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Engineering Fundamentals

720 Pages · 2010 · 51.66 MB · English

  • Engineering Fundamentals

    62080_00_FM_pi-xviii.qxd 5/26/10 6:13 AM Page i



    Fourth Edition


    Engineering


    Fundamentals


    An Introduction


    to Engineering


    Saeed Moaveni


    Engineering Fundamentals:


    Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States


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    Engineering Fundamentals: © 2011,2008,2005Cengage Learning


    An Introduction to Engineering, Fourth Edition


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    P


    REFACE


    Changes in the Fourth Edition


    The Fourth Edition, consisting of 20 chapters, includes a number of new additions and changes


    that were incorporated in response to suggestions and requests made by professors and students


    using the Third Edition of the book. The major changes include:


    • Over 200 new additional problems.


    • A new section on the Civil Engineering Design Process. This section was added to address the


    fact that civil engineering design process is slightly different from other engineering disciplines.


    • A new section on Sustainability in Design. This section was included to emphasize the fact


    that future engineers are expected to design and provide goods and services that increase the


    standard of living and advance health care, while addressing serious environmental and sus-


    tainability concerns.


    • A new section on Learning Engineering Fundamental Concepts and Design Variables from


    Fundamental Dimensions. To become successful engineers, students must first completely


    grasp certain fundamentals and design variables. Then it is important for them to know how


    these variables are calculated, approximated, measured, or used in engineering analysis and


    design.


    • Additional sections in Chapter 10. This chapter was revamped to explain important concepts


    in mechanics conceptually.


    • A new section on Degree-Days and Energy Estimation. With the current energy and sus-


    tainability concerns, as future engineers, it is important for students to understand some of


    the simple-energy-estimation procedures.


    • A new section on Lighting Systems. Lighting systems account for a major portion of elec-


    tricity use in buildings and have received much attention lately. This section was added to


    introduce the basic terminology and concepts in lighting systems. It is important for all future


    engineers regardless of their area of expertise to understand these basic concepts.


    • A new section on Energy Sources, Generation, and Consumption. During this period in our


    history where the world’s growing demand for energy is among one of the most difficult chal-


    lenges that we face, as future engineers, students need to understand two problems: energy


    Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


    Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 62080_00_FM_pi-xviii.qxd 5/26/10 6:13 AM Page iv



    iv Preface


    sources and emission. This section was added to introduce conventional and renewable energy


    sources, generation, and consumption patterns.


    • Revamped Engineering Drawing and Symbols Chapter. New drawings from different engi-


    neering disciplines were incorporated in Chapter 16.


    • A new section on Linear Interpolation. This section was added to emphasize the significance


    of linear interpolation in engineering analysis.


    • A new section on Excel Financial Functions.


    • Two Design Case Studies.


    • Additional example problems.


    • Three new Professional Profiles from Environmental, Civil, and Mechanical Engineering


    disciplines.


    • Additional information for instructors including new PowerPoint slides for each chapter and


    a test bank.


    Organization


    This book is organized into six parts and 20 chapters. Each chapter begins by stating its objec-


    tives and concludes by summarizing what the reader should have gained from studying that


    chapter. I have included enough material for two semester-long courses. The reason for this


    approach is to give the instructor sufficient materials and the flexibility to choose specific top-


    ics to meet his or her needs. Relevant, everyday examples with which students can associate


    easily are provided in each chapter. Many of the problems at the conclusion of each chapter are


    hands-on, requiring the student to gather and analyze information. Moreover, information col-


    lection and proper utilization of that information are encouraged in this book by asking students


    to do a number of assignments that require information gathering by using the Internet as well


    as employing traditional methods. Many of the problems at the end of each chapter require stu-


    dents to make brief reports so that they learn that successful engineers need to have good writ-


    ten and oral communication skills. To emphasize the importance of teamwork in engineering


    and to encourage group participation, many of the assignment problems require group work;


    some require the participation of the entire class.


    The main parts of the book are:


    Part One: Engineering——An Exciting Profession


    In Part One, consisting of Chapters 1 through 5, we introduce the students to the engineering


    profession, how to prepare for an exciting engineering career, the design process, engineering


    communication, and ethics. Chapter 1 provides a comprehensive introduction to the engi-


    neering profession and its branches. It introduces the students to what the engineering profes-


    sion is and explains some of the common traits of good engineers. Various engineering


    disciplines and engineering organizations are discussed. In Chapter 1, we also emphasize the fact


    that engineers are problem solvers. They have a good grasp of fundamental physical and


    Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


    Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 62080_00_FM_pi-xviii.qxd 5/26/10 6:13 AM Page v



    Preface v


    chemical laws and mathematics, and apply these fundamental laws and principles to design,


    develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of millions of products and services. Through the


    use of examples, we also show that there are many satisfying and challenging jobs for engineers.


    We pointed out that although the activities of engineers can be quite varied, there are some


    personality traits and work habits that typify most of today’s successful engineers:


    • Engineers are problem solvers.


    • Good engineers have a firm grasp of the fundamental principles that can be used to solve


    many different problems.


    • Good engineers are analytical, detailed oriented, and creative.


    • Good engineers have a desire to be life-long learners. For example, they take continuing edu-


    cation classes, seminars, and workshops to stay abreast of new innovations and technologies.


    • Good engineers have written and oral communication skills that equip them to work well


    with their colleagues and to convey their expertise to a wide range of clients.


    • Good engineers have time management skills that enable them to work productively and


    efficiently.


    • Good engineers have good “people skills” that allow them to interact and communicate effec-


    tively with various people in their organization.


    • Engineers are required to write reports. These reports might be lengthy, detailed, and tech-


    nical, containing graphs, charts, and engineering drawings. Or the may take the form of a brief


    memorandum or an executive summary.


    • Engineers are adept at using computers in many different ways to model and analyze various


    practical problems.


    • Good engineers actively participate in local and national discipline-specific organizations by


    attending seminars, workshops, and meetings. Many even make presentations at professional


    meetings.


    • Engineers generally work in a team environment where they consult each other to solve com-


    plex problems. Good interpersonal and communication skills have become increasingly


    important now because of the global market.


    In Chapter 1, we also explain the difference between an engineerand an engineeringtechnolo-


    gist, and the difference in their career options. In Chapter 2, the transition from high school to


    college is explained in terms of the need to form good study habits and suggestions are provided


    on how to budget time effectively. In Chapter 3, an introduction to engineering design, sus-


    tainability, teamwork, and standards and codes is provided. We show that engineers, regardless


    of their background, follow certain steps when designing the products and services we use in


    our everyday lives. In Chapter 4, we explain that presentations are an integral part of any engi-


    neering project. Depending on the size of the project, presentations might be brief, lengthy, fre-


    quent, and may follow a certain format requiring calculations, graphs, charts, and engineering


    drawings. In Chapter 4, various forms of engineering communication, including homework


    presentation, brief technical memos, progress reports, detailed technical reports, and research


    papers are explained. In Chapter 5, engineering ethics is emphasized by noting that engineers


    design many products and provide many services that affect our quality of life and safety. There-


    fore, engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence


    to the highest principles of ethical conduct. A large number of engineering ethics related case


    studies are also presented in this chapter.


    Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


    Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 62080_00_FM_pi-xviii.qxd 5/26/10 6:13 AM Page vi



    vi Preface


    Part Two: Engineering Fundamentals——


    Concepts Every Engineer Should Know


    In Part Two, consisting of Chapters 6 through 13, we focus on engineering fundamentals


    and introduce students to the basic principles and physical laws that they will see over and


    over in some form or other during the next four years. Successful engineers have a good


    grasp of Fundamentals, which they can use to understand and solve many different prob-


    lems. These are concepts that every engineer, regardless of his or her area of specialization,


    should know.


    In these chapters, we emphasize that, from our observation of our surroundings, we have


    learned that we need only a few physical quantities to fully describe events and our surround-


    ings. These are length, time, mass, force, temperature, mole, and electric current. We also


    explain that we need not only physical dimensions to describe our surroundings, but also some


    way to scale or divide these physical dimensions. For example, time is considered a physical


    dimension, but it can be divided into both small and large portions, such as seconds, minutes,


    hours, days, years, decades, centuries, and millennia.


    We discuss common systems of units and emphasize that engineers must know how to


    convert from one system of units to another and always show the appropriate units that go with


    their calculations.


    We also explain that the physical laws and formulas that engineers use are based on obser-


    vations of our surroundings. We show that we use mathematics and basic physical quantities to


    express our observations.


    In these chapters, we also explain that there are many engineering design variables that are


    related to the fundamental dimensions (quantities). To become a successful engineer a student


    must first fully understand these fundamental and related variables and the pertaining govern-


    ing laws and formulas. Then it is important for the student to know how these variables are mea-


    sured, approximated, calculated, or used in practice.


    Chapter 6 explains the role and importance of fundamental dimension and units in anal-


    ysis of engineering problems. Basic steps in the analysis of any engineering problem are discussed


    in detail.


    Chapter 7 introduces length and length-related variables and explains their importance in


    engineering work. For example, the role of area in heat transfer, aerodynamics, load distribu-


    tion, and stress analysis is discussed. Measurement of length, area, and volume, along with


    numerical estimation (such as trapezoidal rule) of these values, are presented.


    Chapter 8 considers time and time-related engineering parameters. Periods, frequencies,


    linear and angular velocities and accelerations, volumetric flow rates and flow of traffic are also


    discussed in Chapter 8.


    Mass and mass-related parameters such density, specific weight, mass flow rate, and mass


    moment of inertia, and their role in engineering analysis, are presented in Chapter 9.


    Chapter 10 covers the importance of force and force-related parameters in engineering.


    The important concepts in mechanics are explained conceptually. What is meant by force,


    internal force, reaction, pressure, modulus of elasticity, impulsive force (force acting over time),


    work (force acting over a distance) and moment (force acting at a distance) are discussed in


    detail.


    Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


    Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 62080_00_FM_pi-xviii.qxd 5/26/10 6:13 AM Page vii



    Preface vii


    Temperature and temperature-related parameters are presented in Chapter 11. Concepts


    such as temperature difference and heat transfer, specific heat, and thermal conductivity also are


    covered in Chapter 11. With the current energy and sustainability concerns, as future engineers,


    it is important for students to understand some of the simple-energy-estimation procedures.


    Because of this fact, we have added a new section on Degree-Days and Energy Estimation.


    Chapter 12 considers topics such as direct and alternating current, electricity, basic cir-


    cuits components, power sources, and the tremendous role of electric motors in our everyday


    life. Lighting systems account for a major portion of electricity use in buildings and have


    received much attention lately. Section 12.6 was added to introduce the basic terminology and


    concepts in lighting systems. It is important for all future engineers regardless of their area of


    expertise to understand these basic concepts.


    Chapter 13 presents energy and power and explains the distinction between these two top-


    ics. The importance of understanding what is meant by work, energy, power, watts, horse-


    power, and efficiency is emphasized in Chapter 13. A new Section on Energy Sources,


    Generation, and Consumption was added to Chapter 13. During this period in our history


    where the world’s growing demand for energy is among one of the most difficult challenges


    that we face, as future engineers, students need to understand two problems: energy sources and


    emission. Section 13.6 was added to introduce conventional and renewable energy sources,


    generation, and consumption patterns.


    Part Three: Computational Engineering Tools——


    Using Available Software to Solve Engineering Problems


    In Part Three, consisting of Chapters 14 and 15, we introduce Microsoft Excel™ and


    MATLAB™—two computational tools that are used commonly by engineers to solve engi-


    neering problems. These computational tools are used to record, organize, analyze data using


    formulas, and present the results of an analysis in chart forms. MATLAB is also versatile enough


    that students can use it to write their own programs to solve complex problems.


    Part Four: Engineering Graphical Communication——


    Conveying Information to Other Engineers, Machinists,


    Technicians, and Managers


    In Part Four, consisting of Chapter 16, we introduce students to the principles and rules of


    engineering graphical communication and engineering symbols. A good grasp of these principles


    will enable students to convey and understand information effectively. We explain that engineers


    use technical drawings to convey useful information to others in a standard manner. An engi-


    neering drawing provides information, such as the shape of a product, its dimensions, materi-


    als from which to fabricate the product, and the assembly steps. Some engineering drawings are


    specific to a particular discipline. For example, civil engineers deal with land or boundary, topo-


    graphic, construction, and route survey drawings. Electrical and electronic engineers, on the


    other hand, could deal with printed circuit board assembly drawings, printed circuit board drill


    plans, and wiring diagrams. We also show that engineers use special symbols and signs to convey


    their ideas, analyses, and solutions to problems.


    Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).


    Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 62080_00_FM_pi-xviii.qxd 5/26/10 6:13 AM Page viii



    viii Preface


    Part Five: Engineering Material Selection——


    An Important Design Decision


    As engineers, whether you are designing a machine part, a toy, a frame of a car, or a


    structure, the selection of materials is an important design decision. In Part Five,


    Chapter17, we look more closely at materials such as metals and their alloys, plastics, glass,


    wood, composites, and concrete that commonly are used in various engineering applica-


    tions. We also discuss some of the basic characteristics of the materials that are considered


    in design.


    Part Six: Mathematics, Statistics, and Engineering Economics——


    Why Are They Important?


    In Part Six, consisting of Chapters 18 through 20, we introduce students to important math-


    ematical, statistical, and economical concepts. We explain that engineering problems are


    mathematical models of physical situations. Some engineering problems lead to linear mod-


    els, whereas others result in nonlinear models. Some engineering problems are formulated in


    the form of differential equations and some in the form of integrals. Therefore, a good under-


    standing of mathematical concepts is essential in the formulation and solution of many engi-


    neering problems. Moreover, statistical models are becoming common tools in the hands of


    practicing engineers to solve quality control and reliability issues, and to perform failure


    analyses.


    Civil engineers use statistical models to study the reliability of construction materials and


    structures, and to design for flood control, for example. Electrical engineers use statistical mod-


    els for signal processing and for developing voice-recognition software. Manufacturing engineers


    use statistics for quality control assurance of the products they produce. Mechanical engineers


    use statistics to study the failure of materials and machine parts.


    Economic factors also play important roles in engineering design decision making. If you


    design a product that is too expensive to manufacture, then it can not be sold at a price that con-


    sumers can afford and still be profitable to your company.


    Case Studies—Engineering Marvels


    To emphasize that engineers are problem solvers and that engineers apply physical and chemi-


    cal laws and principles, along with mathematics, to designproducts and services that we use in


    our everyday lives, case studies are placed throughout the book. Additionally, there are assigned


    problems at the end of the case studies. The solutions to these problems incorporate the engi-


    neering concepts and laws that are discussed in the preceding chapters. There is also a number


    of engineering ethics case studies, from the National Society of Professional Engineers, in


    Chapter 5, to promote the discussion on engineering ethics.


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