Engineering Surveying - M. Can İban

534 Pages · 2008 · 6.41 MB · English

  • Engineering Surveying - M. Can İban

    Engineering Surveying This book is dedicated to my late wife Jean and my daughter Zoë Engineering Surveying

    Theory and Examination

    Problems for Students

    Fifth Edition

    W. Schofield

    Principal Lecturer, Kingston University


    Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP

    225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041

    A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd

    A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group

    First published 1972

    Second edition 1978

    Third edition 1984

    Fourth edition 1993

    Reprinted 1995, 1997, 1998

    Fifth edition 2001

    © W. Schofield 1972, 1978, 1984, 1993, 1998, 2001

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication

    may be reproduced in any material form (including

    photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic

    means and whether or not transiently or incidentally

    to some other use of this publication) without the

    written permission of the copyright holder except in

    accordance with the provisions of the Copyright,

    Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a

    licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd,

    90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE.

    Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission

    to reproduce any part of this publication should be

    addressed to the publishers

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Schofield, W. (Wilfred)

    Engineering surveying: theory and examination problems for students. – 5th ed.

    1 Surveying

    I Title


    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Schofield, W. (Wilfred)

    Engineering surveying: theory and examination problems for students/W. Schofield.–5th ed.

    p. cm.

    ISBN 0 7506 4987 9 (pbk.)

    1 Surveying I Title.

    TA545.S263 2001


    ISBN 0 7506 4987 9

    Typeset in Replika Press Pvt Ltd. 100% EOU, Delhi 110 040, (India)

    Printed and bound in Great Britain Contents

    Preface to fifth edition vii

    Preface to fourth edition ix

    Acknowledgements xi

    1 Basic concepts of surveying 1

    Definition – Basic measurements – Control networks – Locating position – Locating

    topographic detail – Computer systems – DGM – CAD – GIS – Vector/raster – Topology –

    Laser scanner – Summary – Units of measurement – Significant figures – Rounding off

    numbers – Errors in measurement – Indices of precision – Weight – Rejection of outliers –

    Combination of errors

    2 Vertical control 43

    Introduction – Levelling – Definitions – Curvature and refraction – Equipment – Instrument

    adjustment – Principle of levelling – Sources of error – Closure tolerances – Error

    distribution – Levelling applications – Reciprocal levelling – Precise levelling – Digital

    levelling – Trigonometrical levelling – Stadia tacheometry

    3 Distance 117

    Tapes – Field work – Distance adjustment – Errors in taping – Accuracies –

    Electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) – Measuring principles – Meteorological

    corrections – Geometrical reductions – Errors and calibration – Other error sources –

    Instrument specifications – Developments in EDM – Optical distance measurement (ODM)

    4 Angles 178

    The theodolite – Instrumental errors – Instrument adjustment – Field procedure – Measuring

    angles – Sources of error

    5 Position 208

    Introduction – Reference ellipsoid – Coordinate systems – Local systems – Computation on

    the ellipsoid – Datum transformations – Orthomorphic projection – Ordnance Survey

    National Grid – Practical applications – The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection

    (UTM) – Plane rectangular coordinates

    6 Control surveys 252

    Traversing – Triangulation – Trilateration – Triangulateration – Inertial surveying

    7 Satellite positioning 307

    Introduction – GPS segments – GPS receivers – Satellite orbits – Basic principle of position

    fixing – Differencing data – GPS field procedures – Error sources – GPS survey planning –

    Transformation between reference systems – Datums – Other satellite systems –

    Applications vi Contents

    8 Curves 347

    Circular curves – Setting out curves – Compound and reverse curves – Short and/or small-

    radius curves –Transition curves – Setting-out data – Cubic spiral and cubic parabola –

    Curve transitional throughout – The osculating circle – Vertical curves

    9 Earthworks 420

    Areas – Partition of land – Cross-sections – Dip and strike – Volumes – Mass-haul


    10 Setting out (dimensional control) 464

    Protection and referencing – Basic setting-out procedures using coordinates – Technique for

    setting out a direction – Use of grids – Setting out buildings – Controlling verticality – Controlling

    grading excavation – Rotating lasers – Laser hazards – Route location – Underground surveying

    – Gyro-theodolite – Line and level – Responsibility on site – Responsibility of the setting-out


    Index 517 Preface to the fourth edition

    This book was originally intended to combine volumes 1 and 2 of Engineering Surveying, 3rd and

    2nd editions respectively. However, the technological developments since the last publication date

    (1984) have been so far-reaching as to warrant the complete rewriting, modernizing and production

    of an entirely new book.

    Foremost among these developments are the modern total stations, including the automatic self-

    seeking instruments; completely automated, ‘field to finish’ survey systems; digital levels; land/

    geographic information systems (L/GIS) for the managing of any spatially based information or

    activity; inertial survey systems (ISS); and three-dimensional position fixing by satellites (GPS).

    In order to include all this new material and still limit the size of the book a conscious decision

    was made to delete those topics, namely photogrammetry, hydrography and field astronomy, more

    adequately covered by specialist texts.

    In spite of the very impressive developments which render engineering surveying one of the

    most technologically advanced subjects, the material is arranged to introduce the reader to elementary

    procedures and instrumentation, giving a clear understanding of the basic concept of measurement

    as applied to the capture, processing and presentation of spatial data. Chapters 1 and 4 deal with the

    basic principles of surveying, vertical control, and linear and angular measurement, in order to

    permit the student early access to the associated equipment. Chapter 5 deals with coordinate

    systems and reference datums necessary for an understanding of satellite position fixing and an

    appreciation of the various forms in which spatial data can be presented to an L/GIS. Chapter 6

    deals with control surveys, paying particular attention to GPS, which even in its present incomplete

    stage has had a revolutionary impact on all aspects of surveying. Chapter 7 deals with elementary,

    least squares data processing and provides an introduction to more advanced texts on this topic.

    Chapters 8 to 10 cover in detail those areas (curves, earthworks and general setting out on site) of

    specific interest to the engineer and engineering surveyor. Each chapter contains a section of

    ‘Worked Examples’, carefully chosen to clearly illustrate the concepts involved. Student exercises,

    complete with answers, are supplied for private study. The book is aimed specifically at students of

    surveying, civil, mining and municipal engineering and should also prove valuable for the continuing

    education of professionals in these fields.

    W. Schofield This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface to the fifth edition

    Since the publication of the fourth edition of this book, major changes have occurred in the

    following areas:

    • surveying instrumentation, particularly Robotic Total Stations with Automatic Target Recognition,

    reflectorless distance measurement, etc., resulting in turnkey packages for machine guidance

    and deformation monitoring. In addition there has been the development of a new instrument

    and technique known as laser scanning

    • GIS, making it a very prominent and important part of geomatic engineering

    • satellite positioning, with major improvements to the GPS system, the continuance of the GLONASS

    system, and a proposal for a European system called GALILEO

    • national and international co-ordinate systems and datums as a result of the increasing use of

    satellite systems.

    All these changes have been dealt with in detail, the importance of satellite systems being

    evidenced by a new chapter devoted entirely to this topic.

    In order to include all this new material and still retain a economical size for the book, it was

    necessary but regrettable to delete the chapter on Least Squares Estimation. This decision was

    based on a survey by the publishers that showed this important topic was not included in the

    majority of engineering courses. It can, however, still be referred to in the fourth edition or in

    specialised texts, if required.

    All the above new material has been fully expounded in the text, while still retaining the many

    worked examples which have always been a feature of the book. It is hoped that this new edition

    will still be of benefit to all students and practitioners of those branches of engineering which

    contain a study and application of engineering surveying.

    W. Schofield

    February 2001

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