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Engineering Surveying - M. Can İban

534 Pages · 2008 · 6.41 MB · English

  • Engineering Surveying - M. Can İban

    Engineering Surveying This book is dedicated to my late wife Jean and my daughter Zoë Engineering Surveying


    Theory and Examination


    Problems for Students


    Fifth Edition


    W. Schofield


    Principal Lecturer, Kingston University


    OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI Butterworth-Heinemann


    Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP


    225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041


    A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd


    A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group


    First published 1972


    Second edition 1978


    Third edition 1984


    Fourth edition 1993


    Reprinted 1995, 1997, 1998


    Fifth edition 2001


    © W. Schofield 1972, 1978, 1984, 1993, 1998, 2001


    All rights reserved. No part of this publication


    may be reproduced in any material form (including


    photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic


    means and whether or not transiently or incidentally


    to some other use of this publication) without the


    written permission of the copyright holder except in


    accordance with the provisions of the Copyright,


    Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a


    licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd,


    90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE.


    Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission


    to reproduce any part of this publication should be


    addressed to the publishers


    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


    Schofield, W. (Wilfred)


    Engineering surveying: theory and examination problems for students. – 5th ed.


    1 Surveying


    I Title


    526.9′024624


    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data


    Schofield, W. (Wilfred)


    Engineering surveying: theory and examination problems for students/W. Schofield.–5th ed.


    p. cm.


    ISBN 0 7506 4987 9 (pbk.)


    1 Surveying I Title.


    TA545.S263 2001


    526.9′024′62–dc21


    ISBN 0 7506 4987 9


    Typeset in Replika Press Pvt Ltd. 100% EOU, Delhi 110 040, (India)


    Printed and bound in Great Britain Contents


    Preface to fifth edition vii


    Preface to fourth edition ix


    Acknowledgements xi


    1 Basic concepts of surveying 1


    Definition – Basic measurements – Control networks – Locating position – Locating


    topographic detail – Computer systems – DGM – CAD – GIS – Vector/raster – Topology –


    Laser scanner – Summary – Units of measurement – Significant figures – Rounding off


    numbers – Errors in measurement – Indices of precision – Weight – Rejection of outliers –


    Combination of errors


    2 Vertical control 43


    Introduction – Levelling – Definitions – Curvature and refraction – Equipment – Instrument


    adjustment – Principle of levelling – Sources of error – Closure tolerances – Error


    distribution – Levelling applications – Reciprocal levelling – Precise levelling – Digital


    levelling – Trigonometrical levelling – Stadia tacheometry


    3 Distance 117


    Tapes – Field work – Distance adjustment – Errors in taping – Accuracies –


    Electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) – Measuring principles – Meteorological


    corrections – Geometrical reductions – Errors and calibration – Other error sources –


    Instrument specifications – Developments in EDM – Optical distance measurement (ODM)


    4 Angles 178


    The theodolite – Instrumental errors – Instrument adjustment – Field procedure – Measuring


    angles – Sources of error


    5 Position 208


    Introduction – Reference ellipsoid – Coordinate systems – Local systems – Computation on


    the ellipsoid – Datum transformations – Orthomorphic projection – Ordnance Survey


    National Grid – Practical applications – The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection


    (UTM) – Plane rectangular coordinates


    6 Control surveys 252


    Traversing – Triangulation – Trilateration – Triangulateration – Inertial surveying


    7 Satellite positioning 307


    Introduction – GPS segments – GPS receivers – Satellite orbits – Basic principle of position


    fixing – Differencing data – GPS field procedures – Error sources – GPS survey planning –


    Transformation between reference systems – Datums – Other satellite systems –


    Applications vi Contents


    8 Curves 347


    Circular curves – Setting out curves – Compound and reverse curves – Short and/or small-


    radius curves –Transition curves – Setting-out data – Cubic spiral and cubic parabola –


    Curve transitional throughout – The osculating circle – Vertical curves


    9 Earthworks 420


    Areas – Partition of land – Cross-sections – Dip and strike – Volumes – Mass-haul


    diagrams


    10 Setting out (dimensional control) 464


    Protection and referencing – Basic setting-out procedures using coordinates – Technique for


    setting out a direction – Use of grids – Setting out buildings – Controlling verticality – Controlling


    grading excavation – Rotating lasers – Laser hazards – Route location – Underground surveying


    – Gyro-theodolite – Line and level – Responsibility on site – Responsibility of the setting-out


    engineer


    Index 517 Preface to the fourth edition


    This book was originally intended to combine volumes 1 and 2 of Engineering Surveying, 3rd and


    2nd editions respectively. However, the technological developments since the last publication date


    (1984) have been so far-reaching as to warrant the complete rewriting, modernizing and production


    of an entirely new book.


    Foremost among these developments are the modern total stations, including the automatic self-


    seeking instruments; completely automated, ‘field to finish’ survey systems; digital levels; land/


    geographic information systems (L/GIS) for the managing of any spatially based information or


    activity; inertial survey systems (ISS); and three-dimensional position fixing by satellites (GPS).


    In order to include all this new material and still limit the size of the book a conscious decision


    was made to delete those topics, namely photogrammetry, hydrography and field astronomy, more


    adequately covered by specialist texts.


    In spite of the very impressive developments which render engineering surveying one of the


    most technologically advanced subjects, the material is arranged to introduce the reader to elementary


    procedures and instrumentation, giving a clear understanding of the basic concept of measurement


    as applied to the capture, processing and presentation of spatial data. Chapters 1 and 4 deal with the


    basic principles of surveying, vertical control, and linear and angular measurement, in order to


    permit the student early access to the associated equipment. Chapter 5 deals with coordinate


    systems and reference datums necessary for an understanding of satellite position fixing and an


    appreciation of the various forms in which spatial data can be presented to an L/GIS. Chapter 6


    deals with control surveys, paying particular attention to GPS, which even in its present incomplete


    stage has had a revolutionary impact on all aspects of surveying. Chapter 7 deals with elementary,


    least squares data processing and provides an introduction to more advanced texts on this topic.


    Chapters 8 to 10 cover in detail those areas (curves, earthworks and general setting out on site) of


    specific interest to the engineer and engineering surveyor. Each chapter contains a section of


    ‘Worked Examples’, carefully chosen to clearly illustrate the concepts involved. Student exercises,


    complete with answers, are supplied for private study. The book is aimed specifically at students of


    surveying, civil, mining and municipal engineering and should also prove valuable for the continuing


    education of professionals in these fields.


    W. Schofield This Page Intentionally Left Blank Preface to the fifth edition


    Since the publication of the fourth edition of this book, major changes have occurred in the


    following areas:


    • surveying instrumentation, particularly Robotic Total Stations with Automatic Target Recognition,


    reflectorless distance measurement, etc., resulting in turnkey packages for machine guidance


    and deformation monitoring. In addition there has been the development of a new instrument


    and technique known as laser scanning


    • GIS, making it a very prominent and important part of geomatic engineering


    • satellite positioning, with major improvements to the GPS system, the continuance of the GLONASS


    system, and a proposal for a European system called GALILEO


    • national and international co-ordinate systems and datums as a result of the increasing use of


    satellite systems.


    All these changes have been dealt with in detail, the importance of satellite systems being


    evidenced by a new chapter devoted entirely to this topic.


    In order to include all this new material and still retain a economical size for the book, it was


    necessary but regrettable to delete the chapter on Least Squares Estimation. This decision was


    based on a survey by the publishers that showed this important topic was not included in the


    majority of engineering courses. It can, however, still be referred to in the fourth edition or in


    specialised texts, if required.


    All the above new material has been fully expounded in the text, while still retaining the many


    worked examples which have always been a feature of the book. It is hoped that this new edition


    will still be of benefit to all students and practitioners of those branches of engineering which


    contain a study and application of engineering surveying.


    W. Schofield


    February 2001


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