Environment and aquaculture in developing countries

Environment and aquaculture in developing countries

Environment and aquaculture in developing countries

367 Pages ·2004·8.4 MB ·English

Environment and aquaculture in developing countries

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-- Environment and ~kaculture


in Developing Countries


Edited by


R.S.V. Pullin


H. Rosenthal


J.L. Maclean


INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR DEUTSCHE GESELLSC%bU?TF UR


LIVING AQUATIC TECHNISCHE ZUSAMMENARBEIT


RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (GTZ) GmbH Environment and Aquaculture


in Developing Countries


Edited by


Published by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Manage-


ment, MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati, Metm Manila, Philippines and


Deutwhe Gewllschaft far Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)G mbH,


Postfach 5180, D-6236E schborn, Federal Republic of Germany


Printed in Manila, Philippines


,Pullin,R .S.V.,H . Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean, Editors. 1993. Environment


and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p.


ISSN 0115-4435


ISBN 971-8709-05-3


Cower: Khao Sam Roi Yot (Mountain of Three Hundred Peaks) Natural Park


is located in Prachuab Khiri Khan pmvince in Thailand. The 98-kmP park


contains a 40-kmP marsh, an important sanctuary for birds which irr listed in


the Asian Wetlands Directory of the IUCN as a site of global conservation


importance. Vast areas of marsh in the park have been converted into shrimp


ponds. The prestigious Siam Society, a national NGO has urged action by the


government. Although many of the ahrimp ponds have ceased operation


(because of diaeam caused by intensive culture and limited water supply),


new ponds were still being constructed in December 1992. Photo courtesy of


Peter Edwards.


Available at US$15 (surface mail), $22 (airmail), P350 fmm: TCLARM, MCPO


Box 2631,0718 M.a kati, Metro Manila, Philippines International Specialized


Book Services, 6804 N.E. Hassalo St., Portland, Oregon 97213-3644 USA (use


airmail price) Ernst S. Toeche-Mittler GmbH, Versandbuchhandlung,


Hindenburgstrasse 33, D-6100 Dannstadt, Gemany (use airmail price).


Please make payments payable to ICLARM in US$ by international money


order or bankdraft. We can amept US$ checks only if from a US-based bank


due to high clearance fees of other banka.


ICLARM Contribution No. 941 Contents


Foreword M.Bilio ...................................................................................................v.. ..


...................................................................................................


Acknowledgements vii


An Overview of Environmental Issues in


Developing-Country Aquaculture R.S.V. Pullin ................................................1.


The Impacts of Aquaculture Development on


Socioeconomic Environments in Developing


Countries: Towards a Paradigm for


.......................................................................................


Assessment K. Ruddle 20


Aquaculture and Management of Freshwater


Environments, with Emphasis on


Latin America M. Martinez-Espinosa and U.B arg ........................................4..2


Aquaculture and Conservation of Genetic Diversity


S. Cataudella and D. Crosetti ......................................................................6..0


Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


in the Developing Countries of Asia I. Csauas ...............................................7 4


The Environmental Consequences of Intensive Coastal


Aquaculture in Developed Countries:


What Lessons Can Be Learnt R.J. Gowen and H. Rosenthal .........................1 02


Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


in Africa H.R. King ........................................................................................1..1 6


Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


in the Tropical Pacific J.L. Munro ................................................................1..2 5


Environmental Issues in Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture


and Wastewater-Fed Fish Culture Systems P. Edwards ................................ 139


Shrimp Culture and the Environment: Lessons from the World's


Most Rapidly Expanding Warmwater Aquaculture Sector


M. J. Philips, C. Kwei Lin and M. C. M. Beueridge ...........................................1 71


Discussion on Latin American Shrimp Culture ....................................................1 98 Environmental Management of Coastal Aquaculture Practices


and Their Development + T.E.C hua ................................................................1. 99


Environmental Impact of Tropical Inland Aquaculture


M.C.M. Beveridge and M.J. Phillips ..............................................................2. 13


Environmental Issues in the Control of Bacterial Diseases


of Farmed Fish B. Austin ..............................................................................2.3 7


Developing-Country Aquaculture and Harmful Algal Booms


J.L. Maclean .................................................................................................2..5. 2


Microbial Safety of Produce from Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture


N . Buras ....................................................................................................2.8..5.


Developing-Country Aquaculture. Trace Chemical Contaminants.


and Public Health Concerns + D.J.H. Phillips ................................................2.9 6


Discussion and Recommendations on Aquaculture and Environment


in Developing Countries Compiled by R.S.V.P ullin ......................................3..1 2


Author Index ...........................................................................................................3.3. 9


....................................................................................................


Geographic Index 3 4 7


Species Index .........................................................................................................3..5. 1


...............................................................................................


List of Participants 3 5 8 Foreword


The resources available to ensure the continuance of life on earth are finite. Any


resource can only serve a limited number ofpurposes at the same time and place. This


is particularly true of water which is a fundamental requirement not only for aquatic


but also for terrestrial organisms. It similarly applies to nutrients and energy.


With an increasing demand for food:energy and space by growingpopulation, the


pressure of exploitation is reaching alarming levels on an increasing number of


species and over an expanding area. To avoid overexploitation and loss, the resources


essential for human survival must be used efficiently and wisely. This requires


channeling their utilization in ways that fulfill multiple and complementary objectives


wherever possible.


Modern aquaculture appeared at a time when many claims for use of the


resources had been made and competition was growing for those niches still available.


Labor was becoming increasingly expensive, leading to intensification in terms of


rationalization and mechanization to reduce costs. This meant higher stocking


densities and higher demand for feed and energy. Among the most immediate


environmental consequencesw ere overloading ofthe waters with nutrients, contamination


with chemicals for the treatment of diseases and pests, and ecological damage


through the installation of voluminous infrastructure. The demand for feed increased


the pressure on other living resources such as small pelagic fish utilized as fishmeal.


Most of the more conspicuous mistakes made so far were committed by developed


countries. Some at least could have been avoided through more awareness, foresight


and readiness to renounce fast profits which were both questionable and harmful in


the long term. The most important lesson to be learnt from the past is more


consideration for the need to understand better the environmental and social context


in which aquaculture is being developed. Such better understanding should then lead


to the establishment of a general policy to guide development action in the most


promising directions and to keep negative side effects to a minimum.


In the majority of developing countries, intensification is of less immediate


concern, though on a mid- and long-term basis related problems will gain in


importance. The more urgent question is how to make the best possible use of the


productivity of natural systems without radical environmental changes and at low


levels of costly inputs. What is needed for the future is an approach which makes use


of the experience available, adds to the existing know-how through continued


research efforts, elaborates and refines guidelines, and creates appropriate frameworks


for further development. Aquaculture production is in great demand, but it must not


be achieved without due regard to safeguarding our basis of survival.


This proceedings volume presents detailed reviews of pertinent environmental


issues and the conclusions and recommendations of an international conference


convened by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management


(ICLARM) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusarnmenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH at the Bellagio Conference and Study Centre of the Rockefeller Foundation in


September 1990. Only for a few of the issues are clear solutions becoming apparent.


Much remains to be done and only intensive collaboration among all parties concerned


will bring us closer to success. The results of this conference should be seen as a step


in this direction.


Dr. Martin Bilio


Senior Adviser for Living


Aquatic Resources Utilization


Deutsche Gesselschaft fiir Technische


Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH


Federal Republic of Germany Acknowledgements


This conference was made possible by the Rockefeller Foundation which offered


the use of its magnificent Bellagio Study and Conference Center as the venue and by


the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, which


provided a generous grant to cover organizational and publishing costs.


vii An Overview of Environmental Issues


in Developing-CountryA quaculture*


ROGERS. V. PULLIN


International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management


MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati


Metro Manila, Philippines


PULLM, R.S.V. 1993. An overview of environmental issues in developing-country aquaculture, p. l-


19. In R.S.V.P ullin, H. Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean (eds.) Environment: and aquaculture in


developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p.


Abstract


Aquaculture, like all interventions by humans to exploit or manage natural resources for food


production, has the potential for causing environmental harm as well as for improving livelihood and


nutrition. Aquaculture development mustbeundertaken in a broad intersectnral context, considering


especially its interactions with agriculture, forestry and capture fisheries and its environmental


consequences. This paper examines types of aquaculture development and discusses the concept of


sustainability and demographic, political and emnornic factors before giving examples of recent


developments and criteria for assessing others.


profiles in the political arena, mass media


Introduction


and public awareness than before.


Environmental impacts at the relatj.vely


Aquaculture, like all food production


new frontier of aquaculture need very


by farming, has large effects on the


careful attention.


environment, many of which can be


This paper gives working definitions


negative: occupation and fragmentation


of terms (aquaculture, developing


of former natural habitats; reduction of


countries, environment, sustainability and


the abundance and diversity of wildlife


agroecology) and discusses broad concepts,


and changes in soil, water and landscape


summarizes the status of developing-


quality. The same applies to agriculture


country aquaculture and considers the


(Simons1988,1989).B ecause farming will


future of aquaculture in developing


remain the mainstay of most developing-


countries, emphasizing the search for


country economies for the foreseeable


sustainability in the face of rapid change.


future and will cause much environmental


change, it is essential that the potential


negative effects of further development of


Aquaculture


aquaculture be thoroughly appraised.


Environmental protection and nature Aquaculture is defined here as a


conservation now have much higher modification of the definition proposed by


FA0 (1990a), omitting FAO's criterion


*ICEARM Contribution No. 737 that produce can be considered as derived from aquaculture only if raised under Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin


individual or corporate ownership. America and Oceania (excluding Australia


Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic and New Zealand). This UN report referred


organisms, including fish, molluscs, back to a 1963 UN distinction between


crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming 'developed' andidevelsping'c ountries based


implies some farm of intervention in the on population growth and pronounced it


rearing process to enhance production, still valid:


such as regular stocking, feeding, No other criterion, be itp er capita


protection from predators, etc. (sic) income, urbanization, literacy,


industrialization, etc., defines this


This definition includes enhanced


dichotomy so sharply as the level of


fisheries (stock enhancement, aquatic


fertility. With exceedingly few


ranching and management of natural


exceptions, it can be said that where


aquatic environments) within the scope of


the gross reproduction rate is greater


production systems considered. FA0 than 2.0, the country is a 'developing'


(1990b) includes in aquaculture statistics one, and where it is less, the country is


those "culture-based" fisheries that are 'developed'.


stocked annually with propagated Singapore, the Republic of Korea and


juveniles, but regards fisheries that are Taiwan are here excludedf rom the definition


established through single or intermittent of developing countries.


introductions as contributing to capture The Club of Rome recognized the limits


fisheries production. to development.


Aquaculture can be broadly classified We are further convinced that


as extensive, having no feed or fertilizer demographic pressure in the worldhas


inputs; semi-intensive, having some already attained such a high level, and


is moreover so unequally distributed,


fertilizer andlor feed inputs; andintensive,


that this alone must compel mankind


largely reliant on feed inputs (Edwards et


to seek a state of equilibrium on our


al. l988a; Pullinl989). Enhanced fisheries


planet (Meadows et al. 1972).


resemble extensive aquaculture with low


So, would 'transformati.on' be a better


levels of human intervention.


term than development? Probably not, as


Classification of aquaculture according to


human 'states of equilibrium' are always


the economic goals or status of culturists -


highly dynamic. Development can be


for example as 'subsistence', 'commercial'


defined simply as the betterment of living


and 'entrepreneurial' - has also been


standards for the disadvantaged.


attempted but is usually confusing. In


Betterment implies improved quality of


much of Asia and Africa, fish is 'the other


life in, for example, health, education and


staple' (other than grains),t he main animal


recreation.


protein source of the people. All farmers


who try something new and profitable can Enuironment


be considered 'entrepreneurs' whatever


The term 'environment' is defined here


the scale of their operations. Subsistence


broadly as the whole ecosystem and its


aquaculture barely exists. Virtually all


nonliving and living resources, including


aquaculture has a profit motive in cash or


human beings.


in kind.


Developing Countries


and Development Sustainability


A developing country is defined here Sustainability has become a


largely as in a UN (1989a) report: all of fundamental consideration for all


--.---


- .......


,


G


r


..J!} ~


,-,'':1i


1 ~ ~ '1.


I ' 'I ;J'.ll~'-:ll~


L


I .",'


I . '. .1 t I P 1


I '\1\.1'1.f- 1:\HII'I.J'111


!fl-,.\"'"


1 i 1. \


.. -::...' -I. '..1 1 .1~


-- Environment and ~kaculture


in Developing Countries


Edited by


R.S.V. Pullin


H. Rosenthal


J.L. Maclean


INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR DEUTSCHE GESELLSC%bU?TF UR


LIVING AQUATIC TECHNISCHE ZUSAMMENARBEIT


RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (GTZ) GmbH Environment and Aquaculture


in Developing Countries


Edited by


Published by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Manage-


ment, MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati, Metm Manila, Philippines and


Deutwhe Gewllschaft far Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)G mbH,


Postfach 5180, D-6236E schborn, Federal Republic of Germany


Printed in Manila, Philippines


,Pullin,R .S.V.,H . Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean, Editors. 1993. Environment


and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p.


ISSN 0115-4435


ISBN 971-8709-05-3


Cower: Khao Sam Roi Yot (Mountain of Three Hundred Peaks) Natural Park


is located in Prachuab Khiri Khan pmvince in Thailand. The 98-kmP park


contains a 40-kmP marsh, an important sanctuary for birds which irr listed in


the Asian Wetlands Directory of the IUCN as a site of global conservation


importance. Vast areas of marsh in the park have been converted into shrimp


ponds. The prestigious Siam Society, a national NGO has urged action by the


government. Although many of the ahrimp ponds have ceased operation


(because of diaeam caused by intensive culture and limited water supply),


new ponds were still being constructed in December 1992. Photo courtesy of


Peter Edwards.


Available at US$15 (surface mail), $22 (airmail), P350 fmm: TCLARM, MCPO


Box 2631,0718 M.a kati, Metro Manila, Philippines International Specialized


Book Services, 6804 N.E. Hassalo St., Portland, Oregon 97213-3644 USA (use


airmail price) Ernst S. Toeche-Mittler GmbH, Versandbuchhandlung,


Hindenburgstrasse 33, D-6100 Dannstadt, Gemany (use airmail price).


Please make payments payable to ICLARM in US$ by international money


order or bankdraft. We can amept US$ checks only if from a US-based bank


due to high clearance fees of other banka.


ICLARM Contribution No. 941 Contents


Foreword M.Bilio ...................................................................................................v.. ..


...................................................................................................


Acknowledgements vii


An Overview of Environmental Issues in


Developing-Country Aquaculture R.S.V. Pullin ................................................1.


The Impacts of Aquaculture Development on


Socioeconomic Environments in Developing


Countries: Towards a Paradigm for


.......................................................................................


Assessment K. Ruddle 20


Aquaculture and Management of Freshwater


Environments, with Emphasis on


Latin America M. Martinez-Espinosa and U.B arg ........................................4..2


Aquaculture and Conservation of Genetic Diversity


S. Cataudella and D. Crosetti ......................................................................6..0


Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


in the Developing Countries of Asia I. Csauas ...............................................7 4


The Environmental Consequences of Intensive Coastal


Aquaculture in Developed Countries:


What Lessons Can Be Learnt R.J. Gowen and H. Rosenthal .........................1 02


Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


in Africa H.R. King ........................................................................................1..1 6


Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues


in the Tropical Pacific J.L. Munro ................................................................1..2 5


Environmental Issues in Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture


and Wastewater-Fed Fish Culture Systems P. Edwards ................................ 139


Shrimp Culture and the Environment: Lessons from the World's


Most Rapidly Expanding Warmwater Aquaculture Sector


M. J. Philips, C. Kwei Lin and M. C. M. Beueridge ...........................................1 71


Discussion on Latin American Shrimp Culture ....................................................1 98 Environmental Management of Coastal Aquaculture Practices


and Their Development + T.E.C hua ................................................................1. 99


Environmental Impact of Tropical Inland Aquaculture


M.C.M. Beveridge and M.J. Phillips ..............................................................2. 13


Environmental Issues in the Control of Bacterial Diseases


of Farmed Fish B. Austin ..............................................................................2.3 7


Developing-Country Aquaculture and Harmful Algal Booms


J.L. Maclean .................................................................................................2..5. 2


Microbial Safety of Produce from Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture


N . Buras ....................................................................................................2.8..5.


Developing-Country Aquaculture. Trace Chemical Contaminants.


and Public Health Concerns + D.J.H. Phillips ................................................2.9 6


Discussion and Recommendations on Aquaculture and Environment


in Developing Countries Compiled by R.S.V.P ullin ......................................3..1 2


Author Index ...........................................................................................................3.3. 9


....................................................................................................


Geographic Index 3 4 7


Species Index .........................................................................................................3..5. 1


...............................................................................................


List of Participants 3 5 8 Foreword


The resources available to ensure the continuance of life on earth are finite. Any


resource can only serve a limited number ofpurposes at the same time and place. This


is particularly true of water which is a fundamental requirement not only for aquatic


but also for terrestrial organisms. It similarly applies to nutrients and energy.


With an increasing demand for food:energy and space by growingpopulation, the


pressure of exploitation is reaching alarming levels on an increasing number of


species and over an expanding area. To avoid overexploitation and loss, the resources


essential for human survival must be used efficiently and wisely. This requires


channeling their utilization in ways that fulfill multiple and complementary objectives


wherever possible.


Modern aquaculture appeared at a time when many claims for use of the


resources had been made and competition was growing for those niches still available.


Labor was becoming increasingly expensive, leading to intensification in terms of


rationalization and mechanization to reduce costs. This meant higher stocking


densities and higher demand for feed and energy. Among the most immediate


environmental consequencesw ere overloading ofthe waters with nutrients, contamination


with chemicals for the treatment of diseases and pests, and ecological damage


through the installation of voluminous infrastructure. The demand for feed increased


the pressure on other living resources such as small pelagic fish utilized as fishmeal.


Most of the more conspicuous mistakes made so far were committed by developed


countries. Some at least could have been avoided through more awareness, foresight


and readiness to renounce fast profits which were both questionable and harmful in


the long term. The most important lesson to be learnt from the past is more


consideration for the need to understand better the environmental and social context


in which aquaculture is being developed. Such better understanding should then lead


to the establishment of a general policy to guide development action in the most


promising directions and to keep negative side effects to a minimum.


In the majority of developing countries, intensification is of less immediate


concern, though on a mid- and long-term basis related problems will gain in


importance. The more urgent question is how to make the best possible use of the


productivity of natural systems without radical environmental changes and at low


levels of costly inputs. What is needed for the future is an approach which makes use


of the experience available, adds to the existing know-how through continued


research efforts, elaborates and refines guidelines, and creates appropriate frameworks


for further development. Aquaculture production is in great demand, but it must not


be achieved without due regard to safeguarding our basis of survival.


This proceedings volume presents detailed reviews of pertinent environmental


issues and the conclusions and recommendations of an international conference


convened by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management


(ICLARM) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusarnmenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH at the Bellagio Conference and Study Centre of the Rockefeller Foundation in


September 1990. Only for a few of the issues are clear solutions becoming apparent.


Much remains to be done and only intensive collaboration among all parties concerned


will bring us closer to success. The results of this conference should be seen as a step


in this direction.


Dr. Martin Bilio


Senior Adviser for Living


Aquatic Resources Utilization


Deutsche Gesselschaft fiir Technische


Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH


Federal Republic of Germany Acknowledgements


This conference was made possible by the Rockefeller Foundation which offered


the use of its magnificent Bellagio Study and Conference Center as the venue and by


the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, which


provided a generous grant to cover organizational and publishing costs.


vii An Overview of Environmental Issues


in Developing-CountryA quaculture*


ROGERS. V. PULLIN


International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management


MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati


Metro Manila, Philippines


PULLM, R.S.V. 1993. An overview of environmental issues in developing-country aquaculture, p. l-


19. In R.S.V.P ullin, H. Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean (eds.) Environment: and aquaculture in


developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p.


Abstract


Aquaculture, like all interventions by humans to exploit or manage natural resources for food


production, has the potential for causing environmental harm as well as for improving livelihood and


nutrition. Aquaculture development mustbeundertaken in a broad intersectnral context, considering


especially its interactions with agriculture, forestry and capture fisheries and its environmental


consequences. This paper examines types of aquaculture development and discusses the concept of


sustainability and demographic, political and emnornic factors before giving examples of recent


developments and criteria for assessing others.


profiles in the political arena, mass media


Introduction


and public awareness than before.


Environmental impacts at the relatj.vely


Aquaculture, like all food production


new frontier of aquaculture need very


by farming, has large effects on the


careful attention.


environment, many of which can be


This paper gives working definitions


negative: occupation and fragmentation


of terms (aquaculture, developing


of former natural habitats; reduction of


countries, environment, sustainability and


the abundance and diversity of wildlife


agroecology) and discusses broad concepts,


and changes in soil, water and landscape


summarizes the status of developing-


quality. The same applies to agriculture


country aquaculture and considers the


(Simons1988,1989).B ecause farming will


future of aquaculture in developing


remain the mainstay of most developing-


countries, emphasizing the search for


country economies for the foreseeable


sustainability in the face of rapid change.


future and will cause much environmental


change, it is essential that the potential


negative effects of further development of


Aquaculture


aquaculture be thoroughly appraised.


Environmental protection and nature Aquaculture is defined here as a


conservation now have much higher modification of the definition proposed by


FA0 (1990a), omitting FAO's criterion


*ICEARM Contribution No. 737 that produce can be considered as derived from aquaculture only if raised under Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin


individual or corporate ownership. America and Oceania (excluding Australia


Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic and New Zealand). This UN report referred


organisms, including fish, molluscs, back to a 1963 UN distinction between


crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming 'developed' andidevelsping'c ountries based


implies some farm of intervention in the on population growth and pronounced it


rearing process to enhance production, still valid:


such as regular stocking, feeding, No other criterion, be itp er capita


protection from predators, etc. (sic) income, urbanization, literacy,


industrialization, etc., defines this


This definition includes enhanced


dichotomy so sharply as the level of


fisheries (stock enhancement, aquatic


fertility. With exceedingly few


ranching and management of natural


exceptions, it can be said that where


aquatic environments) within the scope of


the gross reproduction rate is greater


production systems considered. FA0 than 2.0, the country is a 'developing'


(1990b) includes in aquaculture statistics one, and where it is less, the country is


those "culture-based" fisheries that are 'developed'.


stocked annually with propagated Singapore, the Republic of Korea and


juveniles, but regards fisheries that are Taiwan are here excludedf rom the definition


established through single or intermittent of developing countries.


introductions as contributing to capture The Club of Rome recognized the limits


fisheries production. to development.


Aquaculture can be broadly classified We are further convinced that


as extensive, having no feed or fertilizer demographic pressure in the worldhas


inputs; semi-intensive, having some already attained such a high level, and


is moreover so unequally distributed,


fertilizer andlor feed inputs; andintensive,


that this alone must compel mankind


largely reliant on feed inputs (Edwards et


to seek a state of equilibrium on our


al. l988a; Pullinl989). Enhanced fisheries


planet (Meadows et al. 1972).


resemble extensive aquaculture with low


So, would 'transformati.on' be a better


levels of human intervention.


term than development? Probably not, as


Classification of aquaculture according to


human 'states of equilibrium' are always


the economic goals or status of culturists -


highly dynamic. Development can be


for example as 'subsistence', 'commercial'


defined simply as the betterment of living


and 'entrepreneurial' - has also been


standards for the disadvantaged.


attempted but is usually confusing. In


Betterment implies improved quality of


much of Asia and Africa, fish is 'the other


life in, for example, health, education and


staple' (other than grains),t he main animal


recreation.


protein source of the people. All farmers


who try something new and profitable can Enuironment


be considered 'entrepreneurs' whatever


The term 'environment' is defined here


the scale of their operations. Subsistence


broadly as the whole ecosystem and its


aquaculture barely exists. Virtually all


nonliving and living resources, including


aquaculture has a profit motive in cash or


human beings.


in kind.


Developing Countries


and Development Sustainability


A developing country is defined here Sustainability has become a


largely as in a UN (1989a) report: all of fundamental consideration for all


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