2

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

1023 Pages · 2009 · 9.67 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

    Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, Stanton Marlan (Eds.)


    Encyclopedia of Psychology


    and Religion


    With15Figuresand2Tables Editors-in-Chief:


    DavidA.Leeming,Ph.D.


    Blanton-PealeInstitute


    3West29thStreet


    NewYork,NY10001


    USA


    KathrynMadden,Ph.D.


    NationalInstituteforthePsychotherapies


    250West57thStreet,Suite501


    NewYork,NY10019


    USA


    StantonMarlan,Ph.D.


    PittsburghCenterforPsychotherapyandPsychoanalysis


    4527WinthropStreet


    Pittsburgh,PA15213-3722


    USA


    AC.I.P.CatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongress


    LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2009934794


    ISBN:978-0-387-71801-9


    TheelectronicversionwillbeavailableunderISBN978-0-387-71802-6


    TheprintandelectronicbundlewillbeavailableunderISBN978-0-387-71803-3


    ßSpringerScience+BusinessMediaLLC2010(USA)


    Allrightsreserved.Thisworkmaynotbetranslatedorcopiedinwholeorinpartwithoutthewrittenpermissionofthepublisher


    (SpringerScience+BusinessMedia,LLC,233SpringStreet,NewYork,NY10013,USA),exceptforbriefexcerptsinconnectionwithreviews


    orscholarlyanalysis.Useinconnectionwithanyformofinformationstorageandretrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orby


    similarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafterdevelopedisforbidden.


    Theuseinthispublicationoftradenames,trademarks,servicemarks,andsimilarterms,eveniftheyarenotidentifiedassuch,isnottobetaken


    asanexpressionofopinionastowhetherornottheyaresubjecttoproprietaryrights.


    springer.com


    Printedonacid-freepaper SPIN:115287082109—543210 Preface


    Mr.KennethGinigersometimeagosuggestedtoDr.HollyJohnson,thenPresidentofBlanton-PealeInstitute,NewYork,


    NY,thatBlanton-Pealecompileanencyclopediaofpsychologyandreligion,acomprehensivereferenceworkconsisting


    of articles contributed by scholars of importance in the fields of religion, psychology, psychology and religion, and


    psychologyofreligion.Dr.Johnsonalsosawtheneedforsuchaninformationsourceandbeganplanningworkonthe


    projectwiththeassistanceofBlanton-Pealecolleagues,Dr.WalterOdajnykandDr.DavidA.Leeming.Longworking


    together with Blanton-Peale on behalf of Journal of Religion and Health, Springer Science+Business Media became


    publisher, with Dr.Leeming, Dr. Kathryn Madden, and Dr. Stanton Marlan named as Editors-in-Chief. Dr. Leeming


    becameManagingEditoroftheproject.Hehastaughtcoursesinmyth,religion,andliteratureformanyyearsandhas


    publishedseveralbooksonthesesubjects,includingtheOxfordCompaniontoWorldMythology,anduntilrecentlywas


    Editor-in-Chiefoftheaward-winningJournalofReligionandHealthandDeanofBlanton-Peale’sGraduateInstitute.He


    iscurrentlyPresidentofBlanton-PealeInstitute.Dr.MaddenservedasDeanandlaterPresidentofBlanton-Peale,was


    AssociateEditorandlaterExecutiveEditoroftheJournalofReligionandHealth,andhasrecentlypublishedDarkLight


    of the Soul (Lindisfarme Books). She teaches and lectures regularly and is in private practice. She received her M.A.,


    M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in Psychology and Religion from Union Theological Seminary inNew York City. Shehas


    publishedmanyarticlesinherfieldandisEditorofQuadrant.Dr.Marlanisaclinicalpsychologistinprivatepractice.


    He is a training and supervising analyst for the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts and is President of the


    PittsburghSocietyofJungianAnalysts.HeisalsoAdjunctClinicalProfessorofPsychologyatDuquesneUniversityand


    holdsdiplomatesinbothClinicalPsychologyandPsychoanalysisfromtheAmericanBoardofProfessionalPsychology.


    HehasbeenEditoroftheJournalofJungianTheoryandPracticeandistheauthorofnumerousarticlesandbooksinthe


    fieldofJungian psychology.Parentageofthe Encyclopedia ofPsychologyandReligioncomes naturally to theBlanton-


    PealeInstitute.Foundedin1937byDr.NormanVincentPealeandpsychologistSmileyBlanton,theInstituteisamental


    healthclinicandpsychologicaltraininginstitutededicatedtotheconstructiveintegrationofreligionandpsychology.


    TheEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionprovidesacrucialnewresourceforthecollaborationandmutualillumina-


    tionofthesetwofields.


    Entriesaredrawnfromawidevarietyofreligioustraditions,notonlymodernworldreligions,suchasChristianity,


    Judaism,Islam,Buddhism,andHinduism,butalso,forexample,AfricanAnimism,pre-ChristianCelticandGermanic


    traditions,Egyptian,Greek,Gnostic,andNativeNorthAmericanandMesoamericanreligiousmovements.Approaches


    to the subjects demonstrate a broad range of methodologies. Each entry is intended to create a tension of meaning


    betweentraditionalreligioustermsandpsychologicalinterpretations.Thegoalisnottoimposethecorrectordefinitive


    meaning, but to explore new and latent deposits of meaning that bear implications for human self-understanding,


    cross-culturalinterpretation,andtherapeuticpossibilities.


    Occasionally,morethanonearticleonagivensubjectisincludedtopresentdifferentpointsofview.Extensivecross-


    referencingallowsthereadertoenhanceunderstandingofparticularsubjectsthroughdirectaccesstorelatedtopics.The


    EncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionwillserveasavaluableandaccessiblereferenceworkinbothelectronicandprint


    versionsforacademiclibrariesandtheirpatronsandwillbeofparticularusetothegrowingcommunityofresearchers,


    academics, teachers, clergy, therapists, counselors, and other professionals who are involved in the developing


    reintegrationofthefieldsofreligionandpsychology. Acknowledgment


    TheEditorsandBlanton-PealeInstitutethankthemembersofSpringerScience+BusinessMediastaffinbothGermany


    andtheUnitedStatesfortheirsupportonthisproject.WeareparticularlygratefultoCarolBischoff,ThomasMager,


    SusanneFriedrichsen,HeikeRichini,andChristineHausmannfortheirconsistenthelpandsupport.


    DavidA.Leeming,KathrynMadden,andStantonMarlan Introduction


    The world’s great religions have always served as the repository of the psychological truths and values of mankind.


    Religionsaddressthefundamentalquestionsofhumanexistence:thepurposeandmeaningoflife;ourrelationshipwith


    God;thenatureofthesoul;theexistenceofevil,suffering,anddeath;ethicalbehaviorandconscience;oursearchfor


    happiness,redemption,andsalvation.Inpreviouscenturiestheologiansandreligiousphilosopherswerenotinclinedto


    differentiatebetweenmattersof‘‘soul’’or‘‘psyche.’’FiguressuchasSt.Paul,St.Augustine,MartinLuther,Pascal,and


    Kierkegaardwerepeopleoffaithwhoalsograppledwiththemysteriesofhumaninteriority,will,andmotivation.


    Inthecourseofaddressingtheseissues,everyreligionhasdevelopedadefinitionofhumannatureandexaminedour


    fundamentalmotivations,drives,anddesires.Religionshavebeencruciblesforthetime-testedpsychologicalprinciples


    thatassureasenseofidentity,community,andmeaningfullife.Allreligions,forexample,havediscoveredthatnegative


    psychologicalstates, suchas pride,anger,hatred,lust,envy,ignorance,selfishness, andegotism,lead topersonaland


    socialconflict,injustice,andpain.Ontheotherhand,positivementalandemotionalattitudes,suchaslove,altruism,


    forgiveness,compassion,generosity,humility,equanimity,andwisdom,leadtoasenseofpersonalwell-beingandsocial


    harmony.Fromapsychologicalperspective,religionsareall-encompassingtherapeuticsystemsthatdealwithmajorlife


    events,transitions,andcrisesandrespondinahealing,oftenlife-savingwaytothetravailsofthesufferingsoulandthe


    impoverishedspirit.


    With the emergence and then dominance of scientific rationalism, however, the fields of religion and psychology


    diverged and entered into a relation of mutual suspicion. Beginning with the Enlightenment and its materialistic,


    secular,andrationalisticweltanschauung,thepreviouslygenerallyacceptedreligiousandspiritualdelineationofhuman


    naturewasseriouslychallenged.Intime,asplitoccurredbetweenstudiesofhumannaturebasedonseculardefinitions


    andtheage-oldreligiousknowledgeofthehumansoulandspirit.Thetwofieldsthatshouldhavebeenalliedandin


    creativedialogueinsteadbecameestrangedfromeachother,andoftenignoredorrejectedtheknowledgethateachcould


    havecontributedtotheenterpriseofunderstandinghumannature.Purelysecularnotionsofhumannatureemerged:


    humanbeingswereseenasrationalanimals;apersonwasbornatabularasa,neithergoodnorevil,withparentingand


    education forming the personality; human beings were a composite of their economic and social relations; human


    beings were initially motivated by instinctive, irrational, and unrealistic drives and desires; all human behavior,


    emotions,andmotivationsandthosemostsublimeculturalcreations,religiousbeliefsandexperiences,weretheresult


    of complexorganic, neurological, and biochemical interactions. The tradition inspired by Sigmund Freud tended to


    viewreligionasanillusion,aculturalvestigeofimmaturityandprojection.Consequently,thoseinthereligiouscamp


    cametoviewpsychologyasareductionistenterprisethatdeniedthesacredandtranscendentaspectsofreality.


    Whilesomecontinuetosubscribetosuchstereotypes,amoresophisticatedunderstandingofreligion–particularly


    asadvancedbythefieldofdepthpsychology–hasdonemuchtoovercomethem.Thesecularparadigmthathasruled


    thedomainofpsychologyforthepastcenturieswaschallengedearlyonbypioneerssuchasWilliamJames,C.G.Jung,


    RobertoAssagioli,ViktorFrankl,ErikErikson,andthehumanisticpsychologistsGordonAllport,ErichFromm,and


    AbrahamMaslow.Duringthe1970s,thesethinkerswerejoinedbythetranspersonalpsychologists,whohavesoughta


    synthesisbetweensecularpsychologyandthegreatspiritualtraditions.Whiletheyhaveacceptedthestagesofpersonal


    development described by various exponents of secular psychology, they have added the stages of transpersonal


    developmentevidencedintheworld’scontemplativeandmeditativetraditions.Becauseoftheculturalshiftrepresented


    by the above and the persistence of religious beliefs in the vast majority of populations worldwide, contemporary


    psychologistsarebeginningtorecognizethatapurelysecularapproachtothestudyandtreatmentofhumanbeingsis


    inadequate.Asciencededicatedtotheexplorationofthebasiccharacteristicsandstrivingsofhumanbeingsandtothe


    classificationofthelawsofhumanbehaviorneedstobeinclusiveandnotexclusiveofthereligiousdimension.


    The need to address religious and spiritual problems is now deemed not only legitimate, but also clinically and


    ethically imperative. The 1994 edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the


    AmericanPsychiatricAssociation,forexample,containsanewclassification,‘‘ReligiousorSpiritualProblems.’’


    ThisEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligiongrowsoutofthedevelopingawarenessoftheneedtoreintegratethe


    sciencesofthemindwiththescienceofthespirit. Bybringing together thedisciplines ofpsychology andreligion, it viii Introduction


    unitesthetwoareasofstudyconcernedwiththebehaviorandmotivationsofhumanbeingsandprovidesacrucialnew


    resourceforthecollaborationandmutualilluminationofthesetwofields.Forthoseinthestudyofreligion,itoffers


    new toolsforunderstandingtheimages,structures,symbols, andrhythmsthatconstitute thevocabularyofreligious


    experience. For those in the field of psychology it reveals deep patterns of meaning and practice that inform human


    cultureandthepersonalidentityofmillions.


    ThisEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionillustrates,eventotheskeptical,thevitalimportanceofreligioninour


    worldandtheseriousdepthsofitssymbolicuniverse.Forthosealreadyimmersedinreligiousstudies,itdemonstrates


    layersofmeaningthatareenriched–notreduced–bythetoolsofpsychologicalinvestigation.


    Wetrustthisencyclopediaprovidescomprehensivetimelyaccessibleinformationfromamulti-facetedperspective


    thatreflectstheintersectionandthegrowingsynthesisofpsychologyandreligion.


    DavidA.Leeming,KathrynMadden,andStantonMarlan Editors-in-Chief


    DavidA.Leeming


    Blanton-PealeInstitute


    3West29thStreet


    NewYork,NY10001


    USA


    KathrynMadden


    NationalInstituteforthePsychotherapies


    250West57thStreet,Suite501


    NewYork,NY10019


    USA


    StantonMarlan


    PittsburghCenterforPsychotherapyandPsychoanalysis


    4527WinthropStreet


    Pittsburgh,PA15213-3722


    USA


    Managing Editor


    DavidA.Leeming


    Blanton-PealeInstitute


    3West29thStreet


    NewYork,NY10001


    USA


    Associate Managing Editor


    FeliceNoelleRodriguez


    Blanton-PealeInstitute


    3West29thStreet


    NewYork,NY10001


    USA


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.