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Engineering Rock Mechanics

458 Pages · 2004 · 11.64 MB · English

  • Engineering Rock Mechanics

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    on Engineering rock


    mechanics


    an introduction to the principles Engineering rock


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    mechanics


    an introduction to the principles


    John A. Hudson


    Professor of Engineering Rock Mechanics


    Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine


    University of London, UK


    and


    John P. Harrison


    Senior Lecturer in Engineering Rock Mechanics


    Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine


    University of London, UK


    Pergamon


    An imprint of Elsevier Science


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    0 1997 J. A. Hudson and J. P. Harrison. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.


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    First edition 1997


    Second impression 2000


    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


    A catalog record from the Library of Congress has been applied for.


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    ISBN: 0 08 04 191 2 7 (Hardbound)


    ISBN: 0 08 043864 4 (Flexibound)


    The paper used in this publication meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO 239.48-1992 (Permanence of


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    Printed and bound in Great Britain by Redwood Books, Trowbridge For all our past, present and future students and colleagues


    at Imperial College About the authors


    Professor J. A. Hudson


    John Hudson graduated in 1965 from the Heriot-Watt University and


    obtained his Ph.D. in 1970 at the University of Minnesota. He has spent his


    professional career in rock mechanics and rock engineering-as they apply


    to both civil and mining engineering-in consulting, research and teach-


    ing. He has written over 100 scientific papers and been awarded the D.Sc.


    degree by the Heriot-Watt University for his contributions to the subject.


    From 1983 to 1993, Professor Hudson was based at Imperial College


    where most of the book was written. He is now a Principal of Rock Engi-


    neering Consultants, a Visiting Professor at Imperial College, and actively


    engaged in applying engineering rock mechanics principles to relevant


    engineering practice worldwide.


    Dr J. P. Harrison


    John Harrison graduated in civil engineering from Imperial College,


    University of London and then worked for some years in the civil engi-


    neering industry with both contracting and consulting organizations.


    This was interspersed by studies leading to a Master’s degree, also from


    Imperial College, in engineering rock mechanics. In 1986 he was appoint-


    ed Lecturer in Engineering Rock Mechanics at Imperial College, was


    promoted to Senior Lecturer in 1996 and now directs undergraduate and


    post-graduate rock mechanics teaching, as well as research there.


    His personal research interests are in the characterization and behaviour


    of discontinuous rock masses and, for his work on novel mathematical


    methods applied to the analysis of discontinuity geometry, he was awarded


    the degree of Ph.D. by the University of London in 1993. Contents


    Preface xi


    1. Introduction 1


    1.1 The subject of rock mechanics 1


    1.2 Content of this book 9


    2. Geological setting 11


    2.1 Rock as an engineering material 11


    2.2 Natural rock environments 14


    2.3 The influence of geological factors on rocks and rock masses 16


    3. Stress 31


    3.1 Why study stress in rock mechanics and rock engineering? 31


    3.2 The difference between a scalar, a vector and a tensor 32


    3.3 Normal stress components and shear stress components 32


    3.4 Stress as a point property 33


    3.5 The stress components on a small cube within the rock 34


    3.6 The symmetry of the stress matrix 36


    3.7 The state of stress at a point has six independent components 37


    3.8 The principal stresses 37


    3.9 All unsupported excavation surfaces are principal stress


    planes 38


    3.10 Concluding remarks 40


    4. In situ stress 41


    4.1 Why determine in situ stress? 41


    4.2 Presentation of in situ stress state data 41


    4.3 Methods of stress determination 42


    4.4 Statistical analysis of stress state data 52


    4.5 The representative elemental volume for stress 54


    4.6 Predictions of natural in situ stress states based on elasticity


    theory 56


    4.7 Collated worldwide in situ stress data 59 viii Contents


    4.8 Reasons for high horizontal stresses 62


    4.9 Effect of discontinuities on the proximate state of stress 65


    4.10 Glossary of terms related to stress states in rock masses 68


    5. Strain 71


    5.1 Finite strain 71


    5.2 Examples of homogeneous finite strain 73


    5.3 Infinitesimal strain 75


    5.4 The strain tensor 77


    5.5 The elastic compliance matrix 78


    5.6 Implications for in situ stress 82


    6. Intact rock 85


    6.1 The background to intact rock testing 85


    6.2 The complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression 86


    6.3 Soft, stiff and servo-controlled testing machines 89


    6.4 Specimen geometry, loading conditions and environmental


    effects 95


    6.5 Failure criteria 106


    6.6 Concluding remarks 111


    7. Discontinuities 113


    7.1 The occurrence of discontinuities 114


    7.2 Geometrical properties of discontinuities 116


    7.3 Mechanical properties 134


    7.4 Discussion 138


    8. Rock masses 141


    8.1 Deformability 141


    8.2 Strength 144


    8.3 Post-peak strength behaviour 147


    9. Permeability 149


    9.1 Fundamental definitions 149


    9.2 Primary and secondary permeability 151


    9.3 Flow through discontinuities 151


    9.4 Flow through discontinuity networks 154


    9.5 Scale effect 156


    9.6 A note on effective stresses 159


    9.7 Some practical aspects: grouting and blasting 160


    10. Anisotropy and inhomogeneity 163


    10.1 Definitions 163


    10.2 Anisotropy 165


    10.3 Inhomogeneity 166


    10.4 Ramifications for analysis 169


    11. Testing techniques 173


    11.1 Access to the rock 173 Contents ix


    11.2 Tailoring testing to engineering requirements 17 4


    11.3 Tests on intact rock 177


    11.4 Tests on discontinuities 181


    11.5 Tests on rock masses 186


    11.6 Standardized tests 191


    12. Rock mass classification 193


    12.1 Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system 193


    12.2 Q-system 195


    12.3 Applications of rock mass classification systems 198


    12.4 Links between the classification systems and rock properties 201


    12.5 Discussion 201


    12.6 Extensions to rock mass classification techniques 202


    12.7 Concluding remarks 206


    13. Rock dynamics and time-dependent aspects 207


    13.1 Introduction 207


    13.2 Stress waves 208


    13.3 Time-dependency 213


    13.4 Time-dependency in rock engineering 221


    14. Rock mechanics interactions and rock engineering


    systems (RES) 223


    14.1 Introduction to the subject 223


    14.2 Interaction matrices 225


    14.3 Interaction matrices in rock mechanics 228


    14.4 Symmetry of interaction matrices 229


    14.5 A rock mechanics-rock engineering interaction matrix 232


    14.6 Further examples of rock mechanics interaction matrices 235


    14.7 Concluding remarks 236


    15. Excavation principles 239


    15.1 The excavation process 239


    15.2 Rock blasting 243


    15.3 Specialized blasting techniques 248


    15.4 Mechanical excavation 255


    15.5 Vibrations due to excavation 261


    16. Stabilization principles 267


    16.1 The effect of excavation on the rock mass environment 267


    16.2 The stabilization strategy 269


    16.3 Rock reinforcement 271


    16.4 Rock support 274


    16.5 Stabilization of 'transitional' rock masses 279


    16.6 Further comments on rock stabilization methods 282


    17. Surface excavation instability mechanisms 287


    17.1 Slope instability 287


    17.2 Foundation instability 298


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