Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World
(adornment to crime and punishment)
Editor in Chief Encyclopedia of Society and Culture in the Ancient World
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of society and culture in the ancient world / Peter Bogucki, editor in chief
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8160-6941-5 (acid-free paper)
1. Civilization, Ancient—Encyclopedias. I. Bogucki, Peter I.
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Th is book is printed on acid-free paper. Contents
Advisers and Contributors v education 375
List of Illustrations xiii empires and dynasties 387
List of Maps and employment and labor 425
Primary Source Documents xx exploration 435
Preface xxiii family 447
Introduction xxv festivals 461
food and diet 472
foreigners and barbarians 483
adornment 3 gender structures and roles 493
agriculture 15 government organization 507
architecture 52 health and disease 545
art 87 household goods 560
astronomy 123 hunting, fi shing, and gathering 571
borders and frontiers 139 illumination 583
building techniques and materials 150 inventions 592
calendars and clocks 163
ceramics and pottery 174
children 187 language 609
cities 201 laws and legal codes 621
climate and geography 234 literature 639
clothing and footwear 272 metallurgy 677
craft s 284 migration and population movements 688
crime and punishment 296 military 725
mining, quarrying, and salt making 741
money and coinage 751
death and burial practices 311 music and musical instruments 762
drama and theater 327 natural disasters 775
economy 341 nomadic and pastoral societies 786 numbers and counting 797 social organization 1010
occupations 807 sports and recreation 1047
pandemics and epidemics 819 storage and preservation 1061
religion and cosmology 831 textiles and needlework 1073
resistance and dissent 869 towns and villages 1085
roads and bridges 882 trade and exchange 1095
war and conquest 1121
sacred sites 897 weaponry and armor 1161
scandals and corruption 908 weights and measures 1172
science 921 writing 1183
seafaring and navigation 952
settlement patterns 961 Glossary 1195
ships and shipbuilding 974 Chronology by Region 1220
slaves and slavery 985 General Bibliography 1231
social collapse and abandonment 998 Index 1235 Advisers and Contributors
EDITOR IN CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS
Peter Bogucki Saheed Aderinto is a Ph.D. student at the Department of His-
Associate Dean for Undergraduate Aff airs, tory, University of Texas at Austin. Some of his most recent
School of Engineering and Applied Science publications include “Prostitution and Urban Social Rela-
Princeton University tions” and “Policing Urban Prostitution: Prostitutes, Crime,
Law and Reformers in Colonial Nigeria” in Nigeria’s Urban
ADVISORY BOARD History: Past and Present (2006) and “Discrimination in an
Urban Setting: Th e Experience of Ijebu Settlers in Colonial
Lisa R. Brody
Ibadan, 1893–1960” in Inter-group Relations in Nigeria dur-
Assistant Professor of Art
ing the 19th & 20th Centuries (2006). His writings have also
Queens College, City University of New York
appeared in IFRA Special Research Issue, Ethnic and Th ird
World Review of Books, African and Asian Studies Journal,
R. Hunt Davis
and Th e Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work (2006).
Professor Emeritus of History and African Studies
University of Florida
Olutayo Charles Adesina, Ph.D., teaches at the Department
of History, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He is the author of
“Th e Underground Foreign Exchange Market in Ibadan du-
Associate Professor of Egyptology
ring Devaluation” in Money Struggles and City Life: Devalua-
tion in Ibadan and Other Urban Centres in Southern Nigeria,
1986–96 (2002) and “Teaching History in Twentieth Century
Paul R. Goldin
Nigeria: Th e Challenges of Change” in History in Africa: A
Associate Professor of East Asian Languages
Journal of Method, vol. 33 (2006).
University of Pennsylvania
David Otieno Akombo, Ph.D., teaches music education and
world music at Wabash College of Indiana. He is the author
Eloise Quiñones Keber of Music and Healing across Cultures (2006).
Professor of Art History
Baruch College, City University of New York Francis Allard, Ph.D., teaches in the Department of Anthro-
pology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. His research in-
Amelie Kuhrt terests include the archaeology of early China and Mongolia.
Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History He has contributed articles to Archaeology of Asia (2005) and
University College, London Beyond the Steppe and the Sown: Proceedings of the 2002 Uni-
versity of Chicago Conference on Eurasian Archaeology (2006).
Edwin Cuthbert Hall Professor of Miguel Arisa is fi nishing his doctoral studies in art history at
Middle Eastern Archaeology the Graduate Center, City University of New York. He teaches
University of Sydney at Technical Career Institutes and is a regular lecturer at the
v vi Advisers and Contributors
Cloisters and a docent at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, versity of Virginia. Her books include Mythology for Dum-
New York. mies (2002), LSAT for Dummies (2004), Th e Everything Irish
History and Heritage Book (2004), and Essential Dictionary of
Mariam F. Ayad, Ph.D., teaches graduate-level classes on Law (2004). She has contributed to the Encyclopedia of World
Egyptian language and literature at the University of Mem- Nations and Cultures (2006), Alternative Energy (2006), and
phis, where she is the assistant director of its Institute of Chemical Compounds (2006).
Egyptian Art and Archaeology. Her main research interests
focus on the role of women in ancient Egyptian temple ritual Christopher Blackwell, Ph.D., teaches classics at Furman
and the selection and transmission of funerary texts in post– University. He is the author of In the Absence of Alexander:
New Kingdom Egypt. Her book on the God’s Wife of Amun Harpalus and the Failure of Macedonian Hegemony (1999)
is under contract with Routledge. and various protocols and soft ware applications for building
digital libraries, and he serves as technical editor for the Cen-
Heather D. Baker, D.Phil., is a researcher at the University of ter for Hellenic Studies of Harvard University.
Vienna, Austria, specializing in Babylonian history, society,
and culture. She has published widely on Babylonian and As- Amy Bogaard, Ph.D., teaches prehistory and archaeobotany
syrian history and is writing a book to be titled Th e Urban at the Department of Archaeology, University of Notting-
Landscape of First Millennium BC Babylonia. ham, United Kingdom. She is the author of Neolithic Farming
in Central Europe (2004).
Robin Barrow, Ph.D., FRSC, is professor of philosophy of
education at Simon Fraser University, Canada. His most Peter Bogucki, Ph.D., is an archaeologist who is associate
recent books include Plato (2007) and An Introduction to dean for undergraduate aff airs of the School of Engineering
Moral Philosophy and Moral Education (2007). He is the au- and Applied Science at Princeton University. He has studied
thor of Athenian Democracy (2001) and Greek and Roman prehistoric settlements in Poland and has a particular interest
Education (1996). in the spread of farming in Europe. He is the author of Th e
Origins of Human Society (1999) and the editor (with Pam J.
László Bartosiewicz, Ph.D., D.sc., teaches archaeozoology at Crabtree) of Ancient Europe 8000 b.c.–a.d. 1000: An Encyclo-
the Loránd Eötvös University in Budapest (Hungary) and the pedia of the Barbarian World (2004).
University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). He is the author
of Animals in the Urban Landscape in the Wake of the Middle Larissa Bonfante, Ph.D., professor of classics at New York
Ages (1995) and principal author of Draught Cattle: Th eir Os- University, is the author of several books on Etruscan and
teological Identifi cation and History (1997) and has published early Roman culture as well as publications on ancient dress
more than 200 scholarly articles. and nudity, including The World of Roman Costume, co-
edited with Judith Sebesta (1994).
Kirk H. Beetz, Ph.D., emeritus, has published over two dozen
books and more than 900 articles. His books span topics from Charlotte Booth is a Ph.D. student at the University of Wales,
endangered mammal species to children’s literature, includ- Swansea, and teaches Egyptology for Birkbeck College and
ing Exploring C. S. Lewis’ “Th e Chronicles of Narnia” (2000). other institutions in the United Kingdom. She is the author
His recent writings have focused on the history and culture of People of Ancient Egypt (2007), Th e Hyksos Period in Egypt
of ancient Japan. (2005), and Th e Role of Foreigners in Ancient Egypt (2005).
Craig G. R. Benjamin, Ph.D., teaches world and ancient Lisa R. Brody, Ph.D., teaches Greek and Roman art history at
Eurasian history at Grand Valley State University. He is the Queens College, City University of New York. Her research
coeditor of vols. 2 (1998), 4 (2000), and 6 (2002) in the Brepols interests include Greek iconography and cult, ancient lamps
Silk Roads Studies series and the author of Th e Yuezhi: Ori- and their decoration, children in antiquity, and representa-
gin, Migration and the Conquest of Northern Bactria (2007). tion of ethnicity in Greco-Roman art. She compiled the re-
vised edition of David Sacks’s Encyclopedia of the Ancient
Uff e Bergeton, Ph.D., is in the Ph.D. program in the Depart- Greek World (2005) and is author of Aphrodisias III: Th e Aph-
ment of Asian Languages and Cultures at the University of rodite of Aphrodisias (2007).
Michigan. He is the author of Th e Independence of Binding
and Intensifi cation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of South- David Brown, Ph.D., is researching the interactions of the
ern California) and various articles on theoretical phonology pre-Islamic astral sciences of Mesopotamia, Greece, India,
and syntax. Egypt, Iran, the western Semitic world, and China at the Free
University of Berlin. He is the author of Mesopotamian Plan-
Amy Hackney Blackwell has degrees in history from Duke etary Astronomy-Astrology (2000) and Th e Interactions of An-
University and Vanderbilt University and a J.D. from the Uni- cient Astral Science (forthcoming). Advisers and Contributors vii
Deborah N. Carlson, Ph.D., teaches in the Nautical Archae- has written extensively on Asia, Australia, and European co-
ology Program of the Department of Anthropology at Texas lonial history.
A&M University. She also directs the Institute of Nautical
Archaeology’s shipwreck excavation of a Roman marble James A. Corrick, Ph.D., is a full-time editor and writer with
carrier off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kizilburun and is 25 books to his credit. His most recent titles are Th e Early
preparing the fi nal publication of the Classical Greek ship Middle Ages (2006), Th e Byzantine Empire (2006), and Th e
excavated by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at nearby Renaissance (2007).
Arden Decker is a Ph.D. candidate in the history of art at the
Jeff rey S. Carnes is associate professor of classics at Syracuse Graduate Center, City University of New York. Her research
University. He is the author of Th e Uses of Aiakos: Pindar and interests include Mesoamerican art as well as modern and
the Aiginetan Imaginary (forthcoming) as well as articles on contemporary art of Mexico.
Greek lyric poetry, gender studies, literary theory, and Plato.
Leo Depuydt, Ph.D., teaches Egyptology at Brown University
Julia Marta Clapp is pursuing her doctorate in art history and is curious about everything relating to ancient Egypt in its
at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. Her re- Near Eastern and Mediterranean context, especially the area’s
search interests include modern and pre-Columbian Latin languages and history. He wrote Civil Calendar and Lunar
American art. Calendar in Ancient Egypt (1997) and Th e Other Mathematics:
Language and Logic in Egyptian and in General (2007).
Wendy E. Closterman, Ph.D., teaches ancient history and
Greek at Bryn Athyn College. Her research focuses on Athe- Haig Der-Houssikian, Ph.D., is professor emeritus (2003),
nian burial and funerary ritual. She is the author of “Family linguistics, at the University of Florida, Gainesville. His re-
Members and Citizens: Athenian Identity and the Peribolos search and publication interests are in morphology, Creoliza-
Tomb Setting” in Antigone’s Answer: Essays on Death and tion, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Burial, Family and State in Classical Athens, edited by C. Pat-
terson (forthcoming). Christine End, M.A., works on the Giza Archives Project at
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Her main interests of re-
Leah A. J. Cohen is an independent writer and editorial con- search are Middle Kingdom funerary iconography, material
sultant with a master’s degree in geography from the Univer- culture, burial practices, and mummifi cation. As a researcher
sity of Florida. She specializes in Africa area studies and food and illustrator, her work has appeared in Egyptological publi-
security. She was a senior author for the Encyclopedia of Afri- cations and documentaries.
can History and Culture, volumes 4 and 5 (2005).
Linda Evans, Ph.D., specializes in ancient Egyptian art at
John Collis is professor emeritus in the Department of Ar- Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. She recently com-
chaeology, University of Sheffi eld, where he taught for over pleted her doctoral dissertation on the representation of ani-
30 years. He has had a major role in the development of uni- mal behavior in Egyptian tomb paintings and has published
versity and professional training in archaeology in Britain, several papers on the role and depiction of animals in the
and is secretary of the European Association of Archaeolo- ancient world. She has also contributed chapters to Egyptian
gists’ Committee on Training and Education. He is author of Art: Principles and Th emes in Wall Scenes (2000), Th e Encyclo-
several books and excavation monographs, including Digging pedia of Animal Behavior (2004), Egypt: Th e Land and Lives of
Up the Past (2004) and Th e Celts: Origins, Myths and Inven- the Pharaohs Revealed (2005), and Historica (2006).
Stephen M. Fabian, Ph.D., is an anthropologist and currently
Constance A. Cook, Ph.D., directs the Asian Studies pro- teaches seminars on religion, myth, and ritual at Princeton
gram and teaches Chinese language and literature courses University. He is the author of Space-Time of the Bororo of
at Lehigh University. She is the author of Death in Ancient Brazil (1992), Clearing Away Clouds: Nine Lessons for Life
China: Th e Tale of One Man’s Journey (2006) and coeditor of from the Martial Arts (1999), and Patterns in the Sky: An In-
Defi ning Chu: Image and Reality in Ancient China (1999). troduction to Ethnoastronomy (2001).
Susan Cooksey, Ph.D., is the curator of African art, Harn Erin Fairburn is a graduate student in the Department of
Museum of Art, University of Florida. Egyptology and Western Asian Studies at Brown University.
She has contributed to Th e City and Urban Life (forthcoming).
Justin Corfield, Ph.D., teaches history and international
relations at Geelong Grammar School, Australia. He is the Alessia Frassani is a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate Center
co-author of Historical Dictionary of Cambodia (2003) and of the City University of New York. Her research interests in- viii Advisers and Contributors
clude the art and civilizations of ancient Oaxaca and issues John W. Humphrey, Ph.D., is professor of Greek and Ro-
surrounding the cultural interaction between the Old and man studies at the University of Calgary. A veteran of many
New Worlds. seasons of archaeological excavation in Turkey and Greece,
he is the author of Greek and Roman Technology: A Source-
Markham J. Geller is professor of Semitic languages at Uni- book (1998, with J. P. Oleson and A. N. Sherwood) and
versity College London, in the Department of Hebrew and Ancient Technology (2006).
Jewish Studies. He has recently published a text edition of cu-
neiform medical texts, Renal and Rectal Disease Texts, Baby- Keith Jordan, M.Phil., is a Ph.D. candidate in pre-Columbi-
lonisch-assyrische Medizin VII (2005). an art history at the Graduate Center of the City University of
New York. He is currently fi nishing his doctoral dissertation,
J. J. George is working on his Ph.D. at the Graduate Center, entitled “Stone Trees Transplanted? Central Mexican Stelae
City University of New York. His research area is pre-Colum- of the Epiclassic and Early Postclassic and the Question of
bian art and architecture. Maya ‘Infl uence.’”
Wolfram Grajetzki, Ph.D., wrote his dissertation at the Amr Kamel is an Egyptologist in the Rare Books and
Humboldt University of Berlin and has taught Egyptology Special Collections Library at the American University in
there. He has excavated in Egypt and Pakistan and was Cairo, Egypt.
principal archaeologist and author for the online learning
project Digital Egypt for Universities (University College David Kelly is an instructor of English writing and literature
London). He is preparing the catalogue of Egyptian coffi ns at Oakton Community College in Illinois. He has written
in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. His publications over 100 published literary analyses and wrote the instruc-
include Burial Customs in Ancient Egypt (2003) and Th e tor’s manual for the Exploring Poetry computer program. His
Middle Kingdom in Ancient Egypt (2006). short fi ction has been published in Th e Rockford Review, Grub
Street, and Th e Iconoclast, among other places.
Lyn Green, Ph.D., has taught at several Canadian universities
and for the Royal Ontario Museum. She has contributed to Panagiotis I. M. Kousoulis, Ph.D., is a lecturer in Egyptology
several encyclopedias, including Th e Oxford Encyclopedia of at the Department of Mediterranean Studies of the Univer-
Ancient Egypt (2000) and the Encyclopedia of the Archaeology sity of the Aegean. He is the author of Moving across Borders:
of Ancient Egypt (1999) as well as Th e Royal Women of Ama- Foreign Relations, Religion and Cultural Interactions in the
rna (1996). Currently she is devoting her time to her duties as Ancient Mediterranean (2007) and Ancient Egyptian Demon-
president of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, ology: Studies on the Boundaries between the Demonic and the
which has over 400 members and subscribers internationally, Divine in Egyptian Magic (2007).
and to writing.
Philippa Lang teaches ancient science and related subjects,
Angela Herren, Ph.D., teaches pre-Columbian art and archi- with research interests in ancient medicine and philosophy,
tecture as an assistant professor in the Department of Art and in the Classics Department of Emory University, Atlanta. She
Latin American Studies at the University of North Carolina is the editor of Re-Inventions: Essays on Hellenistic and Early
at Charlotte. A specialist on painted manuscripts from cen- Roman Science, Apeiron special issue vol. 37 (2004).
tral Mexico, she completed a 2005 dissertation entitled “Por-
traying the Mexica Past: A Comparative Study of Accounts Russell M. Lawson, Ph.D., is associate professor of history and
of Origin in Codex Azcatitlan, Codex Boturni, and Codex chair of the Division of General Studies at Bacone College in
Aubin.” Oklahoma. He is the author of Science in the Ancient World
(2004), Th e Land between the Rivers: Th omas Nuttall’s Ascent
David B. Hollander, Ph.D., teaches ancient history at Iowa of the Arkansas, 1819 (2004), and Passaconaway’s Realm: John
State University. He is the author of Money in the Late Roman Evans and the Exploration of Mount Washington (2002, 2004).
Anne Mahoney, Ph.D., teaches Greek and Latin linguistics
Brooke Holmes, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of classics at and literature at Tuft s University. She is the author of Plau-
the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. She is at work tus: Amphitryo (2004) and Roman Sports and Spectacles: A
on a book about the symptom in early Greek medicine and Sourcebook (2001). She is also the editor of revised editions of
classical Greek literature. Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar (2001), Morice’s
Stories in Attic Greek (2005), and Bennett’s Essentials (2007).
Michael Allen Holmes is a freelance editor and writer who
recently contributed to Shakespeare for Students, 2nd edition Susan Malin-Boyce, Ph.D., serves as deputy director of the
(2007). He has also written an unpublished novel. Regime Crimes Liaison Offi ce, Mass Graves Investigation Advisers and Contributors ix
Team, in Baghdad, Iraq. She has contributed to Ancient Eu- wrought Silver Jewelry and Metalwork (4th ed., 2007), Sil-
rope 8000 b.c.–a.d. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World ver Masters of Mexico: Héctor Aguilar and the Taller Borda
(2004) and to publications addressing Early and Late La Tène (1996), and Maestros de Plata: William Spratling and the
settlement in Bavaria, Germany. Mexican Silver Renaissance, a catalog for a traveling exhibit
Renee McGarry is a student in the Ph.D. program in art
history at the City University of New York Graduate Cen- Julian M. Murchison, Ph.D., teaches in the Department of
ter. Her research interests include Aztec sculpture of the Sociology and Anthropology at Millsaps College. His work in
natural world and religious manuscripts from the post- cultural anthropology examines the intersections of medicine
Conquest period. and religion in East Africa. He recently published a chapter
examining stories about a cure for HIV/AIDS in Borders and
Paul McKechnie, D.Phil., is a senior lecturer in classics and Healers (2005).
ancient history at the University of Auckland, New Zealand.
He is the author of First Christian Centuries: Perspectives on Caryn E. Neumann, Ph.D., teaches history in Ohio Wesleyan
the Early Church (2002) and Outsiders in the Greek Cities in University’s Black World Studies Department. She is a former
the Fourth Century b.c. (1989). managing editor of the Journal of Women’s History.
John M. McMahon, Ph.D., teaches at Le Moyne College in Emily Jane O’Dell, is a Ph.D. candidate at Brown University
Syracuse, New York, where he directs the classics program. and has taught at Brown University in both the Department
He is author of Cave Paralysin: Impotence, Perception and of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies and the
Text in the Satyrica of Petronius (1998) and numerous articles Department of Literary Arts. She has been the chief epig-
on the intersection of ancient literature and natural history. rapher of the Cairo-Brown University Abu Bakr Epigraphic
His most recent work includes nine entries in the forthcom- Survey in the western cemetery of the Great Pyramids in
ing Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (2006). Giza, Egypt, for the past fi ve years.
Jianjun Mei, Ph.D., teaches the history of science and tech- Simon O’Dwyer is founder and researcher for Prehistoric
nology at the University of Science and Technology Beijing. Music Ireland, author of Prehistoric Music of Ireland and
He is the author of Copper and Bronze Metallurgy in Late Pre- prehistoricmusic.com, and contributor to Th e Encyclopedia
historic Xinjiang: Its Cultural Context and Relationship with of Music in Ireland and Th e Encyclopedia of Ireland. He has
Neighbouring Regions (2000). published four papers for the International Study Group on
James E. Meier, Ph.D., is assistant professor in the Depart-
ment of Humanities and Social Sciences at Central Florida Penelope Ojeda de Huala is a Ph.D. candidate in art history
Community College. He is a contributor to the Encyclopedia at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York,
of African History and Culture (2005). where she studies pre-Columbian to contemporary art of Lat-
in America. Her research focus is Guatemala and Peru, par-
Francesco Menotti, Ph.D., is a lecturer in European prehis- ticularly the enduring thoughts and practices of indigenous
tory at the Institute of Prehistory and Archaeological Science, cultures as manifested in art.
Basel University, Switzerland. He is the author of Living on
the Lake in Prehistoric Europe (2004). Michael J. O’Neal, Ph.D., is a writer who lives in Moscow,
Idaho. He is a frequent contributor to reference and educa-
Melissa Moore Morison is associate professor of classics tional books, including Lives and Works: Young Adult Authors
and classical archaeology at Grand Valley State University. (1999), Th e Crusades (2005), and America in the 1920s (2006).
She has extensive experience in archaeological fi eldwork in
Greece, Turkey, and the United States. Her research interests Dianne White Oyler, Ph.D., teaches African history at Fay-
include Roman provincial archaeology, Greek and Roman etteville State University. She is the author of Th e History
pottery, and ceramic technology. of the N’ko Alphabet and Its Role in Mande Transnational
Identity: Words as Weapons (2005) as well as articles in the
Penny Morrill, Ph.D., teaches pre-Columbian and early co- refereed journals Research in African Literature, the Mande
lonial Mesoamerican art at Hood College, Frederick, Mary- Studies Journal, and the International Journal of African His-
land. She has an essay, “Th e Queen of Heaven Reigns in New torical Studies.
Spain: Th e Triumph of Eternity in the Casa del Deán Mu-
rals,” in a Brill anthology, Woman and Art in Early Modern Katie Parla is an art historian and archaeological speleolo-
Latin America (2006). She has authored several books on gist working in Rome and Naples as a docent leading didactic
modern Mexican silver: Mexican Silver: 20th Century Hand- seminars of archaeological sites. She consults for the History
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