Engineering Rock Mechanics

458 Pages · 2004 · 11.64 MB · English

  • Engineering Rock Mechanics



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    on Engineering rock


    an introduction to the principles Engineering rock

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    an introduction to the principles

    John A. Hudson

    Professor of Engineering Rock Mechanics

    Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    University of London, UK


    John P. Harrison

    Senior Lecturer in Engineering Rock Mechanics

    Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine

    University of London, UK


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    0 1997 J. A. Hudson and J. P. Harrison. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

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    First edition 1997

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    Printed and bound in Great Britain by Redwood Books, Trowbridge For all our past, present and future students and colleagues

    at Imperial College About the authors

    Professor J. A. Hudson

    John Hudson graduated in 1965 from the Heriot-Watt University and

    obtained his Ph.D. in 1970 at the University of Minnesota. He has spent his

    professional career in rock mechanics and rock engineering-as they apply

    to both civil and mining engineering-in consulting, research and teach-

    ing. He has written over 100 scientific papers and been awarded the D.Sc.

    degree by the Heriot-Watt University for his contributions to the subject.

    From 1983 to 1993, Professor Hudson was based at Imperial College

    where most of the book was written. He is now a Principal of Rock Engi-

    neering Consultants, a Visiting Professor at Imperial College, and actively

    engaged in applying engineering rock mechanics principles to relevant

    engineering practice worldwide.

    Dr J. P. Harrison

    John Harrison graduated in civil engineering from Imperial College,

    University of London and then worked for some years in the civil engi-

    neering industry with both contracting and consulting organizations.

    This was interspersed by studies leading to a Master’s degree, also from

    Imperial College, in engineering rock mechanics. In 1986 he was appoint-

    ed Lecturer in Engineering Rock Mechanics at Imperial College, was

    promoted to Senior Lecturer in 1996 and now directs undergraduate and

    post-graduate rock mechanics teaching, as well as research there.

    His personal research interests are in the characterization and behaviour

    of discontinuous rock masses and, for his work on novel mathematical

    methods applied to the analysis of discontinuity geometry, he was awarded

    the degree of Ph.D. by the University of London in 1993. Contents

    Preface xi

    1. Introduction 1

    1.1 The subject of rock mechanics 1

    1.2 Content of this book 9

    2. Geological setting 11

    2.1 Rock as an engineering material 11

    2.2 Natural rock environments 14

    2.3 The influence of geological factors on rocks and rock masses 16

    3. Stress 31

    3.1 Why study stress in rock mechanics and rock engineering? 31

    3.2 The difference between a scalar, a vector and a tensor 32

    3.3 Normal stress components and shear stress components 32

    3.4 Stress as a point property 33

    3.5 The stress components on a small cube within the rock 34

    3.6 The symmetry of the stress matrix 36

    3.7 The state of stress at a point has six independent components 37

    3.8 The principal stresses 37

    3.9 All unsupported excavation surfaces are principal stress

    planes 38

    3.10 Concluding remarks 40

    4. In situ stress 41

    4.1 Why determine in situ stress? 41

    4.2 Presentation of in situ stress state data 41

    4.3 Methods of stress determination 42

    4.4 Statistical analysis of stress state data 52

    4.5 The representative elemental volume for stress 54

    4.6 Predictions of natural in situ stress states based on elasticity

    theory 56

    4.7 Collated worldwide in situ stress data 59 viii Contents

    4.8 Reasons for high horizontal stresses 62

    4.9 Effect of discontinuities on the proximate state of stress 65

    4.10 Glossary of terms related to stress states in rock masses 68

    5. Strain 71

    5.1 Finite strain 71

    5.2 Examples of homogeneous finite strain 73

    5.3 Infinitesimal strain 75

    5.4 The strain tensor 77

    5.5 The elastic compliance matrix 78

    5.6 Implications for in situ stress 82

    6. Intact rock 85

    6.1 The background to intact rock testing 85

    6.2 The complete stress-strain curve in uniaxial compression 86

    6.3 Soft, stiff and servo-controlled testing machines 89

    6.4 Specimen geometry, loading conditions and environmental

    effects 95

    6.5 Failure criteria 106

    6.6 Concluding remarks 111

    7. Discontinuities 113

    7.1 The occurrence of discontinuities 114

    7.2 Geometrical properties of discontinuities 116

    7.3 Mechanical properties 134

    7.4 Discussion 138

    8. Rock masses 141

    8.1 Deformability 141

    8.2 Strength 144

    8.3 Post-peak strength behaviour 147

    9. Permeability 149

    9.1 Fundamental definitions 149

    9.2 Primary and secondary permeability 151

    9.3 Flow through discontinuities 151

    9.4 Flow through discontinuity networks 154

    9.5 Scale effect 156

    9.6 A note on effective stresses 159

    9.7 Some practical aspects: grouting and blasting 160

    10. Anisotropy and inhomogeneity 163

    10.1 Definitions 163

    10.2 Anisotropy 165

    10.3 Inhomogeneity 166

    10.4 Ramifications for analysis 169

    11. Testing techniques 173

    11.1 Access to the rock 173 Contents ix

    11.2 Tailoring testing to engineering requirements 17 4

    11.3 Tests on intact rock 177

    11.4 Tests on discontinuities 181

    11.5 Tests on rock masses 186

    11.6 Standardized tests 191

    12. Rock mass classification 193

    12.1 Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system 193

    12.2 Q-system 195

    12.3 Applications of rock mass classification systems 198

    12.4 Links between the classification systems and rock properties 201

    12.5 Discussion 201

    12.6 Extensions to rock mass classification techniques 202

    12.7 Concluding remarks 206

    13. Rock dynamics and time-dependent aspects 207

    13.1 Introduction 207

    13.2 Stress waves 208

    13.3 Time-dependency 213

    13.4 Time-dependency in rock engineering 221

    14. Rock mechanics interactions and rock engineering

    systems (RES) 223

    14.1 Introduction to the subject 223

    14.2 Interaction matrices 225

    14.3 Interaction matrices in rock mechanics 228

    14.4 Symmetry of interaction matrices 229

    14.5 A rock mechanics-rock engineering interaction matrix 232

    14.6 Further examples of rock mechanics interaction matrices 235

    14.7 Concluding remarks 236

    15. Excavation principles 239

    15.1 The excavation process 239

    15.2 Rock blasting 243

    15.3 Specialized blasting techniques 248

    15.4 Mechanical excavation 255

    15.5 Vibrations due to excavation 261

    16. Stabilization principles 267

    16.1 The effect of excavation on the rock mass environment 267

    16.2 The stabilization strategy 269

    16.3 Rock reinforcement 271

    16.4 Rock support 274

    16.5 Stabilization of 'transitional' rock masses 279

    16.6 Further comments on rock stabilization methods 282

    17. Surface excavation instability mechanisms 287

    17.1 Slope instability 287

    17.2 Foundation instability 298

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