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Engineering Maintenance: A Modern Approach

222 Pages · 2009 · 3.21 MB · English

  • Engineering Maintenance: A Modern Approach

    ENGINEERING


    MAINTENANCE


    A


    Modern


    Approach


    B.S. Dhillon, Ph.D.


    CRC PR ESS


    Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Dhillon, B.S.


    Engineering maintenance : a modern approach / by B.S. Dhillon.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 1-58716-142-7


    1. Plant maintenance—Management. I. Title.


    TS192 .D47 2002


    658.2¢02—dc21 2001052634


    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material


    is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable


    efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publisher cannot


    assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.


    Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic


    or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or


    retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.


    The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for


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    for such copying.


    Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.


    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are


    used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.


    Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com


    © 2002 by CRC Press LLC


    No claim to original U.S. Government works


    International Standard Book Number 1-58716-142-7


    Library of Congress Card Number 2001052634


    Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0


    Printed on acid-free paper



    Preface


    Engineering maintenance is an important sector of the economy. Each year U.S.


    industry spends well over $300 billion on plant maintenance and operation, and in


    1997 the U.S. Department of Defense’s budget request alone included $79 billion


    for operation and maintenance. Furthermore, it is estimated that approximately 80%


    of the industry dollars is spent to correct chronic failures of machines, systems, and


    people. The elimination of many of these chronic failures through effective mainte-


    nance can reduce the cost between 40 and 60%.


    This century will usher in a broader need for equipment management—a cradle-to-


    grave strategy to preserve equipment functions, avoid the consequences of failure, and


    ensure the productive capacity of equipment. This cannot be achieved by simply fol-


    lowing the traditional approach to maintenance effectively—human error in maintenance,


    quality and safety in maintenance, software maintenance, reliability-centered main-


    tenance, maintenance costing, reliability, and maintainability also must be considered.


    Today, a large number of books are available on maintenance, but to the best of


    my knowledge, none covers all the areas listed above. Material on such topics is


    available either in technical articles or in specialized books, but not in a single


    volume. In order to perform the maintenance function effectively, knowledge of


    these topics is essential, but maintenance professionals find it difficult to obtain such


    information in a single maintenance text.


    The main objective of this book is to cover all the above and other related current


    topics in a single volume in addition to the traditional topics of engineering main-


    tenance. The book focuses on the structure of concepts rather than the minute details.


    The sources of most of the material are given in references, which will be useful to


    readers who desire to delve deeper into specific areas.


    Chapter 1 presents various introductory aspects concerning engineering main-


    tenance including engineering objectives, engineering maintenance in the 21st century,


    and maintenance-related facts and figures. Chapter 2 reviews the basic probability


    theory and other pertinent mathematical topics that will help the reader understand


    subsequent chapters of the book. Chapter 3 discusses various aspects related to


    maintenance management and control, including department functions and organi-


    zations, elements of effective management, management control indices, and project


    control methods.


    Chapter 4 is devoted to preventive maintenance (PM) and covers topics such as


    preventive maintenance elements; steps for establishing a PM program; and PM


    measures, models, and advantages and disadvantages. Chapter 5 presents various


    aspects of corrective maintenance (CM) ranging from CM types and measures to


    CM mathematical models. Chapter 6 is devoted to the important subject of reliability


    centered maintenance (RCM) and covers topics such as RCM goals and principles,


    RCM process, RCM components, and RCM program effectiveness indicators.


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


    Inventory control in maintenance is presented in Chapter 7. This chapter covers


    topics such as inventory types and purposes, inventory control models, safety stock,


    and estimation of spare part quantity. Chapter 8 and 9 are devoted to human error


    in maintenance and quality and safety in maintenance, respectively. Some of the


    topics covered in Chapter 8 are facts and figures on human error in maintenance,


    maintenance error in system life cycle, guidelines for reducing human error, and


    techniques for predicting the occurrence of human error. Chapter 9 includes topics


    such as the need for quality maintenance processes, maintenance work quality, quality


    control charts for use in maintenance, post maintenance testing, safety and mainte-


    nance tasks, guidelines for equipment designers to improve safety in maintenance,


    and maintenance personnel safety.


    Chapter 10 presents various aspects concerning maintenance costing, including


    reasons for maintenance costing, factors influencing cost, labor and material cost


    estimation, cost estimation models, and cost data collection. Chapter 11 presents an


    important area of modern maintenance, i.e., software maintenance. Some of the


    topics relating to software maintenance are types of software maintenance, software


    maintenance problems, software maintenance tools and techniques, and software main-


    tenance costing.


    Chapters 12 and 13 are devoted to two areas closely related to maintenance, i.e.,


    reliability and maintainability. Chapter 12 covers reliability measures, reliability net-


    works, and reliability analysis methods. Chapter 13 includes maintainability man-


    agement in system life cycle, maintainability design characteristics, maintainability


    measures and functions, and common errors related to maintainability design.


    This book will be useful to senior level undergraduate and graduate students in


    mechanical and industrial engineering; maintenance and operations, engineers; col-


    lege and university level teachers; students and instructors of short courses in engi-


    neering maintenance; and equipment designers, managers, manufacturers, and users.


    The author is deeply indebted to many friends, colleagues, and students for their


    interest and encouragement throughout this project. I thank my children, Jasmine


    and Mark, for their patience and intermittent disturbances leading to desirable coffee


    and other breaks. And last, but not least, I thank my wife, Rosy, for typing various


    portions of this book, editorial input, proofreading, and tolerance.


    B.S. Dhillon


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC




    Dedication


    This book is affectionately dedicated to my wife, Rosy



    Table of Contents


    Chapter 1: Introduction


    Background


    Maintenance and Maintenance Engineering Objectives


    Maintenance Facts and Figures


    Engineering Maintenance in the 21st Century


    Maintenance Terms and Definitions


    Maintenance Publications, Organizations, and Data Information Sources


    Publications


    Organizations


    Data Information Sources


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 2: Maintenance Mathematics


    Introduction


    Boolean Algebra and Probability Properties


    Probability and Cumulative Distribution Function Definitions


    Probability


    Cumulative Distribution Function


    Probability Distributions of Continuous Random Variables


    Exponential Distribution


    Rayleigh Distribution


    Weibull Distribution


    Normal Distribution


    General Distribution


    Laplace Transforms: Initial and Final Value Theorems


    Initial and Final Value Theorems


    Algebraic Equations


    Quadratic Equation


    Cubic Equation


    Differential Equations


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 3: Maintenance Management and Control


    Introduction


    Maintenance Department Functions and Organization


    Maintenance Management by Objectives: Critical Maintenance


    Management Principles, and Maintenance Program


    Effectiveness Evaluation Questions for Maintenance Managers


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


    Elements of Effective Maintenance Management


    Maintenance Policy


    Material Control


    Work Order System


    Equipment Records


    Preventive and Corrective Maintenance


    Job Planning and Scheduling


    Backlog Control and Priority System


    Performance Measurement


    Maintenance Project Control Methods


    Activity Expected Duration Time Estimation


    Critical Path Method (CPM)


    Maintenance Management Control Indices


    Broad Indicators


    Specific Indicators


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 4: Preventive Maintenance


    Introduction


    Preventive Maintenance Elements, Plant Characteristics in Need of a PM


    Program, and a Principle for Selecting Items for PM


    Important Steps for Establishing a PM Program


    PM Measures


    Mean Preventive Maintenance Time (MPMT)


    Median Preventive Maintenance Time (MDPMT)


    Maximum Preventive Maintenance Time (MXPMT)


    PM Models


    Inspection Optimization Model I


    Reliability and Mean Time to Failure Determination Model


    of a System with Periodic Maintenance


    Inspection Optimization Model II


    Inspection Optimization Model III


    PM Markov Model


    PM Advantages and Disadvantages


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 5: Corrective Maintenance


    Introduction


    Corrective Maintenance Types


    Corrective Maintenance Steps, Downtime Components, and Time


    Reduction Strategies at System Level


    Corrective Maintenance Measures


    Mean Corrective Maintenance Time


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


    Median Active Corrective Maintenance Time


    Maximum Active Corrective Maintenance Time


    Corrective Maintenance Mathematical Models


    Model I


    Model II


    Model III


    Model IV


    Approximate Effective Failure Rate Equations for Redundant Systems


    with Corrective Maintenance


    Effective Failure Rate of System Type I


    Effective Failure Rate of System Type II


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 6: Reliability Centered Maintenance


    Introduction


    RCM Goals and Principles


    RCM Process and Associated Questions


    RCM Components


    Reactive Maintenance


    Preventive Maintenance


    Predictive Testing and Inspection


    Proactive Maintenance


    Predictive Testing and Inspection Technologies


    RCM Program Effectiveness Measurement Indicators


    Equipment Availability


    Emergency Percentage Index


    PTI Covered Equipment Index


    Faults Found in Thermographic Survey Index


    Maintenance Overtime Percentage Index


    Fault Found in Steam Trap Survey Index


    PM/PTI-Reactive Maintenance Index


    Emergency-PM/PTI Work Index


    RCM Advantages and Reasons for its Failures


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 7: Inventory Control in Maintenance


    Introduction


    Inventory Purposes, Types, and Basic Maintenance


    Inventory-Related Decisions


    ABC Classification Approach for Maintenance Inventory Control


    Control Policies for A, B, and C Classification Items


    Inventory Control Models


    Economic Order Quantity Model


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


    Production Order Quantity Model


    Quantity Discount Model


    Safety Stock


    Increasing or Decreasing Maintenance Inventory-Associated Factors


    and a Model for Estimating Spare Part Quantity


    Spare Part Quantity Estimation Model


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 8: Human Error in Maintenance


    Introduction


    Facts and Figures on Human Error in Maintenance


    Maintenance Error in System Life Cycle and Breakdown


    of Maintenance Person’s Time


    Top Human Failure Problems in Maintenance, Frequency of Maintenance


    Error Types, and Outcomes of Maintenance Incidents


    Reasons for Maintenance Error


    Guidelines for Reducing Human Error in Maintenance


    Techniques to Predict the Occurrence of Human Error in Maintenance


    Markov Method


    Fault Tree Analysis Method


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 9: Quality and Safety in Maintenance


    Introduction


    Need for Quality Maintenance Processes


    Maintenance Work Quality


    Quality Control Charts for Use in Maintenance


    C-Chart


    Post-Maintenance Testing


    PMT Key Elements


    Operator-Documented PMT Responsibilities


    Types of Maintenance Activities/Items for PMT


    Common PMT Activities


    Maintenance Safety-Related Facts, Figures, and Examples,


    and Reasons for Safety Problems in Maintenance


    Safety and Maintenance Tasks


    Guidelines for Equipment Designers to Improve Safety in Maintenance


    Maintenance Safety-Related Questions for Equipment Manufacturers


    Maintenance Personnel Safety


    Problems


    References


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


    Chapter 10: Maintenance Costing


    Introduction


    Reasons for Maintenance Costing and Factors Influencing


    Maintenance Costs


    Maintenance Budget Types, Preparation Approaches, and Steps


    Budget Preparation Approaches


    Maintenance Budget Preparation Steps


    Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation


    Standard Hourly Cost Estimation


    Manpower Repair Cost Estimation


    Corrective Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation


    Maintenance Material Cost Estimation


    Maintenance Cost Estimation Models


    Building Cost Estimation Model


    Maintenance Equipment Cost Estimation Model


    Production Facility Downtime Cost Estimation Model


    Avionics Computer Maintenance Cost Estimation Model


    Fire Control Radar Maintenance Cost Estimation Model


    Doppler Radar Maintenance Cost Estimation Model


    Equipment Ownership Cycle Maintenance Cost Estimation


    Formula I


    Formula II


    Maintenance Cost-Related Indices


    Maintenance Cost Ratio


    Maintenance Labor Cost to Material Cost Ratio


    Maintenance Cost to Total Output Ratio


    Maintenance Cost to Total Manufacturing Cost Ratio


    Maintenance Cost to Value of Facility Ratio


    Maintenance Cost to Total Man-Hours Worked Ratio


    Preventive Maintenance Cost to Total Breakdown Cost Ratio


    Cost Data Collection


    Problems


    References


    Chapter 11: Software Maintenance


    Introduction


    Software Maintenance Facts and Figures


    Software Maintenance Importance, Effort Distribution, and Request Types


    Types of Software Maintenance


    Software Maintenance Problems


    Software Maintainability


    External View


    Internal View


    Software Maintenance Tools and Techniques


    Software Configuration Management


    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


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