Environmental Engineering Dictionary and Directory

337 Pages · 2001 · 1.41 MB · English

  • Environmental Engineering Dictionary and Directory

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Pankratz, Tom M.

    Environmental engineering dictionary and directory / Thomas M. Pankratz.

    p. cm.

    ISBN 1-56670-543-6 (alk. paper)

    1. Environmental engineering--Dictionaries. 2. Brand name products--Dictionaries. 3.

    Trademarks--Dictionaries. 4. Environmental engineering--Directories. I. Title.

    TD9 .P36 2000

    628--dc21 00-044356

    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material

    is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable

    efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot

    assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

    Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic

    or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or

    retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

    The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for

    creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC

    for such copying.

    Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.

    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are

    used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

    © 2001 by CRC Press LLC

    Lewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press LLC

    No claim to original U.S. Government works

    International Standard Book Number 1-56670-543-6

    Library of Congress Card Number 00-044356

    Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

    Printed on acid-free paper


    This book has been written to help professionals, students, and lay people identify

    the increasing number of terms in the fields of environmental engineering and


    More than 8000 terms, acronyms, and abbreviations applying to wastewater,

    potable water, industrial water treatment, seawater desalination, air pollution, incin-

    eration, and hazardous waste remediation have been defined.

    The most unique feature of this book is the inclusion of more than 3000 trade-

    marks and brand names. Many of these commercial terms for proprietary products

    or processes are so common or descriptive that they have fallen into general use.

    This confusion is compounded by the fact that many terms contain similar prefixes

    (e.g., bio-, enviro-, hydra-, hydro-, etc.) and it is often difficult to tell them apart.

    This book originates from Screening Equipment Handbook, first published in

    1988, whose glossary contains a list of screening-related trademarks and brand

    names along with their company affiliation. Even though that list was relatively

    short, a surprisingly large number of companies had come and gone or changed their

    names through mergers or acquisitions. This led to an expanded directory entitled,

    The Dictionary of Water and Wastewater Treatment Trademarks and Brand Names,

    published in 1991, and which contained 1200 commercial terms.

    The Concise Dictionary of Environmental Engineering followed in 1996. In

    addition to the 2200 commercial terms, it was further expanded to include 3000

    generic environmental engineering terms. Shortly after it was published, the envi-

    ronmental equipment manufacturing industry began a consolidation led by USFilter,

    Waterlink, Baker Hughes, ITT, F.B. Leopold, and others that has resulted in changes

    to 43% of the terms included in the 1996 edition.

    During the research for this book, many other books, magazines, dictionaries,

    glossaries, buyer’s guides, catalogs, brochures, and technical papers were reviewed

    to locate new terms and their definitions. Although there are too many references

    to list, I would like to acknowledge the help of these publications and their authors.

    In addition to technically reviewing this book, John B. Tonner was especially

    helpful with his suggestions, advice, research assistance, and computer wizardry.

    Regardless of when I would call, John was always available to help. His www.world-

    wide-water.com Web site also proved to be a valuable research tool.

    I would like to acknowledge the libraries that were used in my research. They

    include the M.D. Anderson Library at the University of Houston, the Helen Hall

    Library in League City, Texas, the Houston Public Library Central Branch, and the

    library at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Mining in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    I also recognize USFilter and Alfa-Laval for their support.

    I’m grateful for the assistance of the many friends and colleagues who suggested

    new terms and challenged old ones, helped with definitions, provided encouragement,

    or assisted in the book’s production. Some of these people include Robert W. Brown,

    Gordon Carter, Bill Copa, Chad Dannemann, Jim Force, Jack Gardiner, Duane

    Germenis, Stacie Jones, John Meidl, Mack Moore, Chad Pankratz, Bill Perpich,

    Barb Petroff, Jim Symons, Mark Wilson, and Joe Zuback.

    Like the first edition, published in 1996, much of my work on this book took

    place while traveling; the rest was done in the evenings and weekends. I would never

    have been able to finish without the continued patience and support of my wife,

    Julie, and our children, Chad, Sarah, Mike, and Katie.

    This book is dedicated to my wife, Julie Lynn Pankratz, and our grandson,

    Gabriel R. Suarez, who was born the same day this book was completed.

    Tom Pankratz


    This dictionary contains terms used in the fields of environmental engineering and

    environmental science, and the definitions provided relate to their use in an envi-

    ronmental context only.

    The commercial terms represent company brand names or trademarks, and have

    been italicized to differentiate them from the technical terms in general usage.

    Whenever appropriate, the use of ™ or ® has been included following the name of

    the entry, although terms may be registered trademarks even though they do not

    include either symbol. It is also possible that some of the entries listed as trademarks

    may not be registered or properly used by the manufacturers listed in connection

    with them.

    Brand names and trademarks often evolve and take different forms. Variations

    in the use of capitalization, hyphens, or symbols often occur over time. The repre-

    sentation of the words included in this book reflects the latest version seen in use

    and are assumed to be the preferred form.

    Commercial acronyms are included if they are registered trademarks or com-

    monly used abbreviations of company names. Nonregistered product model numbers

    and trademarks that are the same as the name of a company are not always included.

    Many definitions were extrapolated from stories, advertisements, or product bro-

    chures and were not directly corroborated by the company listed as being responsible

    for the term.

    The company name included in the definition of a commercial term usually

    represents the company that manufactures that particular product or process. In some

    cases, the listed company may only market, distribute, or license the product.

    In several instances, the same brand name has been listed more than once to

    describe different products or processes from different companies. The author is

    unaware of any dispute involving these cases and is simply reporting that the

    companies identified have used the term for the product described. In some cases,

    the term may be dormant, obsolete, or no longer available from the company listed.

    Company addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses listed in the Manu-

    facturer’s Directory were confirmed over a period of several years. Some contact

    information may have changed, especially with the recent telephone area code

    changes in many parts of the U.S. Readers are cautioned that an incorrect phone

    number, address, or e-mail address does not mean that a company is no longer in


    There are a few cases where a company whose name is listed in a definition is

    not included in the Manufacturer’s Directory. If current contact information for a

    company could not be located, the out-of-date information was not included.

    Terms have been arranged alphabetically using current word processing software.

    In general, terms related to plumbing, household products, computer programs,

    or software have not been included.

    All of the terms have been listed in good faith. A reasonable attempt has been

    made to confirm all definitions and, in the case of commercial terms, verify the

    companies responsible for the listings. The author apologizes for any omissions or


    If you are aware of any changes or additions that should be included in subse-

    quent editions, please send them to Tom Pankratz, P.O. Box 75064, Houston, Texas

    USA, 77234-5064.


    The areas of environmental engineering and sciences and their related business

    activities have grown to the point that they overlap the professional and private lives

    of almost everyone. As environmental issues become more complicated, so does the

    vocabulary required to understand and discuss them. This Environmental Engineer-

    ing Dictionary and Directory defines many terms that did not even exist a decade ago.

    My own field of water reclamation and reuse is an example of a relatively new

    area of environmental engineering that has fostered the introduction of many new

    terms and technologies.

    When considering advanced treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters,

    a repeated thesis has been that such a high quality effluent should be put to beneficial

    use rather than simply wasted. Today, technically proven treatment and purification

    processes exist to provide treated water of almost any quality desired. This offers a

    realistic framework for considering water reclamation and reuse in many parts of

    the world that are experiencing water shortages. Nonpotable water reuse applications,

    such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, toilet flushing in large office buildings,

    and water for aesthetic and environmental purposes have become major options for

    planned water reuse.

    Water reuse provides innovative and alternative options for agriculture, munic-

    ipalities, and industries. However, water reuse is only one alternative in planning to

    meet future water resource needs. Conservation, efficient management and use of

    existing water supplies, and the development of new water resources based on

    watershed management or seawater desalination are examples of other alternatives.

    As the field of environmental engineering continues to develop, so will the

    vocabulary required for its discussion and study. Our need to understand the envi-

    ronment and to better appreciate our relationship with nature is greater now than at

    any time in our history. Thus Tom’s book is particularly timely and relevant.

    Takashi Asano, Ph.D., P.E.

    Adjunct Professor

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    University of California at Davis


    Å See “Angstrom (Å).”

    A&I Alternative and Innovative.

    A/O® Wastewater treatment process for biological removal of nitrogen by USFil-


    A2/O® Biological treatment process for phosphorus and nitrogen removal by USFil-


    A2C™ Biological wastewater treatment system by Baker Process — Municipal


    A·I·R Photocatalytic process to destroy VOCs by Trojan Technologies, Inc.

    AA See “atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA).”

    AAEE American Academy of Environmental Engineers.

    AAP Asbestos Action Program.

    AAPCO American Association of Pesticide Control Officials.

    AAQS Ambient air quality standards.

    AARC Alliance for Acid Rain Control.

    AAS American Association for the Advancement of Science.

    ABA1000® Alumina oxide for phosphate reduction by Selecto, Inc.

    ABA2000® Alumina oxide for lead and heavy metals removal by Selecto, Inc.

    ABA8000® Alumina oxide for fluoride removal by Selecto, Inc.

    abandoned well A well whose use has been permanently discontinued or which

    is in a state of such disrepair that it cannot be used for its intended purpose.

    abatement Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution.

    abattoir A place where animals are slaughtered for their meat and meat byproducts.

    ABC Filter™ Automatic backwashable cartridge filter by USFilter/Rockford.

    Abcor® Ultrafiltration membrane product by Koch Membrane Systems, Inc.

    ABF Activated bio-filtration wastewater treatment system by Infilco Degremont,


    ABF Traveling bridge type automatic backwashing gravity sand filter by Aqua-

    Aerobic Systems, Inc.

    abiocoen All of the geologic, climatic, and other nonliving elements of an eco-


    abiotic Nonliving elements in the environment.

    ABJ™ ABJ product group of Sanitaire Corp.

    ablation The combined processes of glacial melting and evaporation which results

    in a net loss of ice.

    ablation zone The lower part of a glacier where the net loss of ice exceeds the

    net gain.

    ABS (1) Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. A black plastic material, used in the man-

    ufacture of pipes and other components. (2) Alkyl-benzene-sulfonate. A sur-

    factant formerly used in synthetic detergents that resisted biological breakdown.

    absolute filter rating A filter rating which indicates that 99.9% of the particles

    larger than a specified size will be removed by the filter.

    absolute humidity The total amount of water vapor present in the air, measured

    in grams per cubic meter.

    absolute pressure The total pressure in a system, equal to the sum of the gage

    pressure and atmospheric pressure.

    absolute purity water Water with a specific resistance of 18.3 megohm-cm at


    absolute zero The lowest temperature possible; 0° on the Kelvin scale or approx-

    imately –273°C (–459.7°F).

    absorbate A substance used to soak up another substance.

    absorbed dose The amount of a chemical that enters the body of an exposed


    absorbent Any substance that exhibits the properties of absorption.

    absorption The process of transferring molecules of gas, liquid, or a dissolved

    substance to the surface of a solid where it is bound by chemical or physical


    absorption field A trench or pit filled with gravel or loose rock designed to absorb

    septic tank effluent.

    ABW® Traveling bridge type gravity sand filter by Infilco Degremont, Inc.

    abyssal zone A zone of deep oceanic waters, generally deeper than 2000 meters

    and between the hadal and bathyal zones where light does not penetrate.

    AC See “activated carbon.”

    AC® Industrial wastewater treatment unit by Colloid Environmental Technologies


    ACA American Conservation Association.

    acaricide A pesticide used to kill spiders, ticks, or mites.

    ACBM Asbestos-containing building material.

    Accelapak® Modular water treatment plant by Infilco Degremont, Inc.

    Accelator® Solids contact clarifier with primary and secondary mixing zones by

    Infilco Degremont, Inc.

    Accelo Hi-Cap Filter underdrain block formerly offered by Infilco Degremont,


    Accelo-Biox® Modular wastewater treatment plant by Infilco Degremont, Inc.

    Accel-o-Fac™ Sewage treatment plant design by Lake Aid Systems.

    acceptable risk The level of risk associated with minimal adverse effects, usually

    determined by a risk analysis.

    Access Analytical Former name of IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.

    accessory species Species found in less than half but more than one quarter of the

    area covered by a plant community.

    accident site The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at

    a plant or along a transportation route, resulting in a release of hazardous


    acclimatization The physiological and behavioral adjustments of an organism to

    changes in its environment.

    Accofloc® Ion exchange media by Colloid Environmental Technologies Co.

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