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Essentials of Ecology

383 Pages · 2010 · 22.93 MB · English

  • Essentials of Ecology

    Essentials of Ecology This page intentionally left blank Essentials of Ecology


    FIFTH EDITION


    G. TYLER MILLER, JR.


    SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN


    Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Essentials of Ecology, 5e © 2009, 2007 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning


    G. Tyler Miller, Jr. and Scott E. Spoolman


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    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 Brief Contents


    Detailed Contents vii 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions,


    and Population Control 100


    Preface for Instructors xv


    6 The Human Population and Its Impact 122


    Learning Skills 1 7 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity 140


    8 Aquatic Biodiversity 162


    HUMANS AND SUSTAINABILITY:


    AN OVERVIEW SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY


    1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species


    and Sustainability 5 Approach 183


    10 Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity:


    The Ecosystem Approach 214


    SCIENCE, ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES,


    11 Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity 249


    AND SUSTAINABILITY


    Supplements S1


    2 Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems 28


    3 Ecosystems: What Are They Glossary G1


    and How Do They Work? 50


    Index I1


    4 Biodiversity and Evolution 77


    v About the Cover Photo


    my


    mages/Ala


    mstock I


    MAGES/Co


    © JUPITERI


    Scarlet Macaw This strikingly beautiful parrot species lives in the subtropical


    forests in Central and South America, including Costa Rica, southern Panama, and


    the Amazon Basin in Brazil and Peru. They have a lifespan of 30 to 50 years and


    eat mostly seeds and fruits. The squawks and screams of these noisy birds can be


    heard for long distances throughout the forests. The scarlet macaws are threatened


    by their popularity as pets, which is due to their beautiful plumage and affection-


    ate ways with humans. Under an international agreement, it is illegal to remove


    them from the wild without special permits. However, a number of these rare par-


    rots are illegally captured, smuggled from their native habitats to the United States


    and Canada, and sold on the black market for thousands of dollars a piece. During


    their trip north many of the smuggled birds die from stress and poor care. An even


    worse threat for the scarlet macaw is the clear-cutting and fragmentation of much


    of its forest habitat, which is taking place at a rapid and increasing rate. For these


    reasons, scarlet macaws and a number of other tropical bird species are threatened


    with extinction. Detailed Contents


    Learning Skills 1


    HUMANS AND SUSTAINABILITY:


    AN OVERVIEW


    1 Environmental Problems,


    Their Causes, and Sustainability 5


    1-2 How Can Environmentally Sustainable Societies


    CORE CASE STUDY Living in an Exponential Age 5 Grow Economically? 10


    KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 6 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting


    1-1 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable the Earth? 12


    Society? 6 CASE STUDY China’s New Affluent Consumers 15


    1-4 What Is Pollution, and What Can We Do


    about It? 16


    1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? 17


    CASE STUDY The Environmental Transformation


    of Chattanooga, Tennessee 21


    INDIVIDUALS MATTER Aldo Leopold’s


    Environmental Ethics 22


    1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles


    of Sustainability? 23


    REVISITING Exponential Growth and


    Sustainability 24


    SCIENCE, ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES,


    AND SUSTAINABILITY


    2 Science, Matter, Energy,


    and Systems 28


    CORE CASE STUDY Carrying Out a Controlled


    Scientific Experiment 28


    KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 29


    2-1 What is Science? 29


    SCIENCE FOCUS Easter Island: Some Revisions


    to a Popular Environmental Story 31


    SuperStock GSSCCloIIEEbNNalCC WEE aFFOOrmCCiUUnSSg TSth3a3et iSstciicesn atinfidc PCroonbsaebnisluitsy ov3e4r


    Photo 1 The endangered brown pelican was protected in the first 2-2 What Is Matter? 35


    U.S. wildlife refuge in Florida. 2-3 How Can Matter Change? 39


    vii 3 Ecosystems: What Are They


    and How Do They Work? 50


    CORE CASE STUDY Tropical Rain Forests


    Are Disappearing 50


    KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 51


    3-1 What Is Ecology? 51


    SCIENCE FOCUS Have You Thanked the Insects


    Today? 54


    3-2 What Keeps Us and Other Organisms Alive? 54


    3-3 What Are the Major Components of an


    Ecosystem? 57


    SCIENCE FOCUS Many of the World’s Most


    Important Species Are Invisible to Us 61


    3-4 What Happens to Energy in an Ecosystem? 61


    3-5 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem? 65


    Hartmut Schwartzbach/Peter Arnold, Inc. 34- 6 BaSHRCSubCEOoisoIVRowtEuIaENSdt i nID CCtTiaEhAovIbN e SFieS GlEOAicrt CmyiSsTe UTreinoUStr7tpi yDic4isWacYt ans aal W tASRnetlahrlud’iiysgnd aU SyFEthn ooEovirrquec?ouol sdetlss 7uy WPa7srtnteoied poCm eanrsrte? ie s 772677


    Photo 2 Homeless people in Calcutta India KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 78


    4-1 What Is Biodiversity and Why Is It


    Important? 78


    2-4 What Is Energy and How Can It Be 4-2 Where Do Species Come From? 80


    Changed? 40 CASE STUDY How Did Humans Become Such


    2-5 What Are Systems and How Do They Respond a Powerful Species? 83


    to Change? 44 4-3 How Do Geological Processes and Climate


    SCIENCE FOCUS The Usefulness of Models 44 Change Affect Evolution? 84


    REVISITING The Hubbard Brook Experimental SCIENCE FOCUS Earth Is Just Right for Life


    Forest and Sustainability 47 to Thrive 86


    SuperStock


    Photo 3 Endangered ring-tailed lemur in Madagascar


    viii 5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations? 108


    SCIENCE FOCUS Why Are Protected Sea Otters


    Making a Slow Comeback? 110


    CASE STUDY Exploding White-Tailed Deer


    Populations in the United States 114


    5-4 How Do Communities and Ecosystems


    Respond to Changing Environmental


    Conditions? 115


    SCIENCE FOCUS How Do Species Replace One


    Another in Ecological Succession? 118


    REVISITING Southern Sea Otters and


    Sustainability 119


    6 The Human Population


    and Its Impact 122


    CORE CASE STUDY Are There Too Many


    W. Johnson/Biological Photo Service 66--12 oPKHSWSoCfuEo hpIYUpwEua psNQl? toaMC UFtrEiEtaao1 ?SFcn2n TOt2 yoIKOC 1rePUsN2ee S3SIpon pAHGfllNoreuowD ewC nCLaincoOnegnN ?gttC hh CEeePa 1 TEnS2S ai4tz rhete1h o2H f3 utmhea n


    Paul Human Population? 125


    Photo 4 Temperate deciduous forest, winter, Rhode Island (USA) CASE STUDY The U.S. Population Is Growing


    Rapidly 126


    CASE STUDY The United States: A Nation


    of Immigrants 129


    4-4 How Do Speciation, Extinction, and Human


    Activities Affect Biodiversity? 86


    SCIENCE FOCUS We Have Developed Two Ways


    to Change the Genetic Traits of Populations 88


    4-5 What Is Species Diversity and Why Is


    It Important? 89


    SCIENCE FOCUS Species Richness on Islands 90


    4-6 What Roles Do Species Play in Ecosystems? 91


    CASE STUDY Cockroaches: Nature’s Ultimate


    Survivors 92


    CASE STUDY Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? 93


    CASE STUDY Why Should We Protect Sharks? 96


    REVISITING The American Alligator and


    Sustainability 97


    5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions, & Associates


    and Population Control 100 m Stack


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    5-1 HSCoIwEN DCEo FSOpCeUciSe sW Inhyte Srhaocut?ld W1e0 1Care About mas Kitchin


    Kelp Forests? 104 Tho


    5-2 How Can Natural Selection Reduce Photo 5 Sea star species helps to control mussel populations in


    Competition between Species? 107 intertidal zone communities in the U.S. Pacific northwest.


    ix


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