Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic and Waste Systems

Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic and Waste Systems

Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic and Waste Systems

324 Pages ·2012·8.31 MB ·English

Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic and Waste Systems

Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic


and Waste Systems Nduka Okafor


Environmental


Microbiology of Aquatic


and Waste Systems Nduka Okafor


Department of Biological Sciences


Clemson University


Clemson, South Carolina


USA


nokafor@g.clemson.edu


The Author acknowledges that there are instances where he was unable to trace or contact the


copyright holder for permission to reproduce selected materials in this volume. The Author


has included complete source references for all such materials and takes full responsibility for


these matters. If notified, the publisher will be pleased to rectify any errors or omissions at the


earliest opportunity.


ISBN 978-94-007-1459-5 e-ISBN 978-94-007-1460-1


DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1460-1


Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York


Library of Congress Control Number: 2011930674


© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011


No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by


any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written


permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of


being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.


Printed on acid-free paper


Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) This book is dedicated to


The Okafor-Ozowalu family of Nri, Anaocha Local Government Area,


in the Anambra State of Nigeria, especially grandchildren Chinelo,


Ndiya, Kenechukwu, Victor, Toochukwu and Chinedum


and


Very Rev Fr. Prof Emmanuel M P Edeh, CSSp, OFR,


for his contribution in furthering access to education


in Nigeria by founding Madonna and Caritas Universities


as well several other educational establishments Preface


This book is a result of the course on environmental microbiology that I taught at the


University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA. The book seeks to place the


main actors in matters of environment microbiology, namely, the microorganisms, on


center stage. Many first degree courses in microbiology do not cover the detailed


taxonomy of microorganisms, which facilitates their being pigeonholed into specific


taxonomic niches in the environment. Because of this, the book looks, as much as


possible, at the biology, especially the taxonomy, of the microorganisms.


To this end, the taxonomy of not only bacteria and fungi, but also protozoa, algae,


viruses and even the smaller macroorganisms, such as nematodes and rotifers, which


are usually associated with microorganisms in aquatic and waste environments, are


also looked at.


Viruses are given special attention because, until recently, it was thought they


were not important in aquatic environments; the modern understanding is that they


are not only abundant, but play a crucial role in the sustenance of the various compo-


nents of the biological ecosystem in aquatic environments.


The book will be useful to a wide range of undergraduates and beginning graduate


students in microbiology, general biology, aquatic science, public health and civil


(sanitary) engineering. Practitioners in sanitary engineering and public health will


also find it of interest.


I thank my family for their encouragement.


Mableton, GA, USA Nduka Okafor


October 1, 2010


vii Contents


Part I Introduction


1 Nature, Properties, and Distribution of Water ....................................... 3


1.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and Their


Consequences ..................................................................................... 3


1.1.1 Molecular Structure of Water and Its Strong


Surface Tension ...................................................................... 3


1.1.2 The High Surface Tension of Water and Capillarity


in Plants .................................................................................. 4


1.1.3 The Three Physical States of Water,


and the Floatation of Ice ......................................................... 4


1.1.4 The Thermal Properties of Water


and Their Effect on Climate ................................................... 5


1.1.5 The Change in the Nature of Water at Different


Temperatures and Lake Temperatures .................................... 5


1.1.6 The Low Electrical Conductivity of Pure Water .................... 6


1.1.7 The High Chemical Reactiveness of Water ............................ 7


1.1.8 The pH of Water ..................................................................... 7


1.1.9 The High Solvent Power of Water ......................................... 7


1.2 Importance and Uses of Water ........................................................... 7


1.2.1 Composition of Biological Objects ........................................ 7


1.2.2 Drinking by Man and Animals and Domestic Use ................ 7


1.2.3 Irrigation and Aquaculture ..................................................... 8


1.2.4 Power Generation ................................................................... 8


1.2.5 Transportation ........................................................................ 8


1.2.6 Recreation .............................................................................. 8


1.2.7 Human Affairs ........................................................................ 8


1.3 The Hydrologic Cycle ........................................................................ 8


1.4 Classification of Waters ...................................................................... 9


1.4.1 Natural Waters ........................................................................ 9


1.4.2 Artificial Waters ..................................................................... 10


1.5 Global Distribution of Water on Earth and Its Study ......................... 10


References ................................................................................................... 12


2 Peculiarities of Water as an Environmental Habitat


for Microorganisms ................................................................................... 15


2.1 The Peculiar Nature of Water as an Environment


for Microbial Habitation .................................................................... 15


ix


Environmental Microbiology of Aquatic


and Waste Systems Nduka Okafor


Environmental


Microbiology of Aquatic


and Waste Systems Nduka Okafor


Department of Biological Sciences


Clemson University


Clemson, South Carolina


USA


nokafor@g.clemson.edu


The Author acknowledges that there are instances where he was unable to trace or contact the


copyright holder for permission to reproduce selected materials in this volume. The Author


has included complete source references for all such materials and takes full responsibility for


these matters. If notified, the publisher will be pleased to rectify any errors or omissions at the


earliest opportunity.


ISBN 978-94-007-1459-5 e-ISBN 978-94-007-1460-1


DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-1460-1


Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York


Library of Congress Control Number: 2011930674


© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011


No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by


any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written


permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of


being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.


Printed on acid-free paper


Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) This book is dedicated to


The Okafor-Ozowalu family of Nri, Anaocha Local Government Area,


in the Anambra State of Nigeria, especially grandchildren Chinelo,


Ndiya, Kenechukwu, Victor, Toochukwu and Chinedum


and


Very Rev Fr. Prof Emmanuel M P Edeh, CSSp, OFR,


for his contribution in furthering access to education


in Nigeria by founding Madonna and Caritas Universities


as well several other educational establishments Preface


This book is a result of the course on environmental microbiology that I taught at the


University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA. The book seeks to place the


main actors in matters of environment microbiology, namely, the microorganisms, on


center stage. Many first degree courses in microbiology do not cover the detailed


taxonomy of microorganisms, which facilitates their being pigeonholed into specific


taxonomic niches in the environment. Because of this, the book looks, as much as


possible, at the biology, especially the taxonomy, of the microorganisms.


To this end, the taxonomy of not only bacteria and fungi, but also protozoa, algae,


viruses and even the smaller macroorganisms, such as nematodes and rotifers, which


are usually associated with microorganisms in aquatic and waste environments, are


also looked at.


Viruses are given special attention because, until recently, it was thought they


were not important in aquatic environments; the modern understanding is that they


are not only abundant, but play a crucial role in the sustenance of the various compo-


nents of the biological ecosystem in aquatic environments.


The book will be useful to a wide range of undergraduates and beginning graduate


students in microbiology, general biology, aquatic science, public health and civil


(sanitary) engineering. Practitioners in sanitary engineering and public health will


also find it of interest.


I thank my family for their encouragement.


Mableton, GA, USA Nduka Okafor


October 1, 2010


vii Contents


Part I Introduction


1 Nature, Properties, and Distribution of Water ....................................... 3


1.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Water and Their


Consequences ..................................................................................... 3


1.1.1 Molecular Structure of Water and Its Strong


Surface Tension ...................................................................... 3


1.1.2 The High Surface Tension of Water and Capillarity


in Plants .................................................................................. 4


1.1.3 The Three Physical States of Water,


and the Floatation of Ice ......................................................... 4


1.1.4 The Thermal Properties of Water


and Their Effect on Climate ................................................... 5


1.1.5 The Change in the Nature of Water at Different


Temperatures and Lake Temperatures .................................... 5


1.1.6 The Low Electrical Conductivity of Pure Water .................... 6


1.1.7 The High Chemical Reactiveness of Water ............................ 7


1.1.8 The pH of Water ..................................................................... 7


1.1.9 The High Solvent Power of Water ......................................... 7


1.2 Importance and Uses of Water ........................................................... 7


1.2.1 Composition of Biological Objects ........................................ 7


1.2.2 Drinking by Man and Animals and Domestic Use ................ 7


1.2.3 Irrigation and Aquaculture ..................................................... 8


1.2.4 Power Generation ................................................................... 8


1.2.5 Transportation ........................................................................ 8


1.2.6 Recreation .............................................................................. 8


1.2.7 Human Affairs ........................................................................ 8


1.3 The Hydrologic Cycle ........................................................................ 8


1.4 Classification of Waters ...................................................................... 9


1.4.1 Natural Waters ........................................................................ 9


1.4.2 Artificial Waters ..................................................................... 10


1.5 Global Distribution of Water on Earth and Its Study ......................... 10


References ................................................................................................... 12


2 Peculiarities of Water as an Environmental Habitat


for Microorganisms ................................................................................... 15


2.1 The Peculiar Nature of Water as an Environment


for Microbial Habitation .................................................................... 15


ix


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