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Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire

689 Pages · 2008 · 14.66 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire

    Encyclopedia of


    the OTTOMAN empire



    Gábor Ágoston


    Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.


    Bruce Masters


    Wesleyan University, Connecticut


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd i 11/4/08 2:29:59 PM Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire


    Copyright © 2009 by Gábor Ágoston and Bruce Masters


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by


    any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any infor-


    mation storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher.


    For information contact:


    Facts On File, Inc.


    An imprint of Infobase Publishing


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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Ágoston, Gábor.


    Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire / Gábor Ágoston and Bruce Masters.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-6259-1


    ISBN-10: 0-8160-6259-5


    1. Turkey—History—Ottoman Empire, 1288–1918—Encyclopedias. 2. Turkey—


    Civilization—Encyclopedias. I. Masters, Bruce Alan, 1950– I. Title.


    DR486.A375 2008


    956'.01503—dc22 2008020716


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    ONTENTS


    Editors and Contributors vii Alemdar Mustafa Pasha 29 B


    List of Illustrations and Aleppo 30 Baban family 70


    Maps xvii Alexandrette 32 Baghdad 70


    Alexandria 33 bailo 72


    Acknowledgments xxi


    Algiers 33 Balkan wars 73


    Note on Transliteration Ali Emiri Efendi 34 banks and banking 74


    and Spelling xxiii Ali Kuşçu 35 Barbarossa brothers 77


    Introduction xxv Âlî Pasha, Mehmed Emin 36 Barbary states 78


    Ali Pasha of Janina 37 Basra 78


    aliya 38 bathhouse 79


    Entries A-Z


    Alliance Israélite Universelle 38 Bayezid I 80


    A American Board of Bayezid II 82


    Commissioners for


    Bedouins 84


    Abbas I 1


    Foreign Missions 39


    Beirut 86


    Abbas Hilmi 2


    amir al-hajj 40


    Bektaşi Order 88


    Abbasid Caliphate 3


    Anatolian emirates 40


    Belgrade 89


    Abd al-Qadir al-Jazairi 4


    Anaza Confederation 42


    Black Sea 89


    Abduh, Muhammad 4


    Anglo-Ottoman Convention 42


    Bosnia and Herzegovina 91


    Abdülaziz 5


    Ankara, Battle of 43


    Branković family 93


    Abdülhamid I 5 Antioch 44


    Bucharest, Treaty of 94


    Abdülhamid II 6 Antun, Farah 44


    Buda 94


    Abdülmecid 9 Arabistan 45


    budgets 96


    Acre 9 Arab Revolt 45


    Bulgaria 99


    administration, central 10 architecture 46


    Bulgarian National


    administration, provincial 13 Armenia 51


    Awakening 102


    Adriatic Sea 17 Armenian Apostolic Church 53


    Bulgarian Orthodox


    al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din 18 Armenian Massacres 54


    Church 103


    agriculture 19 ashraf 55


    Bursa 105


    ahdname 21 Atatürk, Kemal 56


    Büyük Süleyman Pasha 106


    Ahmed I 22 Auspicious Incident 60


    Byzantine Empire 107


    Ahmed II 24 Austria 61


    Ahmed III 24 ayan 64 C


    Ahmed Cevdet Pasha 26 Azak 67 Caffa 112


    Alawi 27 al-Azhar 67 Cairo 112


    Albania 28 al-Azm family 68 caliphate 114


    iii


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd iii 11/4/08 2:29:59 PM ivu2002u2002Contents


    calligraphy 115 Dawud Pasha 177 Greek War of


    capitulations 118 death and funerary culture 177 Independence 240


    caravan 119 debt and the Public Debt


    H


    caravansaray 120 Administration 180


    Hagia Sophia 243


    cartography 120 devşirme 183


    hahambaşı 246


    Caucasus 124 dhimmi 185


    Haifa 246


    Celali revolts 127 Dinshaway Incident 186


    hajj 246


    Cem 128 Dolmabahçe Palace 186


    dragoman 188 Hama 248


    censorship 130


    Drava River 188 Hamidiye 249


    ceramics 132


    Druzes 189 harem 249


    Cezzar Ahmed Pasha 134


    Duwayhi, Istifanus 190 al-Hashimi, Faysal


    charity 135


    ibn Husayn 251


    coffee/coffeehouses 138


    E al-Hashimi, Husayn ibn Ali 251


    Committee of Union and


    Eastern Question 191 hayduk 252


    Progress 139


    economy and economic Hejaz 253


    condominium 141


    policy 192 Hejaz Railroad 253


    Constantinople, conquest


    Edirne 195 historiography 253


    of 142


    Edirne, Treaty of 197


    Hungary 255


    constitution/Constitutional


    education 198


    Periods 144 Hünkar Iskelesi, Treaty of 258


    Egypt 204


    contraband 145 Husayn-McMahon


    England 206 correspondence 259


    conversion 145


    enthronement and


    Copts 147


    accession ceremony 207 I


    corsairs and pirates 148


    Euphrates River 209 ibn Abd al-Wahhab,


    Cossacks 149


    Evliya Çelebi 209 Muhammad 260


    court and favorites 151


    ibn Saud family 261


    court chronicles 154 F


    Ibrahim I 262


    court of law 156 fallah 211 Ibrahim Pasha 264


    Cretan War 157 family 212 ihtisab and muhtesib 264


    Crete 158 Farhi family 215 illustrated manuscripts


    Crimean Tatars 158 Fatih mosque complex 216 and miniature paintings 265


    Crimean War 161 fatwa 217 illustrated manuscripts in


    Croatia 163 finances and fiscal structure 217 the Topkapı Palace


    Cromer, Lord 164 firearms 218 Museum 270


    cuisine 165 Fondaco dei turchi 220 imperial ideology 273


    Cyprus 165 France 221 intelligence 276


    Fuad Pasha 225 Iran 278


    D


    Iraq 282


    Dalmatia 168 G


    Ismail, Khedive 283


    Damascus 168 Galata 226 Ismail I 284


    Damascus Incident 171 Gaza 228


    Istanbul 286


    Damascus Riots 172 Germany 228


    Izmir 290


    Danube Province 172 ghaza 231


    Danube River 173 Gökalp, Ziya 232 J


    dar al-harb 174 Grand Bazaar 233 Jabal al-Druz 294


    dar al-Islam 175 grand vizier 235 al-Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman 294


    darülfünun 175 Greece 236 Jacobites 294


    Davud Pasha 177 Greek Orthodox Church 238 Janbulad Ali Pasha 295 Contents v


    Janbulad family 296 Mahmud II 345 Mustafa Kamil 412


    Janissaries 296 Malta 347 Mustafa Reşid Pasha 413


    Jassy, Treaty of 298 mamluk 347 mutasarrafiyya 414


    Jeddah 298 Mamluk Empire 348


    N


    Jerusalem 299 markets 349


    al-Nabulusi, Abd al-Ghani 415


    Jews 300 Maronites 351


    Nadir Shah 415


    jizya 303 martolos 353


    Nahda 416


    Mawali Bedouin


    K Confederation 353 Najaf 416


    kadı 304 Mecca 354 Najd 417


    kadıasker 305 Mecelle 355 Namik Kemal 417


    Kamaniçe 306 medicine 357 Napoleon Bonaparte 418


    kanun 306 Medina 362 Naqshbandiyya Order 419


    Karadjordje 307 Mehmed I 362 nationalism 420


    Karaites 308 Mehmed II 364 navy 425


    Karbala 308 Mehmed III 368 neomartyrs 429


    Karlowitz, Treaty of 309 Mehmed IV 370 Nestorians 430


    Katib Çelebi 310 Mehmed V 371 newspapers 431


    al-Kawakibi, Abd Mehmed VI 371 Nizam-ı Cedid 434


    al-Rahman 311 nomads 436


    Mehmed Ali 372


    Khayr al-Din Pasha 311 North Africa 438


    Melkite Catholics 373


    khedive 312 novel 439


    menzil/menzilhane 374


    Kızılbaş 312


    merchant communities 375


    O


    Knights of St. John 313


    merchants 376


    Köprülü family 313 Orhan Gazi 442


    Mevlevi Order 377


    Osman I 444


    Kosovo, Battle of 317


    Midhat Pasha 378


    Osman II 446


    Küçük Kaynarca, Treaty of 317


    military acculturation 379


    Osman III 447


    Kurds 318


    military slavery 382


    Osman Pazvantoğlu 447


    Kuwait 320


    millet 383


    Ottomanism 448


    missionaries 384


    L Özi 449


    missionary schools 385


    language and script 322


    Mohács, Battle of 388 P


    Lausanne, Treaty of 323


    Moldavia 389 palaces 451


    law and gender 325


    money and monetary Palace School 452


    Lawrence, T.E. 328


    systems 391


    Palestine 452


    Lebanese Civil War 329


    Mosul 394


    Pan-Islamism 453


    Lebanon 329


    Mühendishane 395 parliament 456


    Lepanto, Battle of 331


    mukataa 396 Phanariots 457


    Levant Company 333


    Murad I 396 Philiki Hetairia 458


    libraries 333


    Murad II 399 photography 459


    Libya 336


    Murad III 401 plague 462


    literature, classical


    Ottoman 337 Murad IV 403 Poland 464


    literature, folk 339 Murad V 404 political satire 465


    literature, late Ottoman 340 music 404 population 467


    Mustafa I 409 presidio 469


    M Mustafa II 410 Prime Ministry’s Ottoman


    al-Maani, Fakhr al-Din 344 Mustafa III 411 Archives 469


    Mahmud I 344 Mustafa IV 412 printing 471


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd v 11/4/08 2:29:59 PM vi Contents


    Q Sharif of Mecca 527 U


    al-Qazdaghli household 475 Shaykh al-Balad 528 al-Ujaymi, Hindiyya 575


    Shia Islam 528 Ukraine 576


    R


    Shihab family 530 ulema 577


    Ragusa 477


    slavery 530 Uniates 578


    railroads 478 Sobieski, Jan 533 Urabi, Ahmad Pasha 578


    Rashid Rida, Muhammad 484 Sokollu family 534 Uskoks 579


    reform 484


    Spain 536


    V


    reisülküttab 486


    Suez Canal 538


    relazione 487 Venice 581


    Sufism 539


    revolutionary press 487 Vienna, sieges of 583


    Süleyman I 541


    Rhodes 489 Vlachs 585


    Süleyman II 547


    Rifaiyya Order 489


    Sunni Islam 548 W


    Russia 489


    Svishtov, Treaty of 549 wagon fortress 587


    Russo-Ottoman War of


    Sykes-Picot Agreement 550 Wahhabis 587


    1768-74 492


    Syria 550 Wallachia 588


    Russo-Ottoman Wars 494


    waqf 590


    T


    S warfare 591


    al-Tahtawi, Rifaat 551


    Salafiyya 500 weights and measures 595


    salname 501 takfir 551 Weizmann, Chaim 598


    Salonika 502 Takiyüddin 552 World War I 598


    Tanzimat 553


    al-Sanusi, Muhammad 504


    Y


    Tawfiq, Khedive 555


    al-Sayyadi, Abu al-Huda 505


    Yazidis 602


    tax farming 555


    sciences 506


    Yemen 602


    telegraph 557


    Selim I 511


    Young Ottomans 603


    temettuat 558


    Selim II 513


    Young Turks 604


    Selim III 514 Tersane-i Amire 559


    Seljuks 515 Timur 562 Z


    Serbia 517 Timurids 563 Zahir al-Umar 607


    Serbian Orthodox Church 519 tobacco 564 Zand, Karim Khan 608


    Sèvres, Treaty of 520 Topkapı Palace 566 Zionism 608


    sex and sexuality 522 trade 568 Ziya Pasha 609


    şeyhülislam 524 Transylvania 570


    Shabbatai Zvi 525 Tripoli (Lebanon) 571


    Chronology 612


    Shadhliyya Order 525 Tripoli (Libya) 572


    Glossary 616


    Shahrizor 526 tuğra 572


    Bibliography 620


    Shammar Bedouin 526 Tunis 573


    sharia 526 Turkey 574 Index 624


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd vi 11/4/08 2:29:59 PM E


    DITORS AND


    C


    ONTRIBUTORS


    EDITORS is the author of several books and articles on Ottoman


    architecture.


    Gábor Ágoston is associate professor at the Depart-


    ment of History of Georgetown University. His research


    Ali Akyıldız teaches at the history department of Mar-


    focuses on Ottoman economic and military history from


    mara University (Istanbul). He has been one of the edi-


    the 15th through 18th centuries, early modern Hungar-


    tors of the new Turkish-language Encyclopedia of Islam


    ian history, and on the comparative study of the Otto-


    (TDVİA) since 1997, and was a visiting professor at the


    man and Habsburg Empires. In addition to his five


    universities of London and Tokyo. His Turkish–lan-


    Hungarian–language books and numerous articles, he is


    guage publications include two books on the reforms in


    the author of Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the


    the Ottoman central government during the Tanzimat


    Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire.


    and on the introduction of paper money. His book on


    Ottoman Securities was published in both Turkish and


    Bruce Masters is the John Andrus Professor of History


    English.


    at Wesleyan University. He holds a Ph.D. in Near East-


    ern Studies from the University of Chicago. His publica-


    Hüseyin Al is board member of the Banking Regulation


    tions include Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab


    and Supervision Agency of Turkey. His research inter-


    World: The Birth of Sectarianism and The Origins of


    ests include the financial history of the Ottoman Empire


    Western Economic Dominance in the Middle East: Mer-


    with particular reference to banks, banking, capital mar-


    cantilism and the Islamic Economy in Aleppo, 1600–1750.


    kets, and relation with international money markets in


    the 19th century. In addition to articles on the above


    CONTRIBUTORS


    topics, he has published two books in Turkish on inter-


    Erhan Afyoncu is assistant professor in the Department national capital and Ottoman finances in 1820–1875 and


    of History at Marmara University, Istanbul. He teaches on Ottoman foreign debts in 1854–1856.


    Ottoman political and military history in the 15th


    through 18th centuries. He has published three books in Zeynep Atbaş has been a curator of manuscripts at the


    Turkish, including a guidebook on how to conduct his- Topkapı Palace Museum since 1998. Her research inter-


    torical research regarding the pre-Tanzimat era. est concerns Islamic manuscripts and she has published


    several articles and papers on miniature paintings.


    Zeynep Ahunbay is professor of architecture and head


    of the Department on Restoration of Monuments at Cemil Aydın is assistant professor at the Department


    Istanbul Technical University, and former president of History, University of North Carolina at Charlotte,


    of ICOMOS Turkey (1999–2005). She teaches Otto- where he teaches courses on Middle Eastern and inter-


    man architectural history and conservation of cultural national history. His recent publications include Politics


    heritage. She has been involved in the restoration of of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in


    several war-damaged monuments in the Balkans. She Pan–Islamic and Pan–Asian Thought.


    vii


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd vii 11/4/08 2:29:59 PM viii Editors and Contributors


    Salih Aynural is professor of history at the Gebze Insti- Mustafa Budak is vice general director of the State


    tute of Technology, Turkey, where he teaches Ottoman Archives of Turkey and director of the Prime Ministry’s


    economic history. In addition to his articles in Turkish Ottoman Archives in Istanbul. His fields of research


    and English on the provisioning of Istanbul, he has pub- include the history of the Caucasus, the Crimean War,


    lished a book in Turkish on the Istanbul mills, millers, and Turkish foreign policy. In addition to his articles on


    and bakers in the 18th and 19th centuries. these subjects, he has published a Turkish-language book


    on Ottoman foreign policy before the Lausanne Peace


    Yakup Bektaş is an historian of technology with the Treaty.


    Tokyo Institute of Technology. His articles on the his-


    tory of the Ottoman and American telegraph appeared Yücel Bulut is assistant professor at the Department of


    in Technology and Culture and in the British Journal for Sociology of Istanbul University. In addition to his Turk-


    the History of Science. ish-language book on the history of Orientalism, he has


    published numerous articles on contemporary Turkish


    Bestami S. Bilgiç is assistant professor at the Depart-


    thought and the history of Turkish sociology.


    ment of International Relations, Çanakkale Onsekiz


    Mart University, Turkey. He teaches courses on political


    Baki Çakır was a researcher at the Research Center of


    history, Balkan history, and Turkish foreign policy. His


    the Istanbul Municipality, between 1995 and 2000. In


    research field is history and politics of the Balkans. He


    addition to his articles on Ottoman financial and institu-


    has published several articles on Turkish-Greek relations


    tional history, he has published a book in Turkish on the


    in the interwar period.


    Ottoman tax farming system in the 16th through 18th


    centuries.


    Ö. Faruk Bölükbaşı is a Ph.D. student at Marmara Uni-


    versity, Istanbul. His thesis focuses on the history of the


    Coşkun Çakır is associate professor at the University of


    Ottoman Imperial Mint. His book on Ottoman financial


    Istanbul. His research interests include Ottoman eco-


    administration in the time of Abdülhamid II was pub-


    nomic and social history. He is the author of two Turk-


    lished in Turkish.


    ish–language books on Ottoman fiscal policy during the


    Tanzimat era and on a 19th-century Anatolian city.


    Günhan Börekçi is a Ph.D. candidate in history at Ohio


    State University. His dissertation focuses on the Otto-


    Vanesa Casanova–Fernandez is a Ph.D. candidate in the


    man royal court and favorites during the reign of Sultan


    Department of History at Georgetown University. Her


    Ahmed I (r. 1603–1617). His article on the Janissaries’


    dissertation examines the construction of ethno-religious


    volley fire tactic appeared in 2006. He is also the co–edi-


    identities and hegemonic masculinities on the Spanish-


    tor for the publication of Feridun Ahmed Bey’s illus-


    Moroccan frontier in the 17th through 19th centuries.


    trated chronicle on Sultan Süleyman’s last campaign in


    1566.


    Tûba Çavdar is assistant professor in the Department of


    Information Management at Marmara University, Istan-


    İdris Bostan is professor in the Department of History


    bul. Her main field of research is the history of Ottoman


    at the University of Istanbul, and an expert on Ottoman


    libraries and books. Her book on the Rare Book Collec-


    maritime history. His publications in Turkish include


    tion of the Istanbul Chamber of Commerce Library was


    several monographs on the history of the Ottoman Naval


    recently published.


    Arsenal (Tersane-i Amire), Ottoman sailing and rowing


    ships, and the Aegean island under Ottoman rule. He is


    also co–author of A Short History of the Period of Otto- Yüksel Çelik is lecturer in the Department of History at


    man Sovereignty of the Aegean Islands, and The 1565 Marmara University, Istanbul, where he teaches courses


    Ottoman Malta Campaign Register. on Ottoman military history and reforms. His research


    interests include the Albanian National Awakening and


    Palmira Brummett is professor of history and distin- Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha’s political and military activities


    guished professor of humanities at the University of Ten- (1756–1855).


    nessee. She is the author of Image and Imperialism in the


    Ottoman Revolutionary Press, 1908–1911, and Ottoman Gökhan Çetinsaya is professor of history in the Depart-


    Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discov- ment of Humanities and Social Sciences at Istanbul


    ery. Her current projects concern the Ottoman Adriatic Technical University. His main fields of research are


    and early modern mapping, in narrative and image, of modern Turkish political history (19th and 20th centu-


    Ottoman space and sovereignty. ries), Turkish foreign policy, and the history of the Mid-


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd viii 11/4/08 2:30:00 PM Editors and Contributors ix


    dle East. He is the author of Ottoman Administration of Feridun M. Emecen is professor of history at the Uni-


    Iraq, 1890–1908. versity of Istanbul. His research and teaching interests


    include Ottoman chronicles, the history of the early


    David Cameron Cuthell Jr. is the executive director Ottoman state, institutions, and provincial administra-


    of the Institute of Turkish Studies in Washington D.C. tion, military, and urban history. He is the author of


    and visiting adjunct professor at Columbia and George- numerous articles, encyclopedia entries and books on


    town Universities. His research focuses on the 19th cen- early Ottoman history, the conquest of Constantinople,


    tury immigration of Muslims from the Caucasus and the Jews of Manisa, and the administrative and economic


    the Crimea and their role in transforming late Ottoman history of Manisa.


    Anatolia.


    Edhem Eldem is professor at the Department of His-


    Géza Dávid is professor and head of department in the tory of Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, and has taught


    Department of Turkish Philology at the University of as visiting professor at the University of California at


    Budapest. His research interests include Ottoman demo- Berkeley and at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences


    graphic and administrative history. Several of his articles Sociales, Paris. Among his fields of interest are foreign


    appeared in his Studies in Demographic and Administra- trade in the Levant in the 18th century, Ottoman funer-


    tive History of Ottoman Hungary. His recent publications ary epigraphy, the development of an urban bourgeoisie


    include two co-edited books (with Pál Fodor): Ottomans, in late 19th-century Istanbul, the history of the Imperial


    Hungarians, and Habsburgs in Central Europe, and Ran- Ottoman Bank, and late 19th-century Ottoman first-


    som Slavery Along the Ottoman Borders. person narratives and biographies. His publications


    include: French Trade in Istanbul in the Eighteenth


    Fatmagül Demirel is assistant professor at Yıldız Tech- Century; A History of the Ottoman Bank; The Ottoman


    nical University, Istanbul. Her research interests include City between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir and Istanbul


    legal and cultural history of the late Ottoman period. (with Daniel Goffman and Bruce Masters); and Death


    Her recent publications in Turkish include a mono- in Istanbul. Death and its Rituals in Ottoman–Islamic


    graph on Ottoman censorship under Abdülhamid II (r. Culture.


    1876–1909).


    Sami Erdem is lecturer at the Divinity Faculty of Mar-


    M. Uğur Derman has studied with the famous cal- mara University, Istanbul and was a visiting scholar at


    ligrapher Necmeddin Okyay. He has published more the University of Jordan in 2005–2006. He has published


    than 400 articles and encyclopedia entries and numer- on the modern history of Islamic and Ottoman law, the


    ous books on Ottoman calligraphy and book culture, Mecelle, the Caliphate, and the modernization of law in


    including Calligraphy Ottoman (1990), Letters in Gold the Muslim world. He was the chief editor of the Turk-


    (1998), and The Art of Calligraphy in the Islamic Heri- ish-language journal Divan (Journal of Interdisciplinary


    tage (1998). Studies, 2003–2007), and the co-editor of the TALİD’s


    (Turkish Studies Review) special issue on the history of


    Mehmet Ali Doğan is a Ph.D. candidate at the Middle Turkish law.


    East Center of the University of Utah, where he studies


    American missionary activities in the Middle East in the Zeynep Tarım Ertuğ is associate professor in the history


    19th century. He is the co-editor of a forthcoming book department at Istanbul University, where she teaches


    on American missionary enterprise in the Middle East in courses on Ottoman cultural history, visual sources,


    the 19th and 20th centuries. and the Ottoman imperial court. Her research interests


    include Ottoman manuscripts and miniatures, as well


    Kathryn Ebel is academic and administrative director as court ceremony. Her book in Turkish on Ottoman


    of Georgetown University’s McGhee Center for East- enthronement and funeral ceremonies in the 16th cen-


    ern Mediterranean Studies in Alanya, Turkey. She is a tury was published in 1999.


    specialist in the cartographic history of the Ottoman


    Empire, including city views, miniature paintings, and Şeref Etker is consultant pediatric surgeon and urologist


    other visual sources for the urban and historical geogra- at Zeynep-Kamil Hospital in Istanbul. His fields of inter-


    phy of the Ottoman world. Her articles have appeared in ests include the medical interaction between the vari-


    Imago Mundi and Türkiye Araştırmaları Literatür Der- ous religious communities in the Ottoman Empire, and


    gisi. Her forthcoming book is titled City Views, Imperial modernization of Turkish military medicine. His articles


    Visions: Cartography and the Visual Culture of Urban were published in Studies in Ottoman Science, among


    Space in the Ottoman Empire, 1453–1603. others.


    i-xxxviii_Ottoman_fm.indd ix 11/4/08 2:30:00 PM


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