Essentials of Ecology

Essentials of Ecology

Essentials of Ecology

383 Pages ·2010·22.93 MB ·English

Essentials of Ecology

Essentials of Ecology This page intentionally left blank Essentials of Ecology


FIFTH EDITION


G. TYLER MILLER, JR.


SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN


Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Essentials of Ecology, 5e © 2009, 2007 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning


G. Tyler Miller, Jr. and Scott E. Spoolman


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may


Vice President, Editor-in-Chief: Michelle Julet be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic,


electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning,


Publisher: Yolanda Cossio


digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and


Development Editor: Christopher Delgado retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United


Assistant Editor: Lauren Oliveira States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.


Editorial Assistant: Samantha Arvin


For product information and technology assistance, contact us at


Media Editor: Kristina Razmara


Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706


Marketing Manager: Amanda Jellerichs


For permission to use material from this text or product,


Marketing Assistant: Katherine Malatesta submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions


Marketing Communications Manager: Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to


permissionrequest@cengage.com


Linda Yip


Project Manager, Editorial Production:


Andy Marinkovich Library of Congress Control Number: 2008933001


Creative Director: Rob Hugel ISBN-13: 978-0-495-55795-1


Art Director: John Walker ISBN-10: 0-495-55795-1


Print Buyer: Karen Hunt


Permissions Editor: John Hill Brooks/Cole


Production Service/Compositor: 10 Davis Drive


Thompson-Steele, Inc. Belmont, CA 94002-3098


USA


Text Designer: Carolyn Deacy


Photo Researcher: Abigail Reip


Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with offi ce


Copy Editor: Andrea Fincke


locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico,


Illustrator: Patrick Lane, ScEYEence Studios; Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local offi ce at international.cengage.com/region


Rachel Ciemma


Cover Image: © JUPITERIMAGES/Comstock


Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd.


Images/Alamy


For your course and learning solutions, visit academic.cengage.com.


Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store


www.ichapters.com.


Printed in Canada


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 Brief Contents


Detailed Contents vii 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions,


and Population Control 100


Preface for Instructors xv


6 The Human Population and Its Impact 122


Learning Skills 1 7 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity 140


8 Aquatic Biodiversity 162


HUMANS AND SUSTAINABILITY:


AN OVERVIEW SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY


1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species


and Sustainability 5 Approach 183


10 Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity:


The Ecosystem Approach 214


SCIENCE, ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES,


11 Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity 249


AND SUSTAINABILITY


Supplements S1


2 Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems 28


3 Ecosystems: What Are They Glossary G1


and How Do They Work? 50


Index I1


4 Biodiversity and Evolution 77


v About the Cover Photo


my


mages/Ala


mstock I


MAGES/Co


© JUPITERI


Scarlet Macaw This strikingly beautiful parrot species lives in the subtropical


forests in Central and South America, including Costa Rica, southern Panama, and


the Amazon Basin in Brazil and Peru. They have a lifespan of 30 to 50 years and


eat mostly seeds and fruits. The squawks and screams of these noisy birds can be


heard for long distances throughout the forests. The scarlet macaws are threatened


by their popularity as pets, which is due to their beautiful plumage and affection-


ate ways with humans. Under an international agreement, it is illegal to remove


them from the wild without special permits. However, a number of these rare par-


rots are illegally captured, smuggled from their native habitats to the United States


and Canada, and sold on the black market for thousands of dollars a piece. During


their trip north many of the smuggled birds die from stress and poor care. An even


worse threat for the scarlet macaw is the clear-cutting and fragmentation of much


of its forest habitat, which is taking place at a rapid and increasing rate. For these


reasons, scarlet macaws and a number of other tropical bird species are threatened


with extinction. Detailed Contents


Learning Skills 1


HUMANS AND SUSTAINABILITY:


AN OVERVIEW


1 Environmental Problems,


Their Causes, and Sustainability 5


1-2 How Can Environmentally Sustainable Societies


CORE CASE STUDY Living in an Exponential Age 5 Grow Economically? 10


KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 6 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting


1-1 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable the Earth? 12


Society? 6 CASE STUDY China’s New Affluent Consumers 15


1-4 What Is Pollution, and What Can We Do


about It? 16


1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? 17


CASE STUDY The Environmental Transformation


of Chattanooga, Tennessee 21


INDIVIDUALS MATTER Aldo Leopold’s


Environmental Ethics 22


1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles


of Sustainability? 23


REVISITING Exponential Growth and


Sustainability 24


SCIENCE, ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES,


AND SUSTAINABILITY


2 Science, Matter, Energy,


and Systems 28


CORE CASE STUDY Carrying Out a Controlled


Scientific Experiment 28


KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 29


2-1 What is Science? 29


SCIENCE FOCUS Easter Island: Some Revisions


to a Popular Environmental Story 31


SuperStock GSSCCloIIEEbNNalCC WEE aFFOOrmCCiUUnSSg TSth3a3et iSstciicesn atinfidc PCroonbsaebnisluitsy ov3e4r


Photo 1 The endangered brown pelican was protected in the first 2-2 What Is Matter? 35


U.S. wildlife refuge in Florida. 2-3 How Can Matter Change? 39


vii 3 Ecosystems: What Are They


and How Do They Work? 50


CORE CASE STUDY Tropical Rain Forests


Are Disappearing 50


KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 51


3-1 What Is Ecology? 51


SCIENCE FOCUS Have You Thanked the Insects


Today? 54


3-2 What Keeps Us and Other Organisms Alive? 54


3-3 What Are the Major Components of an


Ecosystem? 57


SCIENCE FOCUS Many of the World’s Most


Important Species Are Invisible to Us 61


3-4 What Happens to Energy in an Ecosystem? 61


3-5 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem? 65


Hartmut Schwartzbach/Peter Arnold, Inc. 34- 6 BaSHRCSubCEOoisoIVRowtEuIaENSdt i nID CCtTiaEhAovIbN e SFieS GlEOAicrt CmyiSsTe UTreinoUStr7tpi yDic4isWacYt ans aal W tASRnetlahrlud’iiysgnd aU SyFEthn ooEovirrquec?ouol sdetlss 7uy WPa7srtnteoied poCm eanrsrte? ie s 772677


Photo 2 Homeless people in Calcutta India KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 78


4-1 What Is Biodiversity and Why Is It


Important? 78


2-4 What Is Energy and How Can It Be 4-2 Where Do Species Come From? 80


Changed? 40 CASE STUDY How Did Humans Become Such


2-5 What Are Systems and How Do They Respond a Powerful Species? 83


to Change? 44 4-3 How Do Geological Processes and Climate


SCIENCE FOCUS The Usefulness of Models 44 Change Affect Evolution? 84


REVISITING The Hubbard Brook Experimental SCIENCE FOCUS Earth Is Just Right for Life


Forest and Sustainability 47 to Thrive 86


SuperStock


Photo 3 Endangered ring-tailed lemur in Madagascar


viii 5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations? 108


SCIENCE FOCUS Why Are Protected Sea Otters


Making a Slow Comeback? 110


CASE STUDY Exploding White-Tailed Deer


Populations in the United States 114


5-4 How Do Communities and Ecosystems


Respond to Changing Environmental


Conditions? 115


SCIENCE FOCUS How Do Species Replace One


Another in Ecological Succession? 118


REVISITING Southern Sea Otters and


Sustainability 119


6 The Human Population


and Its Impact 122


CORE CASE STUDY Are There Too Many


W. Johnson/Biological Photo Service 66--12 oPKHSWSoCfuEo hpIYUpwEua psNQl? toaMC UFtrEiEtaao1 ?SFcn2n TOt2 yoIKOC 1rePUsN2ee S3SIpon pAHGfllNoreuowD ewC nCLaincoOnegnN ?gttC hh CEeePa 1 TEnS2S ai4tz rhete1h o2H f3 utmhea n


Paul Human Population? 125


Photo 4 Temperate deciduous forest, winter, Rhode Island (USA) CASE STUDY The U.S. Population Is Growing


Rapidly 126


CASE STUDY The United States: A Nation


of Immigrants 129


4-4 How Do Speciation, Extinction, and Human


Activities Affect Biodiversity? 86


SCIENCE FOCUS We Have Developed Two Ways


to Change the Genetic Traits of Populations 88


4-5 What Is Species Diversity and Why Is


It Important? 89


SCIENCE FOCUS Species Richness on Islands 90


4-6 What Roles Do Species Play in Ecosystems? 91


CASE STUDY Cockroaches: Nature’s Ultimate


Survivors 92


CASE STUDY Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? 93


CASE STUDY Why Should We Protect Sharks? 96


REVISITING The American Alligator and


Sustainability 97


5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions, & Associates


and Population Control 100 m Stack


AECKxOErteYRi n TEQch tCUeioAyEn SSB?TEa I OcSk1TN 0UfS0rD oAmYN DStho CeuO tBhNreiCnrEnkP SoTefS a O1t0t1ers: & Victoria Hurst/To


5-1 HSCoIwEN DCEo FSOpCeUciSe sW Inhyte Srhaocut?ld W1e0 1Care About mas Kitchin


Kelp Forests? 104 Tho


5-2 How Can Natural Selection Reduce Photo 5 Sea star species helps to control mussel populations in


Competition between Species? 107 intertidal zone communities in the U.S. Pacific northwest.


ix


Essentials of Ecology This page intentionally left blank Essentials of Ecology


FIFTH EDITION


G. TYLER MILLER, JR.


SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN


Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Essentials of Ecology, 5e © 2009, 2007 Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning


G. Tyler Miller, Jr. and Scott E. Spoolman


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may


Vice President, Editor-in-Chief: Michelle Julet be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic,


electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning,


Publisher: Yolanda Cossio


digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and


Development Editor: Christopher Delgado retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United


Assistant Editor: Lauren Oliveira States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.


Editorial Assistant: Samantha Arvin


For product information and technology assistance, contact us at


Media Editor: Kristina Razmara


Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706


Marketing Manager: Amanda Jellerichs


For permission to use material from this text or product,


Marketing Assistant: Katherine Malatesta submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions


Marketing Communications Manager: Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to


permissionrequest@cengage.com


Linda Yip


Project Manager, Editorial Production:


Andy Marinkovich Library of Congress Control Number: 2008933001


Creative Director: Rob Hugel ISBN-13: 978-0-495-55795-1


Art Director: John Walker ISBN-10: 0-495-55795-1


Print Buyer: Karen Hunt


Permissions Editor: John Hill Brooks/Cole


Production Service/Compositor: 10 Davis Drive


Thompson-Steele, Inc. Belmont, CA 94002-3098


USA


Text Designer: Carolyn Deacy


Photo Researcher: Abigail Reip


Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with offi ce


Copy Editor: Andrea Fincke


locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico,


Illustrator: Patrick Lane, ScEYEence Studios; Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local offi ce at international.cengage.com/region


Rachel Ciemma


Cover Image: © JUPITERIMAGES/Comstock


Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd.


Images/Alamy


For your course and learning solutions, visit academic.cengage.com.


Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store


www.ichapters.com.


Printed in Canada


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 Brief Contents


Detailed Contents vii 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions,


and Population Control 100


Preface for Instructors xv


6 The Human Population and Its Impact 122


Learning Skills 1 7 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity 140


8 Aquatic Biodiversity 162


HUMANS AND SUSTAINABILITY:


AN OVERVIEW SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY


1 Environmental Problems, Their Causes, 9 Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species


and Sustainability 5 Approach 183


10 Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity:


The Ecosystem Approach 214


SCIENCE, ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES,


11 Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity 249


AND SUSTAINABILITY


Supplements S1


2 Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems 28


3 Ecosystems: What Are They Glossary G1


and How Do They Work? 50


Index I1


4 Biodiversity and Evolution 77


v About the Cover Photo


my


mages/Ala


mstock I


MAGES/Co


© JUPITERI


Scarlet Macaw This strikingly beautiful parrot species lives in the subtropical


forests in Central and South America, including Costa Rica, southern Panama, and


the Amazon Basin in Brazil and Peru. They have a lifespan of 30 to 50 years and


eat mostly seeds and fruits. The squawks and screams of these noisy birds can be


heard for long distances throughout the forests. The scarlet macaws are threatened


by their popularity as pets, which is due to their beautiful plumage and affection-


ate ways with humans. Under an international agreement, it is illegal to remove


them from the wild without special permits. However, a number of these rare par-


rots are illegally captured, smuggled from their native habitats to the United States


and Canada, and sold on the black market for thousands of dollars a piece. During


their trip north many of the smuggled birds die from stress and poor care. An even


worse threat for the scarlet macaw is the clear-cutting and fragmentation of much


of its forest habitat, which is taking place at a rapid and increasing rate. For these


reasons, scarlet macaws and a number of other tropical bird species are threatened


with extinction. Detailed Contents


Learning Skills 1


HUMANS AND SUSTAINABILITY:


AN OVERVIEW


1 Environmental Problems,


Their Causes, and Sustainability 5


1-2 How Can Environmentally Sustainable Societies


CORE CASE STUDY Living in an Exponential Age 5 Grow Economically? 10


KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 6 1-3 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting


1-1 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable the Earth? 12


Society? 6 CASE STUDY China’s New Affluent Consumers 15


1-4 What Is Pollution, and What Can We Do


about It? 16


1-5 Why Do We Have Environmental Problems? 17


CASE STUDY The Environmental Transformation


of Chattanooga, Tennessee 21


INDIVIDUALS MATTER Aldo Leopold’s


Environmental Ethics 22


1-6 What Are Four Scientific Principles


of Sustainability? 23


REVISITING Exponential Growth and


Sustainability 24


SCIENCE, ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES,


AND SUSTAINABILITY


2 Science, Matter, Energy,


and Systems 28


CORE CASE STUDY Carrying Out a Controlled


Scientific Experiment 28


KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 29


2-1 What is Science? 29


SCIENCE FOCUS Easter Island: Some Revisions


to a Popular Environmental Story 31


SuperStock GSSCCloIIEEbNNalCC WEE aFFOOrmCCiUUnSSg TSth3a3et iSstciicesn atinfidc PCroonbsaebnisluitsy ov3e4r


Photo 1 The endangered brown pelican was protected in the first 2-2 What Is Matter? 35


U.S. wildlife refuge in Florida. 2-3 How Can Matter Change? 39


vii 3 Ecosystems: What Are They


and How Do They Work? 50


CORE CASE STUDY Tropical Rain Forests


Are Disappearing 50


KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 51


3-1 What Is Ecology? 51


SCIENCE FOCUS Have You Thanked the Insects


Today? 54


3-2 What Keeps Us and Other Organisms Alive? 54


3-3 What Are the Major Components of an


Ecosystem? 57


SCIENCE FOCUS Many of the World’s Most


Important Species Are Invisible to Us 61


3-4 What Happens to Energy in an Ecosystem? 61


3-5 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem? 65


Hartmut Schwartzbach/Peter Arnold, Inc. 34- 6 BaSHRCSubCEOoisoIVRowtEuIaENSdt i nID CCtTiaEhAovIbN e SFieS GlEOAicrt CmyiSsTe UTreinoUStr7tpi yDic4isWacYt ans aal W tASRnetlahrlud’iiysgnd aU SyFEthn ooEovirrquec?ouol sdetlss 7uy WPa7srtnteoied poCm eanrsrte? ie s 772677


Photo 2 Homeless people in Calcutta India KEY QUESTIONS AND CONCEPTS 78


4-1 What Is Biodiversity and Why Is It


Important? 78


2-4 What Is Energy and How Can It Be 4-2 Where Do Species Come From? 80


Changed? 40 CASE STUDY How Did Humans Become Such


2-5 What Are Systems and How Do They Respond a Powerful Species? 83


to Change? 44 4-3 How Do Geological Processes and Climate


SCIENCE FOCUS The Usefulness of Models 44 Change Affect Evolution? 84


REVISITING The Hubbard Brook Experimental SCIENCE FOCUS Earth Is Just Right for Life


Forest and Sustainability 47 to Thrive 86


SuperStock


Photo 3 Endangered ring-tailed lemur in Madagascar


viii 5-3 What Limits the Growth of Populations? 108


SCIENCE FOCUS Why Are Protected Sea Otters


Making a Slow Comeback? 110


CASE STUDY Exploding White-Tailed Deer


Populations in the United States 114


5-4 How Do Communities and Ecosystems


Respond to Changing Environmental


Conditions? 115


SCIENCE FOCUS How Do Species Replace One


Another in Ecological Succession? 118


REVISITING Southern Sea Otters and


Sustainability 119


6 The Human Population


and Its Impact 122


CORE CASE STUDY Are There Too Many


W. Johnson/Biological Photo Service 66--12 oPKHSWSoCfuEo hpIYUpwEua psNQl? toaMC UFtrEiEtaao1 ?SFcn2n TOt2 yoIKOC 1rePUsN2ee S3SIpon pAHGfllNoreuowD ewC nCLaincoOnegnN ?gttC hh CEeePa 1 TEnS2S ai4tz rhete1h o2H f3 utmhea n


Paul Human Population? 125


Photo 4 Temperate deciduous forest, winter, Rhode Island (USA) CASE STUDY The U.S. Population Is Growing


Rapidly 126


CASE STUDY The United States: A Nation


of Immigrants 129


4-4 How Do Speciation, Extinction, and Human


Activities Affect Biodiversity? 86


SCIENCE FOCUS We Have Developed Two Ways


to Change the Genetic Traits of Populations 88


4-5 What Is Species Diversity and Why Is


It Important? 89


SCIENCE FOCUS Species Richness on Islands 90


4-6 What Roles Do Species Play in Ecosystems? 91


CASE STUDY Cockroaches: Nature’s Ultimate


Survivors 92


CASE STUDY Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? 93


CASE STUDY Why Should We Protect Sharks? 96


REVISITING The American Alligator and


Sustainability 97


5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions, & Associates


and Population Control 100 m Stack


AECKxOErteYRi n TEQch tCUeioAyEn SSB?TEa I OcSk1TN 0UfS0rD oAmYN DStho CeuO tBhNreiCnrEnkP SoTefS a O1t0t1ers: & Victoria Hurst/To


5-1 HSCoIwEN DCEo FSOpCeUciSe sW Inhyte Srhaocut?ld W1e0 1Care About mas Kitchin


Kelp Forests? 104 Tho


5-2 How Can Natural Selection Reduce Photo 5 Sea star species helps to control mussel populations in


Competition between Species? 107 intertidal zone communities in the U.S. Pacific northwest.


ix


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