Metabolism 121


R.W.Russell and S.A.Gahr


CHAPTER7 Aspects of Cellular Energetics 149


N.S. Jessop


CHAPTER8 Trace Element Dynamics 161


W.T. Buckley


PARTII: FEEDEVALUATIONMETHODOLOGIES 183


CHAPTER9 Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy 185


J.B.Reeves III


v vi Contents


CHAPTER10 Gas Production Methods 209


P.Schofield


CHAPTER11 In SaccoMethods 233


P. Nozière and B. Michalet-Doreau


CHAPTER12 Use of Markers 255


J.P. Marais


CHAPTER13 Methods for Measuring Ileal Amino Acid


Digestibility in Pigs 279


W.C. Sauer, M.Z. Fan, R. Mosenthin and W. Drochner


CHAPTER14 Rapid Metabolizable Energy Assays 307


J.M. McNab


PARTIII: INTAKEANDUTILIZATION 317


CHAPTER15 Physiological and Metabolic Aspects of


Feed Intake Control 319


J.M.Forbes


CHAPTER16 Feed Intake in Ruminants: Kinetic Aspects 335


W.C. Ellis, D. Poppi and J.H. Matis


CHAPTER17 Feeding Behaviour 365


R.J. Grant and J.L. Albright


CHAPTER18 Anti-nutritional Factors and Mycotoxins 383


J.P.F. D’Mello


CHAPTER19 Feed Enzymes 405


D.I. Officer


INDEX 427 Contributors


Albright, J.L. Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN


47907, USA


Anderson, D.B. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


Buckley, W.T. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon Research Centre, Brandon,


Canada R7A 5Y3


D’Mello, J.P.F. Biotechnology Department, The Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains


Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK


Drackley, J.K. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801,


USA


Drochner, W. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, D-70573 Stuttgart,


Germany


Ellis, W.C. Department of Animal Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


77843–2471, USA


Fan, M.Z. Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph,


Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1


Forbes, J.M. Centre for Animal Sciences, School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds


LS2 9JT, UK


Gahr, S.A. Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, PO


Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506–6108, USA


Grant, R.J. Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE


68583–0908, USA


Hancock, D.L. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


Jessop, N.S. Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, The University of


Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK


Marais, J.P. Biochemistry Section, KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, Private


Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, Republic of South Africa, 3200


Matis, J.H. Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


77843–2471, USA


Matthews, J.C. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY


40546–0215, USA


vii viii Contributors


McNab, J.M. Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK


Michalet-Doreau, B. Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, Unité de


Recherches sur les Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France


Moody, D.E. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


Mosenthin, R. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, D-70573 Stuttgart,


Germany


Nozière, P. Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, Unité de Recherches sur les


Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France


Officer, D.I. NSW Agriculture, Agricultural Research and Advisory Station, Grafton,


NSW, Australia


Parker, D.S. Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture


and Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU,


UK; Present address: Novus Europe s.a./n.v., Rue Gulledellestraat 94, B-1200


Brussels, Belgium


Poppi, D. Department of Agriculture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane,


Queensland 4072, Australia


Rathmacher, J.A. Metabolic Technologies Inc., Ames, IA 50010, USA


Reeves, J.B., III Nutrient Conservation and Metabolism Laboratory, Livestock and


Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD


20705, USA


Russell, R.W. Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, PO


Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506–6108, USA


Sauer, W.C. Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of


Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5


Schofield, P. Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA


Seal, C.J. Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and


Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK Preface


There is, once more, a need for an advanced experience in teaching final year students


textbook in animal biochemistry and nutri- at Edinburgh who have at times expressed


tion that covers the specialist requirements difficulty with or particular interest in


of final year undergraduates and new post- specialist topics. The needs of our commer-


graduate students. The existing books have cial clients have not been ignored either, as


long become out of date, and currently my will be seen from my choice of authors and


students are directed to reviews published review topics. In the rapidly changing and


within the proceedings of various expansive fields of farm animal metabolism


symposia and workshops. However, this and nutrition, the limitations of existing


approach is less than satisfactory as the general texts are all too evident. No single


reviews are distributed in diverse books author can be expected to keep abreast of


and journals that are both physically and innovation in all aspects of these fields. I


financially out of reach of these students. have attempted to overcome these problems


Increasingly these days, libraries resort to by selecting authors who are actively pub-


restricted lending of journals containing lishing refereed papers and who have an


up-to-date reviews and, furthermore, the enviable track record in their respective


common practice of holding single copies specialisms. Furthermore, my collaborating


of conference proceedings is of limited authors have been selected from major


value to the large groups of students we teaching and research establishments


have to teach. Moreover, students still have around the world.


the problem of consulting different issues Farm Animal Metabolism and


of journals and conference proceedings to Nutrition is divided into three sections to


acquire a comprehensive picture. reflect major developments. The first sec-


In Farm Animal Metabolism and tion comprises eight chapters within the


Nutrition, I have attempted to overcome theme of ‘Absorption and Metabolism of


most if not all of these limitations by pro- Nutrients’. The second section on ‘Feed


viding a graduated and structured series of Evaluation Methodologies’ contains six


critical reviews by international experts, at chapters, while the third section on ‘Intake


an affordable price. Current programmes and Utilization’ is based on five chapters.


for final year undergraduate and MSc Every book attracts both favourable com-


courses at Edinburgh form the basis of the ments and criticism. Fortunately for me,


topics selected for this book. In addition, most reviews of my previous titles have


my choice of subjects has been based on been positive, and these have been much


ix x Preface


appreciated. While I accept the occasional their valuable time in writing, proofreading


negative review as an occupational hazard, and preparing the index, sometimes under


I am keen to learn from past failings. As difficult conditions. Their enthusiasm for


regards Farm Animal Metabolism and the entire project has been salutary and I


Nutrition, I accept that important areas hope that the book will provide inspiration


have not been reviewed. Clearly, for exam- to students the world over.


ple, the whole issue of quantitative nutri- Finally, this book contains references


tion comprising analytical and predictive to various commercial products including


models also needs attention, but this may computer software, which are given in


well form the basis of a further volume. In good faith. No endorsement of these


the meantime, current books in the CAB products is implied or should be attributed


International stable should serve to bridge to the editor or CAB International, and we


this gap. Selected titles will be found on cannot assume responsibility for the conse-


the rear cover of this book. quences of their use.


As always, I am indebted to my team


of authors who have made this book J.P.F. D’Mello


possible and who have invested so much of


Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition


Edited by


J.P.F. D’Mello


Biotechnology Department


The Scottish Agricultural College


Edinburgh


UK


CABIPublishing CABI Publishingis a division of CAB International


CABI Publishing CABI Publishing


CAB International 10 E 40th Street


Wallingford Suite 3203


Oxon OX10 8DE New York, NY 10016


UK USA


Tel: +44 (0)1491 832111 Tel: +1 212 481 7018


Fax: +44 (0)1491 833508 Fax: +1 212 686 7993


Email: cabi@cabi.org Email: cabi-nao@cabi.org


Web site: http://www.cabi.org


© CAB International2000. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may


be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, by


photocopying,recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the


copyright owners.


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library,


London, UK.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Farm animal metabolism and nutrition : critical reviews / edited by J.P.F. D’Mello.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references.


ISBN 0-85199-378-8 (alk. paper)


1. Animal nutrition. 2. Livestock--Metabolism. I. D’Mello, J. P. Felix.


SF95 .F32 2000



636.085--dc21


99-048241


ISBN 0 85199 378 8


Typeset by Columns Design Ltd, Reading.


Printed and bound in the UK by Biddles Ltd, Guildford and King’s Lynn. Contents


CONTRIBUTORS vii


PREFACE ix


PARTI: ABSORPTIONANDMETABOLISMOFNUTRIENTS 1


CHAPTER1 Amino Acid and Peptide Transport Systems 3


J.C. Matthews


CHAPTER2 Measurement and Significance of Protein Turnover 25


J.A. Rathmacher


CHAPTER3 Inter-organ Amino Acid Flux 49


C.J.Seal and D.S. Parker


CHAPTER4 Phenethanolamine Repartitioning Agents 65


D.E. Moody, D.L. Hancock and D.B. Anderson


CHAPTER5 Lipid Metabolism 97


J.K. Drackley


CHAPTER6 Glucose Availability and Associated Metabolism 121


R.W.Russell and S.A.Gahr


CHAPTER7 Aspects of Cellular Energetics 149


N.S. Jessop


CHAPTER8 Trace Element Dynamics 161


W.T. Buckley


PARTII: FEEDEVALUATIONMETHODOLOGIES 183


CHAPTER9 Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy 185


J.B.Reeves III


v vi Contents


CHAPTER10 Gas Production Methods 209


P.Schofield


CHAPTER11 In SaccoMethods 233


P. Nozière and B. Michalet-Doreau


CHAPTER12 Use of Markers 255


J.P. Marais


CHAPTER13 Methods for Measuring Ileal Amino Acid


Digestibility in Pigs 279


W.C. Sauer, M.Z. Fan, R. Mosenthin and W. Drochner


CHAPTER14 Rapid Metabolizable Energy Assays 307


J.M. McNab


PARTIII: INTAKEANDUTILIZATION 317


CHAPTER15 Physiological and Metabolic Aspects of


Feed Intake Control 319


J.M.Forbes


CHAPTER16 Feed Intake in Ruminants: Kinetic Aspects 335


W.C. Ellis, D. Poppi and J.H. Matis


CHAPTER17 Feeding Behaviour 365


R.J. Grant and J.L. Albright


CHAPTER18 Anti-nutritional Factors and Mycotoxins 383


J.P.F. D’Mello


CHAPTER19 Feed Enzymes 405


D.I. Officer


INDEX 427 Contributors


Albright, J.L. Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN


47907, USA


Anderson, D.B. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


Buckley, W.T. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Brandon Research Centre, Brandon,


Canada R7A 5Y3


D’Mello, J.P.F. Biotechnology Department, The Scottish Agricultural College, West Mains


Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK


Drackley, J.K. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801,


USA


Drochner, W. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, D-70573 Stuttgart,


Germany


Ellis, W.C. Department of Animal Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


77843–2471, USA


Fan, M.Z. Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph,


Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1


Forbes, J.M. Centre for Animal Sciences, School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds


LS2 9JT, UK


Gahr, S.A. Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, PO


Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506–6108, USA


Grant, R.J. Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE


68583–0908, USA


Hancock, D.L. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


Jessop, N.S. Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, The University of


Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK


Marais, J.P. Biochemistry Section, KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, Private


Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg, Republic of South Africa, 3200


Matis, J.H. Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX


77843–2471, USA


Matthews, J.C. Department of Animal Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY


40546–0215, USA


vii viii Contributors


McNab, J.M. Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK


Michalet-Doreau, B. Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, Unité de


Recherches sur les Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France


Moody, D.E. Research and Development, Elanco Animal Health, PO Box 708,


Greenfield, IN 46140, USA


Mosenthin, R. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, D-70573 Stuttgart,


Germany


Nozière, P. Département Elevage et Nutrition des Animaux, Unité de Recherches sur les


Herbivores, INRA Theix, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France


Officer, D.I. NSW Agriculture, Agricultural Research and Advisory Station, Grafton,


NSW, Australia


Parker, D.S. Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture


and Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU,


UK; Present address: Novus Europe s.a./n.v., Rue Gulledellestraat 94, B-1200


Brussels, Belgium


Poppi, D. Department of Agriculture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane,


Queensland 4072, Australia


Rathmacher, J.A. Metabolic Technologies Inc., Ames, IA 50010, USA


Reeves, J.B., III Nutrient Conservation and Metabolism Laboratory, Livestock and


Poultry Sciences Institute, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD


20705, USA


Russell, R.W. Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, PO


Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506–6108, USA


Sauer, W.C. Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of


Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5


Schofield, P. Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA


Seal, C.J. Department of Biological and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and


Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK Preface


There is, once more, a need for an advanced experience in teaching final year students


textbook in animal biochemistry and nutri- at Edinburgh who have at times expressed


tion that covers the specialist requirements difficulty with or particular interest in


of final year undergraduates and new post- specialist topics. The needs of our commer-


graduate students. The existing books have cial clients have not been ignored either, as


long become out of date, and currently my will be seen from my choice of authors and


students are directed to reviews published review topics. In the rapidly changing and


within the proceedings of various expansive fields of farm animal metabolism


symposia and workshops. However, this and nutrition, the limitations of existing


approach is less than satisfactory as the general texts are all too evident. No single


reviews are distributed in diverse books author can be expected to keep abreast of


and journals that are both physically and innovation in all aspects of these fields. I


financially out of reach of these students. have attempted to overcome these problems


Increasingly these days, libraries resort to by selecting authors who are actively pub-


restricted lending of journals containing lishing refereed papers and who have an


up-to-date reviews and, furthermore, the enviable track record in their respective


common practice of holding single copies specialisms. Furthermore, my collaborating


of conference proceedings is of limited authors have been selected from major


value to the large groups of students we teaching and research establishments


have to teach. Moreover, students still have around the world.


the problem of consulting different issues Farm Animal Metabolism and


of journals and conference proceedings to Nutrition is divided into three sections to


acquire a comprehensive picture. reflect major developments. The first sec-


In Farm Animal Metabolism and tion comprises eight chapters within the


Nutrition, I have attempted to overcome theme of ‘Absorption and Metabolism of


most if not all of these limitations by pro- Nutrients’. The second section on ‘Feed


viding a graduated and structured series of Evaluation Methodologies’ contains six


critical reviews by international experts, at chapters, while the third section on ‘Intake


an affordable price. Current programmes and Utilization’ is based on five chapters.


for final year undergraduate and MSc Every book attracts both favourable com-


courses at Edinburgh form the basis of the ments and criticism. Fortunately for me,


topics selected for this book. In addition, most reviews of my previous titles have


my choice of subjects has been based on been positive, and these have been much


ix x Preface


appreciated. While I accept the occasional their valuable time in writing, proofreading


negative review as an occupational hazard, and preparing the index, sometimes under


I am keen to learn from past failings. As difficult conditions. Their enthusiasm for


regards Farm Animal Metabolism and the entire project has been salutary and I


Nutrition, I accept that important areas hope that the book will provide inspiration


have not been reviewed. Clearly, for exam- to students the world over.


ple, the whole issue of quantitative nutri- Finally, this book contains references


tion comprising analytical and predictive to various commercial products including


models also needs attention, but this may computer software, which are given in


well form the basis of a further volume. In good faith. No endorsement of these


the meantime, current books in the CAB products is implied or should be attributed


International stable should serve to bridge to the editor or CAB International, and we


this gap. Selected titles will be found on cannot assume responsibility for the conse-


the rear cover of this book. quences of their use.


As always, I am indebted to my team


of authors who have made this book J.P.F. D’Mello


possible and who have invested so much of


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