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Environment and aquaculture in developing countries

367 Pages · 2004 · 8.4 MB · English

  • Environment and aquaculture in developing countries

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    -- Environment and ~kaculture


    in Developing Countries


    Edited by


    R.S.V. Pullin


    H. Rosenthal


    J.L. Maclean


    INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR DEUTSCHE GESELLSC%bU?TF UR


    LIVING AQUATIC TECHNISCHE ZUSAMMENARBEIT


    RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (GTZ) GmbH Environment and Aquaculture


    in Developing Countries


    Edited by


    Published by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Manage-


    ment, MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati, Metm Manila, Philippines and


    Deutwhe Gewllschaft far Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)G mbH,


    Postfach 5180, D-6236E schborn, Federal Republic of Germany


    Printed in Manila, Philippines


    ,Pullin,R .S.V.,H . Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean, Editors. 1993. Environment


    and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p.


    ISSN 0115-4435


    ISBN 971-8709-05-3


    Cower: Khao Sam Roi Yot (Mountain of Three Hundred Peaks) Natural Park


    is located in Prachuab Khiri Khan pmvince in Thailand. The 98-kmP park


    contains a 40-kmP marsh, an important sanctuary for birds which irr listed in


    the Asian Wetlands Directory of the IUCN as a site of global conservation


    importance. Vast areas of marsh in the park have been converted into shrimp


    ponds. The prestigious Siam Society, a national NGO has urged action by the


    government. Although many of the ahrimp ponds have ceased operation


    (because of diaeam caused by intensive culture and limited water supply),


    new ponds were still being constructed in December 1992. Photo courtesy of


    Peter Edwards.


    Available at US$15 (surface mail), $22 (airmail), P350 fmm: TCLARM, MCPO


    Box 2631,0718 M.a kati, Metro Manila, Philippines International Specialized


    Book Services, 6804 N.E. Hassalo St., Portland, Oregon 97213-3644 USA (use


    airmail price) Ernst S. Toeche-Mittler GmbH, Versandbuchhandlung,


    Hindenburgstrasse 33, D-6100 Dannstadt, Gemany (use airmail price).


    Please make payments payable to ICLARM in US$ by international money


    order or bankdraft. We can amept US$ checks only if from a US-based bank


    due to high clearance fees of other banka.


    ICLARM Contribution No. 941 Contents


    Foreword M.Bilio ...................................................................................................v.. ..


    ...................................................................................................


    Acknowledgements vii


    An Overview of Environmental Issues in


    Developing-Country Aquaculture R.S.V. Pullin ................................................1.


    The Impacts of Aquaculture Development on


    Socioeconomic Environments in Developing


    Countries: Towards a Paradigm for


    .......................................................................................


    Assessment K. Ruddle 20


    Aquaculture and Management of Freshwater


    Environments, with Emphasis on


    Latin America M. Martinez-Espinosa and U.B arg ........................................4..2


    Aquaculture and Conservation of Genetic Diversity


    S. Cataudella and D. Crosetti ......................................................................6..0


    Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


    in the Developing Countries of Asia I. Csauas ...............................................7 4


    The Environmental Consequences of Intensive Coastal


    Aquaculture in Developed Countries:


    What Lessons Can Be Learnt R.J. Gowen and H. Rosenthal .........................1 02


    Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


    in Africa H.R. King ........................................................................................1..1 6


    Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


    in the Tropical Pacific J.L. Munro ................................................................1..2 5


    Environmental Issues in Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture


    and Wastewater-Fed Fish Culture Systems P. Edwards ................................ 139


    Shrimp Culture and the Environment: Lessons from the World's


    Most Rapidly Expanding Warmwater Aquaculture Sector


    M. J. Philips, C. Kwei Lin and M. C. M. Beueridge ...........................................1 71


    Discussion on Latin American Shrimp Culture ....................................................1 98 Environmental Management of Coastal Aquaculture Practices


    and Their Development + T.E.C hua ................................................................1. 99


    Environmental Impact of Tropical Inland Aquaculture


    M.C.M. Beveridge and M.J. Phillips ..............................................................2. 13


    Environmental Issues in the Control of Bacterial Diseases


    of Farmed Fish B. Austin ..............................................................................2.3 7


    Developing-Country Aquaculture and Harmful Algal Booms


    J.L. Maclean .................................................................................................2..5. 2


    Microbial Safety of Produce from Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture


    N . Buras ....................................................................................................2.8..5.


    Developing-Country Aquaculture. Trace Chemical Contaminants.


    and Public Health Concerns + D.J.H. Phillips ................................................2.9 6


    Discussion and Recommendations on Aquaculture and Environment


    in Developing Countries Compiled by R.S.V.P ullin ......................................3..1 2


    Author Index ...........................................................................................................3.3. 9


    ....................................................................................................


    Geographic Index 3 4 7


    Species Index .........................................................................................................3..5. 1


    ...............................................................................................


    List of Participants 3 5 8 Foreword


    The resources available to ensure the continuance of life on earth are finite. Any


    resource can only serve a limited number ofpurposes at the same time and place. This


    is particularly true of water which is a fundamental requirement not only for aquatic


    but also for terrestrial organisms. It similarly applies to nutrients and energy.


    With an increasing demand for food:energy and space by growingpopulation, the


    pressure of exploitation is reaching alarming levels on an increasing number of


    species and over an expanding area. To avoid overexploitation and loss, the resources


    essential for human survival must be used efficiently and wisely. This requires


    channeling their utilization in ways that fulfill multiple and complementary objectives


    wherever possible.


    Modern aquaculture appeared at a time when many claims for use of the


    resources had been made and competition was growing for those niches still available.


    Labor was becoming increasingly expensive, leading to intensification in terms of


    rationalization and mechanization to reduce costs. This meant higher stocking


    densities and higher demand for feed and energy. Among the most immediate


    environmental consequencesw ere overloading ofthe waters with nutrients, contamination


    with chemicals for the treatment of diseases and pests, and ecological damage


    through the installation of voluminous infrastructure. The demand for feed increased


    the pressure on other living resources such as small pelagic fish utilized as fishmeal.


    Most of the more conspicuous mistakes made so far were committed by developed


    countries. Some at least could have been avoided through more awareness, foresight


    and readiness to renounce fast profits which were both questionable and harmful in


    the long term. The most important lesson to be learnt from the past is more


    consideration for the need to understand better the environmental and social context


    in which aquaculture is being developed. Such better understanding should then lead


    to the establishment of a general policy to guide development action in the most


    promising directions and to keep negative side effects to a minimum.


    In the majority of developing countries, intensification is of less immediate


    concern, though on a mid- and long-term basis related problems will gain in


    importance. The more urgent question is how to make the best possible use of the


    productivity of natural systems without radical environmental changes and at low


    levels of costly inputs. What is needed for the future is an approach which makes use


    of the experience available, adds to the existing know-how through continued


    research efforts, elaborates and refines guidelines, and creates appropriate frameworks


    for further development. Aquaculture production is in great demand, but it must not


    be achieved without due regard to safeguarding our basis of survival.


    This proceedings volume presents detailed reviews of pertinent environmental


    issues and the conclusions and recommendations of an international conference


    convened by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management


    (ICLARM) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusarnmenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH at the Bellagio Conference and Study Centre of the Rockefeller Foundation in


    September 1990. Only for a few of the issues are clear solutions becoming apparent.


    Much remains to be done and only intensive collaboration among all parties concerned


    will bring us closer to success. The results of this conference should be seen as a step


    in this direction.


    Dr. Martin Bilio


    Senior Adviser for Living


    Aquatic Resources Utilization


    Deutsche Gesselschaft fiir Technische


    Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH


    Federal Republic of Germany Acknowledgements


    This conference was made possible by the Rockefeller Foundation which offered


    the use of its magnificent Bellagio Study and Conference Center as the venue and by


    the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, which


    provided a generous grant to cover organizational and publishing costs.


    vii An Overview of Environmental Issues


    in Developing-CountryA quaculture*


    ROGERS. V. PULLIN


    International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management


    MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati


    Metro Manila, Philippines


    PULLM, R.S.V. 1993. An overview of environmental issues in developing-country aquaculture, p. l-


    19. In R.S.V.P ullin, H. Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean (eds.) Environment: and aquaculture in


    developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p.


    Abstract


    Aquaculture, like all interventions by humans to exploit or manage natural resources for food


    production, has the potential for causing environmental harm as well as for improving livelihood and


    nutrition. Aquaculture development mustbeundertaken in a broad intersectnral context, considering


    especially its interactions with agriculture, forestry and capture fisheries and its environmental


    consequences. This paper examines types of aquaculture development and discusses the concept of


    sustainability and demographic, political and emnornic factors before giving examples of recent


    developments and criteria for assessing others.


    profiles in the political arena, mass media


    Introduction


    and public awareness than before.


    Environmental impacts at the relatj.vely


    Aquaculture, like all food production


    new frontier of aquaculture need very


    by farming, has large effects on the


    careful attention.


    environment, many of which can be


    This paper gives working definitions


    negative: occupation and fragmentation


    of terms (aquaculture, developing


    of former natural habitats; reduction of


    countries, environment, sustainability and


    the abundance and diversity of wildlife


    agroecology) and discusses broad concepts,


    and changes in soil, water and landscape


    summarizes the status of developing-


    quality. The same applies to agriculture


    country aquaculture and considers the


    (Simons1988,1989).B ecause farming will


    future of aquaculture in developing


    remain the mainstay of most developing-


    countries, emphasizing the search for


    country economies for the foreseeable


    sustainability in the face of rapid change.


    future and will cause much environmental


    change, it is essential that the potential


    negative effects of further development of


    Aquaculture


    aquaculture be thoroughly appraised.


    Environmental protection and nature Aquaculture is defined here as a


    conservation now have much higher modification of the definition proposed by


    FA0 (1990a), omitting FAO's criterion


    *ICEARM Contribution No. 737 that produce can be considered as derived from aquaculture only if raised under Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin


    individual or corporate ownership. America and Oceania (excluding Australia


    Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic and New Zealand). This UN report referred


    organisms, including fish, molluscs, back to a 1963 UN distinction between


    crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming 'developed' andidevelsping'c ountries based


    implies some farm of intervention in the on population growth and pronounced it


    rearing process to enhance production, still valid:


    such as regular stocking, feeding, No other criterion, be itp er capita


    protection from predators, etc. (sic) income, urbanization, literacy,


    industrialization, etc., defines this


    This definition includes enhanced


    dichotomy so sharply as the level of


    fisheries (stock enhancement, aquatic


    fertility. With exceedingly few


    ranching and management of natural


    exceptions, it can be said that where


    aquatic environments) within the scope of


    the gross reproduction rate is greater


    production systems considered. FA0 than 2.0, the country is a 'developing'


    (1990b) includes in aquaculture statistics one, and where it is less, the country is


    those "culture-based" fisheries that are 'developed'.


    stocked annually with propagated Singapore, the Republic of Korea and


    juveniles, but regards fisheries that are Taiwan are here excludedf rom the definition


    established through single or intermittent of developing countries.


    introductions as contributing to capture The Club of Rome recognized the limits


    fisheries production. to development.


    Aquaculture can be broadly classified We are further convinced that


    as extensive, having no feed or fertilizer demographic pressure in the worldhas


    inputs; semi-intensive, having some already attained such a high level, and


    is moreover so unequally distributed,


    fertilizer andlor feed inputs; andintensive,


    that this alone must compel mankind


    largely reliant on feed inputs (Edwards et


    to seek a state of equilibrium on our


    al. l988a; Pullinl989). Enhanced fisheries


    planet (Meadows et al. 1972).


    resemble extensive aquaculture with low


    So, would 'transformati.on' be a better


    levels of human intervention.


    term than development? Probably not, as


    Classification of aquaculture according to


    human 'states of equilibrium' are always


    the economic goals or status of culturists -


    highly dynamic. Development can be


    for example as 'subsistence', 'commercial'


    defined simply as the betterment of living


    and 'entrepreneurial' - has also been


    standards for the disadvantaged.


    attempted but is usually confusing. In


    Betterment implies improved quality of


    much of Asia and Africa, fish is 'the other


    life in, for example, health, education and


    staple' (other than grains),t he main animal


    recreation.


    protein source of the people. All farmers


    who try something new and profitable can Enuironment


    be considered 'entrepreneurs' whatever


    The term 'environment' is defined here


    the scale of their operations. Subsistence


    broadly as the whole ecosystem and its


    aquaculture barely exists. Virtually all


    nonliving and living resources, including


    aquaculture has a profit motive in cash or


    human beings.


    in kind.


    Developing Countries


    and Development Sustainability


    A developing country is defined here Sustainability has become a


    largely as in a UN (1989a) report: all of fundamental consideration for all


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