Essentials of Ecology

383 Pages · 2010 · 22.93 MB · English

  • Essentials of Ecology

    Essentials of Ecology This page intentionally left blank Essentials of Ecology




    Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Essentials of Ecology, 5e © 2009, 2007 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning

    G. Tyler Miller, Jr. and Scott E. Spoolman

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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 Brief Contents

    Detailed Contents vii 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions,

    and Population Control 100

    Preface for Instructors xv

    6 The Human Population and Its Impact 122

    Learning Skills 1 7 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity 140

    8 Aquatic Biodiversity 162



    1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species

    and Sustainability 5 Approach 183

    10 Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity:

    The Ecosystem Approach 214


    11 Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity 249


    Supplements S1

    2 Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems 28

    3 Ecosystems: What Are They Glossary G1

    and How Do They Work? 50

    Index I1

    4 Biodiversity and Evolution 77

    v About the Cover Photo



    mstock I



    Scarlet Macaw This strikingly beautiful parrot species lives in the subtropical

    forests in Central and South America, including Costa Rica, southern Panama, and

    the Amazon Basin in Brazil and Peru. They have a lifespan of 30 to 50 years and

    eat mostly seeds and fruits. The squawks and screams of these noisy birds can be

    heard for long distances throughout the forests. The scarlet macaws are threatened

    by their popularity as pets, which is due to their beautiful plumage and affection-

    ate ways with humans. Under an international agreement, it is illegal to remove

    them from the wild without special permits. However, a number of these rare par-

    rots are illegally captured, smuggled from their native habitats to the United States

    and Canada, and sold on the black market for thousands of dollars a piece. During

    their trip north many of the smuggled birds die from stress and poor care. An even

    worse threat for the scarlet macaw is the clear-cutting and fragmentation of much

    of its forest habitat, which is taking place at a rapid and increasing rate. For these

    reasons, scarlet macaws and a number of other tropical bird species are threatened

    with extinction. Detailed Contents

    Learning Skills 1



    1 Environmental Problems,

    Their Causes, and Sustainability 5

    1-2 How Can Environmentally Sustainable Societies

    CORE CASE STUDY Living in an Exponential Age 5 Grow Economically? 10

    KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 6 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting

    1-1 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable the Earth? 12

    Society? 6 CASE STUDY China’s New Affluent Consumers 15

    1-4 What Is Pollution, and What Can We Do

    about It? 16

    1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? 17

    CASE STUDY The Environmental Transformation

    of Chattanooga, Tennessee 21


    Environmental Ethics 22

    1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles

    of Sustainability? 23

    REVISITING Exponential Growth and

    Sustainability 24



    2 Science, Matter, Energy,

    and Systems 28

    CORE CASE STUDY Carrying Out a Controlled

    Scientific Experiment 28


    2-1 What is Science? 29

    SCIENCE FOCUS Easter Island: Some Revisions

    to a Popular Environmental Story 31

    SuperStock GSSCCloIIEEbNNalCC WEE aFFOOrmCCiUUnSSg TSth3a3et iSstciicesn atinfidc PCroonbsaebnisluitsy ov3e4r

    Photo 1 The endangered brown pelican was protected in the first 2-2 What Is Matter? 35

    U.S. wildlife refuge in Florida. 2-3 How Can Matter Change? 39

    vii 3 Ecosystems: What Are They

    and How Do They Work? 50

    CORE CASE STUDY Tropical Rain Forests

    Are Disappearing 50


    3-1 What Is Ecology? 51

    SCIENCE FOCUS Have You Thanked the Insects

    Today? 54

    3-2 What Keeps Us and Other Organisms Alive? 54

    3-3 What Are the Major Components of an

    Ecosystem? 57

    SCIENCE FOCUS Many of the World’s Most

    Important Species Are Invisible to Us 61

    3-4 What Happens to Energy in an Ecosystem? 61

    3-5 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem? 65

    Hartmut Schwartzbach/Peter Arnold, Inc. 34- 6 BaSHRCSubCEOoisoIVRowtEuIaENSdt i nID CCtTiaEhAovIbN e SFieS GlEOAicrt CmyiSsTe UTreinoUStr7tpi yDic4isWacYt ans aal W tASRnetlahrlud’iiysgnd aU SyFEthn ooEovirrquec?ouol sdetlss 7uy WPa7srtnteoied poCm eanrsrte? ie s 772677

    Photo 2 Homeless people in Calcutta India KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 78

    4-1 What Is Biodiversity and Why Is It

    Important? 78

    2-4 What Is Energy and How Can It Be 4-2 Where Do Species Come From? 80

    Changed? 40 CASE STUDY How Did Humans Become Such

    2-5 What Are Systems and How Do They Respond a Powerful Species? 83

    to Change? 44 4-3 How Do Geological Processes and Climate

    SCIENCE FOCUS The Usefulness of Models 44 Change Affect Evolution? 84

    REVISITING The Hubbard Brook Experimental SCIENCE FOCUS Earth Is Just Right for Life

    Forest and Sustainability 47 to Thrive 86


    Photo 3 Endangered ring-tailed lemur in Madagascar

    viii 5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations? 108

    SCIENCE FOCUS Why Are Protected Sea Otters

    Making a Slow Comeback? 110

    CASE STUDY Exploding White-Tailed Deer

    Populations in the United States 114

    5-4 How Do Communities and Ecosystems

    Respond to Changing Environmental

    Conditions? 115

    SCIENCE FOCUS How Do Species Replace One

    Another in Ecological Succession? 118

    REVISITING Southern Sea Otters and

    Sustainability 119

    6 The Human Population

    and Its Impact 122

    CORE CASE STUDY Are There Too Many

    W. Johnson/Biological Photo Service 66--12 oPKHSWSoCfuEo hpIYUpwEua psNQl? toaMC UFtrEiEtaao1 ?SFcn2n TOt2 yoIKOC 1rePUsN2ee S3SIpon pAHGfllNoreuowD ewC nCLaincoOnegnN ?gttC hh CEeePa 1 TEnS2S ai4tz rhete1h o2H f3 utmhea n

    Paul Human Population? 125

    Photo 4 Temperate deciduous forest, winter, Rhode Island (USA) CASE STUDY The U.S. Population Is Growing

    Rapidly 126

    CASE STUDY The United States: A Nation

    of Immigrants 129

    4-4 How Do Speciation, Extinction, and Human

    Activities Affect Biodiversity? 86

    SCIENCE FOCUS We Have Developed Two Ways

    to Change the Genetic Traits of Populations 88

    4-5 What Is Species Diversity and Why Is

    It Important? 89

    SCIENCE FOCUS Species Richness on Islands 90

    4-6 What Roles Do Species Play in Ecosystems? 91

    CASE STUDY Cockroaches: Nature’s Ultimate

    Survivors 92

    CASE STUDY Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? 93

    CASE STUDY Why Should We Protect Sharks? 96

    REVISITING The American Alligator and

    Sustainability 97

    5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions, & Associates

    and Population Control 100 m Stack

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    5-1 HSCoIwEN DCEo FSOpCeUciSe sW Inhyte Srhaocut?ld W1e0 1Care About mas Kitchin

    Kelp Forests? 104 Tho

    5-2 How Can Natural Selection Reduce Photo 5 Sea star species helps to control mussel populations in

    Competition between Species? 107 intertidal zone communities in the U.S. Pacific northwest.


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