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Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World

1381 Pages · 2007 · 25.43 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World

    ENCYCLOPEDIA of


    Society Culture


    and


    in the


    Ancient


    World


    Volume I


    (adornment to crime and punishment)


    Peter Bogucki,


    Editor in Chief Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World


    Copyright © 2008 by Infobase Publishing


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic


    or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without


    permission in writing from the publisher. For information, contact:


    Facts On File, Inc.


    An imprint of Infobase Publishing


    132 West 31st Street


    New York NY 10001


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Encyclopedia of society and culture in the ancient world / Peter Bogucki, editor in chief


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-0-8160-6941-5 (acid-free paper)


    1. Civilization, Ancient—Encyclopedias. I. Bogucki, Peter I.


    CB311.E533 2007


    930.103—dc22 2007000533


    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses,


    associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at


    (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


    You can fi nd Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfi le.com


    Text design by James Scotto-Lavino


    Cover design by Takeshi Takahashi


    Printed in the United States of America


    VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    Th is book is printed on acid-free paper. Contents


    Advisers and Contributors v education 375


    List of Illustrations xiii empires and dynasties 387


    List of Maps and employment and labor 425


    Primary Source Documents xx exploration 435


    Preface xxiii family 447


    Introduction xxv festivals 461


    food and diet 472


    Volume I


    foreigners and barbarians 483


    adornment 3 gender structures and roles 493


    agriculture 15 government organization 507


    architecture 52 health and disease 545


    art 87 household goods 560


    astronomy 123 hunting, fi shing, and gathering 571


    borders and frontiers 139 illumination 583


    building techniques and materials 150 inventions 592


    calendars and clocks 163


    Volume III


    ceramics and pottery 174


    children 187 language 609


    cities 201 laws and legal codes 621


    climate and geography 234 literature 639


    clothing and footwear 272 metallurgy 677


    craft s 284 migration and population movements 688


    crime and punishment 296 military 725


    mining, quarrying, and salt making 741


    Volume II


    money and coinage 751


    death and burial practices 311 music and musical instruments 762


    drama and theater 327 natural disasters 775


    economy 341 nomadic and pastoral societies 786 numbers and counting 797 social organization 1010


    occupations 807 sports and recreation 1047


    pandemics and epidemics 819 storage and preservation 1061


    religion and cosmology 831 textiles and needlework 1073


    resistance and dissent 869 towns and villages 1085


    roads and bridges 882 trade and exchange 1095


    transportation 1110


    Volume IV


    war and conquest 1121


    sacred sites 897 weaponry and armor 1161


    scandals and corruption 908 weights and measures 1172


    science 921 writing 1183


    seafaring and navigation 952


    settlement patterns 961 Glossary 1195


    ships and shipbuilding 974 Chronology by Region 1220


    slaves and slavery 985 General Bibliography 1231


    social collapse and abandonment 998 Index 1235 Advisers and Contributors


    EDITOR IN CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS


    Peter Bogucki Saheed Aderinto is a Ph.D. student at the Department of His-


    Associate Dean for Undergraduate Aff airs, tory, University of Texas at Austin. Some of his most recent


    School of Engineering and Applied Science publications include “Prostitution and Urban Social Rela-


    Princeton University tions” and “Policing Urban Prostitution: Prostitutes, Crime,


    Law and Reformers in Colonial Nigeria” in Nigeria’s Urban


    ADVISORY BOARD History: Past and Present (2006) and “Discrimination in an


    Urban Setting: Th e Experience of Ijebu Settlers in Colonial


    Lisa R. Brody


    Ibadan, 1893–1960” in Inter-group Relations in Nigeria dur-


    Assistant Professor of Art


    ing the 19th & 20th Centuries (2006). His writings have also


    Queens College, City University of New York


    appeared in IFRA Special Research Issue, Ethnic and Th ird


    World Review of Books, African and Asian Studies Journal,


    R. Hunt Davis


    and Th e Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work (2006).


    Professor Emeritus of History and African Studies


    University of Florida


    Olutayo Charles Adesina, Ph.D., teaches at the Department


    of History, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He is the author of


    Leo Depuydt


    “Th e Underground Foreign Exchange Market in Ibadan du-


    Associate Professor of Egyptology


    ring Devaluation” in Money Struggles and City Life: Devalua-


    Brown University


    tion in Ibadan and Other Urban Centres in Southern Nigeria,


    1986–96 (2002) and “Teaching History in Twentieth Century


    Paul R. Goldin


    Nigeria: Th e Challenges of Change” in History in Africa: A


    Associate Professor of East Asian Languages


    Journal of Method, vol. 33 (2006).


    and Civilizations


    University of Pennsylvania


    David Otieno Akombo, Ph.D., teaches music education and


    world music at Wabash College of Indiana. He is the author


    Eloise Quiñones Keber of Music and Healing across Cultures (2006).


    Professor of Art History


    Baruch College, City University of New York Francis Allard, Ph.D., teaches in the Department of Anthro-


    pology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. His research in-


    Amelie Kuhrt terests include the archaeology of early China and Mongolia.


    Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History He has contributed articles to Archaeology of Asia (2005) and


    University College, London Beyond the Steppe and the Sown: Proceedings of the 2002 Uni-


    versity of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology (2006).


    Daniel Potts


    Edwin Cuthbert Hall Professor of Miguel Arisa is fi nishing his doctoral studies in art history at


    Middle Eastern Archaeology the Graduate Center, City University of New York. He teaches


    University of Sydney at Technical Career Institutes and is a regular lecturer at the


    v vi Advisers and Contributors


    Cloisters and a docent at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, versity of Virginia. Her books include Mythology for Dum-


    New York. mies (2002), LSAT for Dummies (2004), Th e Everything Irish


    History and Heritage Book (2004), and Essential Dictionary of


    Mariam F. Ayad, Ph.D., teaches graduate-level classes on Law (2004). She has contributed to the Encyclopedia of World


    Egyptian language and literature at the University of Mem- Nations and Cultures (2006), Alternative Energy (2006), and


    phis, where she is the assistant director of its Institute of Chemical Compounds (2006).


    Egyptian Art and Archaeology. Her main research interests


    focus on the role of women in ancient Egyptian temple ritual Christopher Blackwell, Ph.D., teaches classics at Furman


    and the selection and transmission of funerary texts in post– University. He is the author of In the Absence of Alexander:


    New Kingdom Egypt. Her book on the God’s Wife of Amun Harpalus and the Failure of Macedonian Hegemony (1999)


    is under contract with Routledge. and various protocols and soft ware applications for building


    digital libraries, and he serves as technical editor for the Cen-


    Heather D. Baker, D.Phil., is a researcher at the University of ter for Hellenic Studies of Harvard University.


    Vienna, Austria, specializing in Babylonian history, society,


    and culture. She has published widely on Babylonian and As- Amy Bogaard, Ph.D., teaches prehistory and archaeobotany


    syrian history and is writing a book to be titled Th e Urban at the Department of Archaeology, University of Notting-


    Landscape of First Millennium BC Babylonia. ham, United Kingdom. She is the author of Neolithic Farming


    in Central Europe (2004).


    Robin Barrow, Ph.D., FRSC, is professor of philosophy of


    education at Simon Fraser University, Canada. His most Peter Bogucki, Ph.D., is an archaeologist who is associate


    recent books include Plato (2007) and An Introduction to dean for undergraduate aff airs of the School of Engineering


    Moral Philosophy and Moral Education (2007). He is the au- and Applied Science at Princeton University. He has studied


    thor of Athenian Democracy (2001) and Greek and Roman prehistoric settlements in Poland and has a particular interest


    Education (1996). in the spread of farming in Europe. He is the author of Th e


    Origins of Human Society (1999) and the editor (with Pam J.


    László Bartosiewicz, Ph.D., D.sc., teaches archaeozoology at Crabtree) of Ancient Europe 8000 b.c.–a.d. 1000: An Encyclo-


    the Loránd Eötvös University in Budapest (Hungary) and the pedia of the Barbarian World (2004).


    University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). He is the author


    of Animals in the Urban Landscape in the Wake of the Middle Larissa Bonfante, Ph.D., professor of classics at New York


    Ages (1995) and principal author of Draught Cattle: Th eir Os- University, is the author of several books on Etruscan and


    teological Identifi cation and History (1997) and has published early Roman culture as well as publications on ancient dress


    more than 200 scholarly articles. and nudity, including The World of Roman Costume, co-


    edited with Judith Sebesta (1994).


    Kirk H. Beetz, Ph.D., emeritus, has published over two dozen


    books and more than 900 articles. His books span topics from Charlotte Booth is a Ph.D. student at the University of Wales,


    endangered mammal species to children’s literature, includ- Swansea, and teaches Egyptology for Birkbeck College and


    ing Exploring C. S. Lewis’ “Th e Chronicles of Narnia” (2000). other institutions in the United Kingdom. She is the author


    His recent writings have focused on the history and culture of People of Ancient Egypt (2007), Th e Hyksos Period in Egypt


    of ancient Japan. (2005), and Th e Role of Foreigners in Ancient Egypt (2005).


    Craig G. R. Benjamin, Ph.D., teaches world and ancient Lisa R. Brody, Ph.D., teaches Greek and Roman art history at


    Eurasian history at Grand Valley State University. He is the Queens College, City University of New York. Her research


    coeditor of vols. 2 (1998), 4 (2000), and 6 (2002) in the Brepols interests include Greek iconography and cult, ancient lamps


    Silk Roads Studies series and the author of Th e Yuezhi: Ori- and their decoration, children in antiquity, and representa-


    gin, Migration and the Conquest of Northern Bactria (2007). tion of ethnicity in Greco-Roman art. She compiled the re-


    vised edition of David Sacks’s Encyclopedia of the Ancient


    Uff e Bergeton, Ph.D., is in the Ph.D. program in the Depart- Greek World (2005) and is author of Aphrodisias III: Th e Aph-


    ment of Asian Languages and Cultures at the University of rodite of Aphrodisias (2007).


    Michigan. He is the author of Th e Independence of Binding


    and Intensifi cation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of South- David Brown, Ph.D., is researching the interactions of the


    ern California) and various articles on theoretical phonology pre-Islamic astral sciences of Mesopotamia, Greece, India,


    and syntax. Egypt, Iran, the western Semitic world, and China at the Free


    University of Berlin. He is the author of Mesopotamian Plan-


    Amy Hackney Blackwell has degrees in history from Duke etary Astronomy-Astrology (2000) and Th e Interactions of An-


    University and Vanderbilt University and a J.D. from the Uni- cient Astral Science (forthcoming). Advisers and Contributors vii


    Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., teaches in the Nautical Archae- has written extensively on Asia, Australia, and European co-


    ology Program of the Department of Anthropology at Texas lonial history.


    A&M University. She also directs the Institute of Nautical


    Archaeology’s shipwreck excavation of a Roman marble James A. Corrick, Ph.D., is a full-time editor and writer with


    carrier off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kizilburun and is 25 books to his credit. His most recent titles are Th e Early


    preparing the fi nal publication of the Classical Greek ship Middle Ages (2006), Th e Byzantine Empire (2006), and Th e


    excavated by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at nearby Renaissance (2007).


    Tektas Burnu.


    Arden Decker is a Ph.D. candidate in the history of art at the


    Jeff rey S. Carnes is associate professor of classics at Syracuse Graduate Center, City University of New York. Her research


    University. He is the author of Th e Uses of Aiakos: Pindar and interests include Mesoamerican art as well as modern and


    the Aiginetan Imaginary (forthcoming) as well as articles on contemporary art of Mexico.


    Greek lyric poetry, gender studies, literary theory, and Plato.


    Leo Depuydt, Ph.D., teaches Egyptology at Brown University


    Julia Marta Clapp is pursuing her doctorate in art history and is curious about everything relating to ancient Egypt in its


    at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Her re- Near Eastern and Mediterranean context, especially the area’s


    search interests include modern and pre-Columbian Latin languages and history. He wrote Civil Calendar and Lunar


    American art. Calendar in Ancient Egypt (1997) and Th e Other Mathematics:


    Language and Logic in Egyptian and in General (2007).


    Wendy E. Closterman, Ph.D., teaches ancient history and


    Greek at Bryn Athyn College. Her research focuses on Athe- Haig Der-Houssikian, Ph.D., is professor emeritus (2003),


    nian burial and funerary ritual. She is the author of “Family linguistics, at the University of Florida, Gainesville. His re-


    Members and Citizens: Athenian Identity and the Peribolos search and publication interests are in morphology, Creoliza-


    Tomb Setting” in Antigone’s Answer: Essays on Death and tion, and sub-Saharan Africa.


    Burial, Family and State in Classical Athens, edited by C. Pat-


    terson (forthcoming). Christine End, M.A., works on the Giza Archives Project at


    the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Her main interests of re-


    Leah A. J. Cohen is an independent writer and editorial con- search are Middle Kingdom funerary iconography, material


    sultant with a master’s degree in geography from the Univer- culture, burial practices, and mummifi cation. As a researcher


    sity of Florida. She specializes in Africa area studies and food and illustrator, her work has appeared in Egyptological publi-


    security. She was a senior author for the Encyclopedia of Afri- cations and documentaries.


    can History and Culture, volumes 4 and 5 (2005).


    Linda Evans, Ph.D., specializes in ancient Egyptian art at


    John Collis is professor emeritus in the Department of Ar- Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. She recently com-


    chaeology, University of Sheffi eld, where he taught for over pleted her doctoral dissertation on the representation of ani-


    30 years. He has had a major role in the development of uni- mal behavior in Egyptian tomb paintings and has published


    versity and professional training in archaeology in Britain, several papers on the role and depiction of animals in the


    and is secretary of the European Association of Archaeolo- ancient world. She has also contributed chapters to Egyptian


    gists’ Committee on Training and Education. He is author of Art: Principles and Th emes in Wall Scenes (2000), Th e Encyclo-


    several books and excavation monographs, including Digging pedia of Animal Behavior (2004), Egypt: Th e Land and Lives of


    Up the Past (2004) and Th e Celts: Origins, Myths and Inven- the Pharaohs Revealed (2005), and Historica (2006).


    tions (2004).


    Stephen M. Fabian, Ph.D., is an anthropologist and currently


    Constance A. Cook, Ph.D., directs the Asian Studies pro- teaches seminars on religion, myth, and ritual at Princeton


    gram and teaches Chinese language and literature courses University. He is the author of Space-Time of the Bororo of


    at Lehigh University. She is the author of Death in Ancient Brazil (1992), Clearing Away Clouds: Nine Lessons for Life


    China: Th e Tale of One Man’s Journey (2006) and coeditor of from the Martial Arts (1999), and Patterns in the Sky: An In-


    Defi ning Chu: Image and Reality in Ancient China (1999). troduction to Ethnoastronomy (2001).


    Susan Cooksey, Ph.D., is the curator of African art, Harn Erin Fairburn is a graduate student in the Department of


    Museum of Art, University of Florida. Egyptology and Western Asian Studies at Brown University.


    She has contributed to Th e City and Urban Life (forthcoming).


    Justin Corfield, Ph.D., teaches history and international


    relations at Geelong Grammar School, Australia. He is the Alessia Frassani is a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate Center


    co-author of Historical Dictionary of Cambodia (2003) and of the City University of New York. Her research interests in- viii Advisers and Contributors


    clude the art and civilizations of ancient Oaxaca and issues John W. Humphrey, Ph.D., is professor of Greek and Ro-


    surrounding the cultural interaction between the Old and man studies at the University of Calgary. A veteran of many


    New Worlds. seasons of archaeological excavation in Turkey and Greece,


    he is the author of Greek and Roman Technology: A Source-


    Markham J. Geller is professor of Semitic languages at Uni- book (1998, with J. P. Oleson and A. N. Sherwood) and


    versity College London, in the Department of Hebrew and Ancient Technology (2006).


    Jewish Studies. He has recently published a text edition of cu-


    neiform medical texts, Renal and Rectal Disease Texts, Baby- Keith Jordan, M.Phil., is a Ph.D. candidate in pre-Columbi-


    lonisch-assyrische Medizin VII (2005). an art history at the Graduate Center of the City University of


    New York. He is currently fi nishing his doctoral dissertation,


    J. J. George is working on his Ph.D. at the Graduate Center, entitled “Stone Trees Transplanted? Central Mexican Stelae


    City University of New York. His research area is pre-Colum- of the Epiclassic and Early Postclassic and the Question of


    bian art and architecture. Maya ‘Infl uence.’”


    Wolfram Grajetzki, Ph.D., wrote his dissertation at the Amr Kamel is an Egyptologist in the Rare Books and


    Humboldt University of Berlin and has taught Egyptology Special Collections Library at the American University in


    there. He has excavated in Egypt and Pakistan and was Cairo, Egypt.


    principal archaeologist and author for the online learning


    project Digital Egypt for Universities (University College David Kelly is an instructor of English writing and literature


    London). He is preparing the catalogue of Egyptian coffi ns at Oakton Community College in Illinois. He has written


    in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. His publications over 100 published literary analyses and wrote the instruc-


    include Burial Customs in Ancient Egypt (2003) and Th e tor’s manual for the Exploring Poetry computer program. His


    Middle Kingdom in Ancient Egypt (2006). short fi ction has been published in Th e Rockford Review, Grub


    Street, and Th e Iconoclast, among other places.


    Lyn Green, Ph.D., has taught at several Canadian universities


    and for the Royal Ontario Museum. She has contributed to Panagiotis I. M. Kousoulis, Ph.D., is a lecturer in Egyptology


    several encyclopedias, including Th e Oxford Encyclopedia of at the Department of Mediterranean Studies of the Univer-


    Ancient Egypt (2000) and the Encyclopedia of the Archaeology sity of the Aegean. He is the author of Moving across Borders:


    of Ancient Egypt (1999) as well as Th e Royal Women of Ama- Foreign Relations, Religion and Cultural Interactions in the


    rna (1996). Currently she is devoting her time to her duties as Ancient Mediterranean (2007) and Ancient Egyptian Demon-


    president of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, ology: Studies on the Boundaries between the Demonic and the


    which has over 400 members and subscribers internationally, Divine in Egyptian Magic (2007).


    and to writing.


    Philippa Lang teaches ancient science and related subjects,


    Angela Herren, Ph.D., teaches pre-Columbian art and archi- with research interests in ancient medicine and philosophy,


    tecture as an assistant professor in the Department of Art and in the Classics Department of Emory University, Atlanta. She


    Latin American Studies at the University of North Carolina is the editor of Re-Inventions: Essays on Hellenistic and Early


    at Charlotte. A specialist on painted manuscripts from cen- Roman Science, Apeiron special issue vol. 37 (2004).


    tral Mexico, she completed a 2005 dissertation entitled “Por-


    traying the Mexica Past: A Comparative Study of Accounts Russell M. Lawson, Ph.D., is associate professor of history and


    of Origin in Codex Azcatitlan, Codex Boturni, and Codex chair of the Division of General Studies at Bacone College in


    Aubin.” Oklahoma. He is the author of Science in the Ancient World


    (2004), Th e Land between the Rivers: Th omas Nuttall’s Ascent


    David B. Hollander, Ph.D., teaches ancient history at Iowa of the Arkansas, 1819 (2004), and Passaconaway’s Realm: John


    State University. He is the author of Money in the Late Roman Evans and the Exploration of Mount Washington (2002, 2004).


    Republic (2007).


    Anne Mahoney, Ph.D., teaches Greek and Latin linguistics


    Brooke Holmes, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of classics at and literature at Tuft s University. She is the author of Plau-


    the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. She is at work tus: Amphitryo (2004) and Roman Sports and Spectacles: A


    on a book about the symptom in early Greek medicine and Sourcebook (2001). She is also the editor of revised editions of


    classical Greek literature. Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar (2001), Morice’s


    Stories in Attic Greek (2005), and Bennett’s Essentials (2007).


    Michael Allen Holmes is a freelance editor and writer who


    recently contributed to Shakespeare for Students, 2nd edition Susan Malin-Boyce, Ph.D., serves as deputy director of the


    (2007). He has also written an unpublished novel. Regime Crimes Liaison Offi ce, Mass Graves Investigation Advisers and Contributors ix


    Team, in Baghdad, Iraq. She has contributed to Ancient Eu- wrought Silver Jewelry and Metalwork (4th ed., 2007), Sil-


    rope 8000 b.c.–a.d. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World ver Masters of Mexico: Héctor Aguilar and the Taller Borda


    (2004) and to publications addressing Early and Late La Tène (1996), and Maestros de Plata: William Spratling and the


    settlement in Bavaria, Germany. Mexican Silver Renaissance, a catalog for a traveling exhibit


    (2002–2004).


    Renee McGarry is a student in the Ph.D. program in art


    history at the City University of New York Graduate Cen- Julian M. Murchison, Ph.D., teaches in the Department of


    ter. Her research interests include Aztec sculpture of the Sociology and Anthropology at Millsaps College. His work in


    natural world and religious manuscripts from the post- cultural anthropology examines the intersections of medicine


    Conquest period. and religion in East Africa. He recently published a chapter


    examining stories about a cure for HIV/AIDS in Borders and


    Paul McKechnie, D.Phil., is a senior lecturer in classics and Healers (2005).


    ancient history at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.


    He is the author of First Christian Centuries: Perspectives on Caryn E. Neumann, Ph.D., teaches history in Ohio Wesleyan


    the Early Church (2002) and Outsiders in the Greek Cities in University’s Black World Studies Department. She is a former


    the Fourth Century b.c. (1989). managing editor of the Journal of Women’s History.


    John M. McMahon, Ph.D., teaches at Le Moyne College in Emily Jane O’Dell, is a Ph.D. candidate at Brown University


    Syracuse, New York, where he directs the classics program. and has taught at Brown University in both the Department


    He is author of Cave Paralysin: Impotence, Perception and of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies and the


    Text in the Satyrica of Petronius (1998) and numerous articles Department of Literary Arts. She has been the chief epig-


    on the intersection of ancient literature and natural history. rapher of the Cairo-Brown University Abu Bakr Epigraphic


    His most recent work includes nine entries in the forthcom- Survey in the western cemetery of the Great Pyramids in


    ing Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (2006). Giza, Egypt, for the past fi ve years.


    Jianjun Mei, Ph.D., teaches the history of science and tech- Simon O’Dwyer is founder and researcher for Prehistoric


    nology at the University of Science and Technology Beijing. Music Ireland, author of Prehistoric Music of Ireland and


    He is the author of Copper and Bronze Metallurgy in Late Pre- prehistoricmusic.com, and contributor to Th e Encyclopedia


    historic Xinjiang: Its Cultural Context and Relationship with of Music in Ireland and Th e Encyclopedia of Ireland. He has


    Neighbouring Regions (2000). published four papers for the International Study Group on


    Music Archaeology.


    James E. Meier, Ph.D., is assistant professor in the Depart-


    ment of Humanities and Social Sciences at Central Florida Penelope Ojeda de Huala is a Ph.D. candidate in art history


    Community College. He is a contributor to the Encyclopedia at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York,


    of African History and Culture (2005). where she studies pre-Columbian to contemporary art of Lat-


    in America. Her research focus is Guatemala and Peru, par-


    Francesco Menotti, Ph.D., is a lecturer in European prehis- ticularly the enduring thoughts and practices of indigenous


    tory at the Institute of Prehistory and Archaeological Science, cultures as manifested in art.


    Basel University, Switzerland. He is the author of Living on


    the Lake in Prehistoric Europe (2004). Michael J. O’Neal, Ph.D., is a writer who lives in Moscow,


    Idaho. He is a frequent contributor to reference and educa-


    Melissa Moore Morison is associate professor of classics tional books, including Lives and Works: Young Adult Authors


    and classical archaeology at Grand Valley State University. (1999), Th e Crusades (2005), and America in the 1920s (2006).


    She has extensive experience in archaeological fi eldwork in


    Greece, Turkey, and the United States. Her research interests Dianne White Oyler, Ph.D., teaches African history at Fay-


    include Roman provincial archaeology, Greek and Roman etteville State University. She is the author of Th e History


    pottery, and ceramic technology. of the N’ko Alphabet and Its Role in Mande Transnational


    Identity: Words as Weapons (2005) as well as articles in the


    Penny Morrill, Ph.D., teaches pre-Columbian and early co- refereed journals Research in African Literature, the Mande


    lonial Mesoamerican art at Hood College, Frederick, Mary- Studies Journal, and the International Journal of African His-


    land. She has an essay, “Th e Queen of Heaven Reigns in New torical Studies.


    Spain: Th e Triumph of Eternity in the Casa del Deán Mu-


    rals,” in a Brill anthology, Woman and Art in Early Modern Katie Parla is an art historian and archaeological speleolo-


    Latin America (2006). She has authored several books on gist working in Rome and Naples as a docent leading didactic


    modern Mexican silver: Mexican Silver: 20th Century Hand- seminars of archaeological sites. She consults for the History


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