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Engineering Drawing

240 Pages · 2009 · 5.01 MB · English

  • Engineering Drawing

    LECTURE NOTES



    For Environmental Health Science Students







    Engineering Drawing











    Wuttet Taffesse,


    Laikemariam Kassa



    Haramaya University




    In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center,


    the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education



    2005









    Funded under USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 663-A-00-00-0358-00.




    Produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter


    Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education.










    Important Guidelines for Printing and Photocopying


    Limited permission is granted free of charge to print or photocopy all pages of this


    publication for educational, not-for-profit use by health care workers, students or


    faculty. All copies must retain all author credits and copyright notices included in the


    original document. Under no circumstances is it permissible to sell or distribute on a


    commercial basis, or to claim authorship of, copies of material reproduced from this


    publication.



    ©2005 by Wuttet Taffesse, Laikemariam Kassa




    All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided above, no part of this publication may


    be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,


    including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system,


    without written permission of the author or authors.







    This material is intended for educational use only by practicing health care workers or


    students and faculty in a health care field.


    PREFACE


    The problem faced today in the learning and teaching of


    engineering drawing for Environmental Health Sciences


    students in universities, colleges, health institutions, training of


    health center emanates primarily from the unavailability of text


    books that focus on the needs and scope of Ethiopian


    environmental students.


    This lecture note has been prepared with the primary aim of


    alleviating the problems encountered in the teaching of


    Engineering Drawing course and in minimizing discrepancies


    prevailing among the different teaching and training health


    institutions. It can also be used as a reference material for


    professional sanitarians.


    The graphics of engineering design and construction may very


    well be the most important course of all studies for an


    engineering or technical career. The indisputable reason why


    graphics or drawing is so extremely important is that it is the


    language of the designer, technician, sanitarian, and


    engineer, used to communicate designs and construction


    details to others. The language of graphics is written in the


    form of drawings that represent the shape, size, and


    specifications of physical objects. The language is read by


    interpreting drawings so that physical objects can be


    constructed exactly as originally conceived by the designer.


    i


    This lecture note is devoted to provide general aspects of


    graphic communication like geometric construction,


    orthographic projections, maps etc particularly for


    environmental sanitation works such as dry pit latrine


    construction, drainage or sewerage construction etc. Each


    chapter begins by specifying learning objectives. The text and


    the self-explanatory drawings are much helpful to understand


    the subject even for the beginners. More over, other


    subsidiary topics like sectioning, projection of points and lines


    are added to enable students acquire concrete knowledge


    and skill for their professional career. Finally, it contains a


    glossary, which summarizes important terminologies used in


    the text. For further reading, students are encouraged to refer


    books which are listed in the bibliography section.


    ii


    Acknowledgement


    We are delighted to express our thanks to the carter center for


    the financial, material and moral support with out which this


    material wouldn’t come to reality.


    We are also glad to extend our heart felt appreciation for Ato


    Esayas Alemayehu, Ato Muluken Eyayu, Ato Wossen Tafere


    and Ato Dagnew Engidaw for their critical and constructive


    comments that are found to be highly essential for this lecture


    note preparation.


    We are very happy to be members of the faculty of health


    sciences, Alemaya university for the fact that working with


    such faculty are really incomparable.



    iii


    TABLE OF CONTENTS


    Preface ............................................................................... i


    Acknowledgement ................................................................ iii


    General Objectives ............................................................... vii


    Chapter 1: Introduction to Graphic Communication ............ 1


    1.1. Drawing .................................................................. 1


    1.1.1 Artistic Drawings .......................................... 2


    1.1.2. Technical Drawings ...................................... 3


    Chapter 2: Drawing Equipments and Their Use .................. 11


    2.1. Introduction ............................................................ 11


    2.2. Important Drawing Equipments .................... 11


    Chapter 3: Lettering and Lines ............................................ 22


    3.1. Letter Styles ........................................................... 22


    3.2. Technique Of Lettering ........................................... 24


    3.2.1. .Guide Lines ................................................. 24


    3.3. Spacing Of Letters ................................................. 30


    3.4. Lettering In Maps ................................................... 31


    3.5. Conventional Lines ................................................ 31


    Chapter 4: Geometric Construction ..................................... 35


    4.1. 1 Introduction ......................................................... 35


    4.2. Geometric Nomeniclature ...................................... 36


    4.3. Techniques of Geometric Constructions ................ 42


    Chapter 5: Projection ......................................................... 66


    5.1. Introduction ........................................................... 67


    5.1.1. Isometric Drawing ........................................ 68


    5.1.2. Orthographic Or Multi View Projection ......... 70


    5.2. Theory Of Multi View Projections ........................... 72


    5.2.1. Orthographic Projection ............................... 74


    iv


    5.2.2. Classification of Surfaces and Lines in


    Orthographic Projections ................................ 82


    5.2.3. Precedence of Lines .................................... 89


    5.3. Pictorial Projections .............................................. 90


    5.3.1. Isometric Projection ..................................... 94


    5.3.2. Isometric Drawing ........................................ 96


    Chapter 6: Sectioning .......................................................... 101


    6.1. Sectional Views .................................................... 101


    6.2. How Sections Are Shown ..................................... 106


    6.3. Multsection Views ................................................ 109


    Chapter 7: Projection of Points, Lines and Planes .............. 116


    7.1. Introduction .......................................................... 117


    7.2. Reference Planes ................................................. 118


    7.3. Projection of Point ................................................ 119


    7.4. Lines in Space ...................................................... 120


    7.4.1. Classification Of Lines In Orthographic


    Projections ................................................ 121


    7.4.2 Orthographic Projection Of A Line ............... 124


    7.4.3. True Size (Shape) Of An Oblique Plane .... 146


    Chapter 8: Dimensioning ..................................................... 149


    8.1. Introduction .......................................................... 149


    8.2. Definitions ............................................................ 150


    8.3. Steps in Dimensioning .......................................... 152


    8.4. Where to Put Dimensions ..................................... 153


    Chapter 9: Mapping ............................................................. 159


    9.1. Introduction .......................................................... 159


    9.2. Definition ............................................................. 160


    9.3. Purpose ................................................................ 161


    9.4. Classification of Maps .......................................... 162


    9.5. Sketch Map .......................................................... 166


    9.6. Materials Used In a Sketch Mapping For Field or


    Office Use ............................................................ 172


    9.7. Procedures for Making a Sketch Map ................. 172


    v


    Chapter 10: Building Drawing ............................................. 176


    10.1. Introduction ........................................................ 176


    10.2. Important Terms Used In Building Drawing ....... 177


    10.3. Principles of Architecture .................................... 180


    10.4. Basic Elements of Planning Residential Building 182


    10.5. Principles of Planning Of Residential Building .... 175


    10.6. Specification Used To Draw the Building Drawing 189


    10.7. Methods of Making Line and Detailed Drawing .. 191


    10.8. Tips to Draw Building Drawing ........................... 194


    Chapter 11. Application of Engineering Drawing In


    Environmental Health Projects ....................... 206


    Introduction ................................................................. 206


    A. Sanitation Projects .................................................. 207


    B. Water Projects ........................................................ 227


    Bibliography ......................................................................... 231



    vi


    GENERAL OBJECTIVES


    This lecture notes will enable the students to:


    I. Explain the concept of graphic communication, their type


    and their role in sanitary construction.


    II. Familiarize with different drawing equipment, technical


    standards and procedures for construction of geometric


    figures.


    III. Equipped with the skill that enables them to convert


    pictorial (3-D) drawings to orthographic (2-D) drawings


    and vice versa.


    IV. Explain the principle and application of sectioning.


    V. Well familiar with the purpose, procedures, materials and


    conventional symbols utilized to make sketch maps.


    vii


    CHAPTER ONE


    INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHIC


    COMMUNICATION


    Objectives:


    At the end of this chapter students should be able to:


    ♦ Define graphic communication


    ♦ Mention types of drawing


    ♦ Explain the difference between different types of


    drawings


    ♦ Mention some of the applications of technical


    drawings



    1.1 Drawing


    A drawing is a graphic representation of an object, or a part of


    it, and is the result of creative thought by an engineer or


    technician. When one person sketches a rough map in giving


    direction to another, this is graphic communication. Graphic


    communication involves using visual materials to relate ideas.


    Drawings, photographs, slides, transparencies, and sketches


    are all forms of graphic communication. Any medium that


    uses a graphic image to aid in conveying a message,


    instructions, or an idea is involved in graphic communication.


    1


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