Engineering Maintenance: A Modern Approach

222 Pages · 2009 · 3.21 MB · English

  • Engineering Maintenance: A Modern Approach






    B.S. Dhillon, Ph.D.


    Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Dhillon, B.S.

    Engineering maintenance : a modern approach / by B.S. Dhillon.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 1-58716-142-7

    1. Plant maintenance—Management. I. Title.

    TS192 .D47 2002

    658.2¢02—dc21 2001052634

    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material

    is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable

    efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publisher cannot

    assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

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    © 2002 by CRC Press LLC

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    International Standard Book Number 1-58716-142-7

    Library of Congress Card Number 2001052634

    Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

    Printed on acid-free paper


    Engineering maintenance is an important sector of the economy. Each year U.S.

    industry spends well over $300 billion on plant maintenance and operation, and in

    1997 the U.S. Department of Defense’s budget request alone included $79 billion

    for operation and maintenance. Furthermore, it is estimated that approximately 80%

    of the industry dollars is spent to correct chronic failures of machines, systems, and

    people. The elimination of many of these chronic failures through effective mainte-

    nance can reduce the cost between 40 and 60%.

    This century will usher in a broader need for equipment management—a cradle-to-

    grave strategy to preserve equipment functions, avoid the consequences of failure, and

    ensure the productive capacity of equipment. This cannot be achieved by simply fol-

    lowing the traditional approach to maintenance effectively—human error in maintenance,

    quality and safety in maintenance, software maintenance, reliability-centered main-

    tenance, maintenance costing, reliability, and maintainability also must be considered.

    Today, a large number of books are available on maintenance, but to the best of

    my knowledge, none covers all the areas listed above. Material on such topics is

    available either in technical articles or in specialized books, but not in a single

    volume. In order to perform the maintenance function effectively, knowledge of

    these topics is essential, but maintenance professionals find it difficult to obtain such

    information in a single maintenance text.

    The main objective of this book is to cover all the above and other related current

    topics in a single volume in addition to the traditional topics of engineering main-

    tenance. The book focuses on the structure of concepts rather than the minute details.

    The sources of most of the material are given in references, which will be useful to

    readers who desire to delve deeper into specific areas.

    Chapter 1 presents various introductory aspects concerning engineering main-

    tenance including engineering objectives, engineering maintenance in the 21st century,

    and maintenance-related facts and figures. Chapter 2 reviews the basic probability

    theory and other pertinent mathematical topics that will help the reader understand

    subsequent chapters of the book. Chapter 3 discusses various aspects related to

    maintenance management and control, including department functions and organi-

    zations, elements of effective management, management control indices, and project

    control methods.

    Chapter 4 is devoted to preventive maintenance (PM) and covers topics such as

    preventive maintenance elements; steps for establishing a PM program; and PM

    measures, models, and advantages and disadvantages. Chapter 5 presents various

    aspects of corrective maintenance (CM) ranging from CM types and measures to

    CM mathematical models. Chapter 6 is devoted to the important subject of reliability

    centered maintenance (RCM) and covers topics such as RCM goals and principles,

    RCM process, RCM components, and RCM program effectiveness indicators.

    ©2002 CRC Press LLC

    Inventory control in maintenance is presented in Chapter 7. This chapter covers

    topics such as inventory types and purposes, inventory control models, safety stock,

    and estimation of spare part quantity. Chapter 8 and 9 are devoted to human error

    in maintenance and quality and safety in maintenance, respectively. Some of the

    topics covered in Chapter 8 are facts and figures on human error in maintenance,

    maintenance error in system life cycle, guidelines for reducing human error, and

    techniques for predicting the occurrence of human error. Chapter 9 includes topics

    such as the need for quality maintenance processes, maintenance work quality, quality

    control charts for use in maintenance, post maintenance testing, safety and mainte-

    nance tasks, guidelines for equipment designers to improve safety in maintenance,

    and maintenance personnel safety.

    Chapter 10 presents various aspects concerning maintenance costing, including

    reasons for maintenance costing, factors influencing cost, labor and material cost

    estimation, cost estimation models, and cost data collection. Chapter 11 presents an

    important area of modern maintenance, i.e., software maintenance. Some of the

    topics relating to software maintenance are types of software maintenance, software

    maintenance problems, software maintenance tools and techniques, and software main-

    tenance costing.

    Chapters 12 and 13 are devoted to two areas closely related to maintenance, i.e.,

    reliability and maintainability. Chapter 12 covers reliability measures, reliability net-

    works, and reliability analysis methods. Chapter 13 includes maintainability man-

    agement in system life cycle, maintainability design characteristics, maintainability

    measures and functions, and common errors related to maintainability design.

    This book will be useful to senior level undergraduate and graduate students in

    mechanical and industrial engineering; maintenance and operations, engineers; col-

    lege and university level teachers; students and instructors of short courses in engi-

    neering maintenance; and equipment designers, managers, manufacturers, and users.

    The author is deeply indebted to many friends, colleagues, and students for their

    interest and encouragement throughout this project. I thank my children, Jasmine

    and Mark, for their patience and intermittent disturbances leading to desirable coffee

    and other breaks. And last, but not least, I thank my wife, Rosy, for typing various

    portions of this book, editorial input, proofreading, and tolerance.

    B.S. Dhillon

    ©2002 CRC Press LLC


    This book is affectionately dedicated to my wife, Rosy

    Table of Contents

    Chapter 1: Introduction


    Maintenance and Maintenance Engineering Objectives

    Maintenance Facts and Figures

    Engineering Maintenance in the 21st Century

    Maintenance Terms and Definitions

    Maintenance Publications, Organizations, and Data Information Sources



    Data Information Sources



    Chapter 2: Maintenance Mathematics


    Boolean Algebra and Probability Properties

    Probability and Cumulative Distribution Function Definitions


    Cumulative Distribution Function

    Probability Distributions of Continuous Random Variables

    Exponential Distribution

    Rayleigh Distribution

    Weibull Distribution

    Normal Distribution

    General Distribution

    Laplace Transforms: Initial and Final Value Theorems

    Initial and Final Value Theorems

    Algebraic Equations

    Quadratic Equation

    Cubic Equation

    Differential Equations



    Chapter 3: Maintenance Management and Control


    Maintenance Department Functions and Organization

    Maintenance Management by Objectives: Critical Maintenance

    Management Principles, and Maintenance Program

    Effectiveness Evaluation Questions for Maintenance Managers

    ©2002 CRC Press LLC

    Elements of Effective Maintenance Management

    Maintenance Policy

    Material Control

    Work Order System

    Equipment Records

    Preventive and Corrective Maintenance

    Job Planning and Scheduling

    Backlog Control and Priority System

    Performance Measurement

    Maintenance Project Control Methods

    Activity Expected Duration Time Estimation

    Critical Path Method (CPM)

    Maintenance Management Control Indices

    Broad Indicators

    Specific Indicators



    Chapter 4: Preventive Maintenance


    Preventive Maintenance Elements, Plant Characteristics in Need of a PM

    Program, and a Principle for Selecting Items for PM

    Important Steps for Establishing a PM Program

    PM Measures

    Mean Preventive Maintenance Time (MPMT)

    Median Preventive Maintenance Time (MDPMT)

    Maximum Preventive Maintenance Time (MXPMT)

    PM Models

    Inspection Optimization Model I

    Reliability and Mean Time to Failure Determination Model

    of a System with Periodic Maintenance

    Inspection Optimization Model II

    Inspection Optimization Model III

    PM Markov Model

    PM Advantages and Disadvantages



    Chapter 5: Corrective Maintenance


    Corrective Maintenance Types

    Corrective Maintenance Steps, Downtime Components, and Time

    Reduction Strategies at System Level

    Corrective Maintenance Measures

    Mean Corrective Maintenance Time

    ©2002 CRC Press LLC

    Median Active Corrective Maintenance Time

    Maximum Active Corrective Maintenance Time

    Corrective Maintenance Mathematical Models

    Model I

    Model II

    Model III

    Model IV

    Approximate Effective Failure Rate Equations for Redundant Systems

    with Corrective Maintenance

    Effective Failure Rate of System Type I

    Effective Failure Rate of System Type II



    Chapter 6: Reliability Centered Maintenance


    RCM Goals and Principles

    RCM Process and Associated Questions

    RCM Components

    Reactive Maintenance

    Preventive Maintenance

    Predictive Testing and Inspection

    Proactive Maintenance

    Predictive Testing and Inspection Technologies

    RCM Program Effectiveness Measurement Indicators

    Equipment Availability

    Emergency Percentage Index

    PTI Covered Equipment Index

    Faults Found in Thermographic Survey Index

    Maintenance Overtime Percentage Index

    Fault Found in Steam Trap Survey Index

    PM/PTI-Reactive Maintenance Index

    Emergency-PM/PTI Work Index

    RCM Advantages and Reasons for its Failures



    Chapter 7: Inventory Control in Maintenance


    Inventory Purposes, Types, and Basic Maintenance

    Inventory-Related Decisions

    ABC Classification Approach for Maintenance Inventory Control

    Control Policies for A, B, and C Classification Items

    Inventory Control Models

    Economic Order Quantity Model

    ©2002 CRC Press LLC

    Production Order Quantity Model

    Quantity Discount Model

    Safety Stock

    Increasing or Decreasing Maintenance Inventory-Associated Factors

    and a Model for Estimating Spare Part Quantity

    Spare Part Quantity Estimation Model



    Chapter 8: Human Error in Maintenance


    Facts and Figures on Human Error in Maintenance

    Maintenance Error in System Life Cycle and Breakdown

    of Maintenance Person’s Time

    Top Human Failure Problems in Maintenance, Frequency of Maintenance

    Error Types, and Outcomes of Maintenance Incidents

    Reasons for Maintenance Error

    Guidelines for Reducing Human Error in Maintenance

    Techniques to Predict the Occurrence of Human Error in Maintenance

    Markov Method

    Fault Tree Analysis Method



    Chapter 9: Quality and Safety in Maintenance


    Need for Quality Maintenance Processes

    Maintenance Work Quality

    Quality Control Charts for Use in Maintenance


    Post-Maintenance Testing

    PMT Key Elements

    Operator-Documented PMT Responsibilities

    Types of Maintenance Activities/Items for PMT

    Common PMT Activities

    Maintenance Safety-Related Facts, Figures, and Examples,

    and Reasons for Safety Problems in Maintenance

    Safety and Maintenance Tasks

    Guidelines for Equipment Designers to Improve Safety in Maintenance

    Maintenance Safety-Related Questions for Equipment Manufacturers

    Maintenance Personnel Safety



    ©2002 CRC Press LLC

    Chapter 10: Maintenance Costing


    Reasons for Maintenance Costing and Factors Influencing

    Maintenance Costs

    Maintenance Budget Types, Preparation Approaches, and Steps

    Budget Preparation Approaches

    Maintenance Budget Preparation Steps

    Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation

    Standard Hourly Cost Estimation

    Manpower Repair Cost Estimation

    Corrective Maintenance Labor Cost Estimation

    Maintenance Material Cost Estimation

    Maintenance Cost Estimation Models

    Building Cost Estimation Model

    Maintenance Equipment Cost Estimation Model

    Production Facility Downtime Cost Estimation Model

    Avionics Computer Maintenance Cost Estimation Model

    Fire Control Radar Maintenance Cost Estimation Model

    Doppler Radar Maintenance Cost Estimation Model

    Equipment Ownership Cycle Maintenance Cost Estimation

    Formula I

    Formula II

    Maintenance Cost-Related Indices

    Maintenance Cost Ratio

    Maintenance Labor Cost to Material Cost Ratio

    Maintenance Cost to Total Output Ratio

    Maintenance Cost to Total Manufacturing Cost Ratio

    Maintenance Cost to Value of Facility Ratio

    Maintenance Cost to Total Man-Hours Worked Ratio

    Preventive Maintenance Cost to Total Breakdown Cost Ratio

    Cost Data Collection



    Chapter 11: Software Maintenance


    Software Maintenance Facts and Figures

    Software Maintenance Importance, Effort Distribution, and Request Types

    Types of Software Maintenance

    Software Maintenance Problems

    Software Maintainability

    External View

    Internal View

    Software Maintenance Tools and Techniques

    Software Configuration Management

    ©2002 CRC Press LLC

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