Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

1023 Pages ·2009·9.67 MB ·English

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, Stanton Marlan (Eds.)


Encyclopedia of Psychology


and Religion


With15Figuresand2Tables Editors-in-Chief:


DavidA.Leeming,Ph.D.


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


KathrynMadden,Ph.D.


NationalInstituteforthePsychotherapies


250West57thStreet,Suite501


NewYork,NY10019


USA


StantonMarlan,Ph.D.


PittsburghCenterforPsychotherapyandPsychoanalysis


4527WinthropStreet


Pittsburgh,PA15213-3722


USA


AC.I.P.CatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongress


LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2009934794


ISBN:978-0-387-71801-9


TheelectronicversionwillbeavailableunderISBN978-0-387-71802-6


TheprintandelectronicbundlewillbeavailableunderISBN978-0-387-71803-3


ßSpringerScience+BusinessMediaLLC2010(USA)


Allrightsreserved.Thisworkmaynotbetranslatedorcopiedinwholeorinpartwithoutthewrittenpermissionofthepublisher


(SpringerScience+BusinessMedia,LLC,233SpringStreet,NewYork,NY10013,USA),exceptforbriefexcerptsinconnectionwithreviews


orscholarlyanalysis.Useinconnectionwithanyformofinformationstorageandretrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orby


similarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafterdevelopedisforbidden.


Theuseinthispublicationoftradenames,trademarks,servicemarks,andsimilarterms,eveniftheyarenotidentifiedassuch,isnottobetaken


asanexpressionofopinionastowhetherornottheyaresubjecttoproprietaryrights.


springer.com


Printedonacid-freepaper SPIN:115287082109—543210 Preface


Mr.KennethGinigersometimeagosuggestedtoDr.HollyJohnson,thenPresidentofBlanton-PealeInstitute,NewYork,


NY,thatBlanton-Pealecompileanencyclopediaofpsychologyandreligion,acomprehensivereferenceworkconsisting


of articles contributed by scholars of importance in the fields of religion, psychology, psychology and religion, and


psychologyofreligion.Dr.Johnsonalsosawtheneedforsuchaninformationsourceandbeganplanningworkonthe


projectwiththeassistanceofBlanton-Pealecolleagues,Dr.WalterOdajnykandDr.DavidA.Leeming.Longworking


together with Blanton-Peale on behalf of Journal of Religion and Health, Springer Science+Business Media became


publisher, with Dr.Leeming, Dr. Kathryn Madden, and Dr. Stanton Marlan named as Editors-in-Chief. Dr. Leeming


becameManagingEditoroftheproject.Hehastaughtcoursesinmyth,religion,andliteratureformanyyearsandhas


publishedseveralbooksonthesesubjects,includingtheOxfordCompaniontoWorldMythology,anduntilrecentlywas


Editor-in-Chiefoftheaward-winningJournalofReligionandHealthandDeanofBlanton-Peale’sGraduateInstitute.He


iscurrentlyPresidentofBlanton-PealeInstitute.Dr.MaddenservedasDeanandlaterPresidentofBlanton-Peale,was


AssociateEditorandlaterExecutiveEditoroftheJournalofReligionandHealth,andhasrecentlypublishedDarkLight


of the Soul (Lindisfarme Books). She teaches and lectures regularly and is in private practice. She received her M.A.,


M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in Psychology and Religion from Union Theological Seminary inNew York City. Shehas


publishedmanyarticlesinherfieldandisEditorofQuadrant.Dr.Marlanisaclinicalpsychologistinprivatepractice.


He is a training and supervising analyst for the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts and is President of the


PittsburghSocietyofJungianAnalysts.HeisalsoAdjunctClinicalProfessorofPsychologyatDuquesneUniversityand


holdsdiplomatesinbothClinicalPsychologyandPsychoanalysisfromtheAmericanBoardofProfessionalPsychology.


HehasbeenEditoroftheJournalofJungianTheoryandPracticeandistheauthorofnumerousarticlesandbooksinthe


fieldofJungian psychology.Parentageofthe Encyclopedia ofPsychologyandReligioncomes naturally to theBlanton-


PealeInstitute.Foundedin1937byDr.NormanVincentPealeandpsychologistSmileyBlanton,theInstituteisamental


healthclinicandpsychologicaltraininginstitutededicatedtotheconstructiveintegrationofreligionandpsychology.


TheEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionprovidesacrucialnewresourceforthecollaborationandmutualillumina-


tionofthesetwofields.


Entriesaredrawnfromawidevarietyofreligioustraditions,notonlymodernworldreligions,suchasChristianity,


Judaism,Islam,Buddhism,andHinduism,butalso,forexample,AfricanAnimism,pre-ChristianCelticandGermanic


traditions,Egyptian,Greek,Gnostic,andNativeNorthAmericanandMesoamericanreligiousmovements.Approaches


to the subjects demonstrate a broad range of methodologies. Each entry is intended to create a tension of meaning


betweentraditionalreligioustermsandpsychologicalinterpretations.Thegoalisnottoimposethecorrectordefinitive


meaning, but to explore new and latent deposits of meaning that bear implications for human self-understanding,


cross-culturalinterpretation,andtherapeuticpossibilities.


Occasionally,morethanonearticleonagivensubjectisincludedtopresentdifferentpointsofview.Extensivecross-


referencingallowsthereadertoenhanceunderstandingofparticularsubjectsthroughdirectaccesstorelatedtopics.The


EncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionwillserveasavaluableandaccessiblereferenceworkinbothelectronicandprint


versionsforacademiclibrariesandtheirpatronsandwillbeofparticularusetothegrowingcommunityofresearchers,


academics, teachers, clergy, therapists, counselors, and other professionals who are involved in the developing


reintegrationofthefieldsofreligionandpsychology. Acknowledgment


TheEditorsandBlanton-PealeInstitutethankthemembersofSpringerScience+BusinessMediastaffinbothGermany


andtheUnitedStatesfortheirsupportonthisproject.WeareparticularlygratefultoCarolBischoff,ThomasMager,


SusanneFriedrichsen,HeikeRichini,andChristineHausmannfortheirconsistenthelpandsupport.


DavidA.Leeming,KathrynMadden,andStantonMarlan Introduction


The world’s great religions have always served as the repository of the psychological truths and values of mankind.


Religionsaddressthefundamentalquestionsofhumanexistence:thepurposeandmeaningoflife;ourrelationshipwith


God;thenatureofthesoul;theexistenceofevil,suffering,anddeath;ethicalbehaviorandconscience;oursearchfor


happiness,redemption,andsalvation.Inpreviouscenturiestheologiansandreligiousphilosopherswerenotinclinedto


differentiatebetweenmattersof‘‘soul’’or‘‘psyche.’’FiguressuchasSt.Paul,St.Augustine,MartinLuther,Pascal,and


Kierkegaardwerepeopleoffaithwhoalsograppledwiththemysteriesofhumaninteriority,will,andmotivation.


Inthecourseofaddressingtheseissues,everyreligionhasdevelopedadefinitionofhumannatureandexaminedour


fundamentalmotivations,drives,anddesires.Religionshavebeencruciblesforthetime-testedpsychologicalprinciples


thatassureasenseofidentity,community,andmeaningfullife.Allreligions,forexample,havediscoveredthatnegative


psychologicalstates, suchas pride,anger,hatred,lust,envy,ignorance,selfishness, andegotism,lead topersonaland


socialconflict,injustice,andpain.Ontheotherhand,positivementalandemotionalattitudes,suchaslove,altruism,


forgiveness,compassion,generosity,humility,equanimity,andwisdom,leadtoasenseofpersonalwell-beingandsocial


harmony.Fromapsychologicalperspective,religionsareall-encompassingtherapeuticsystemsthatdealwithmajorlife


events,transitions,andcrisesandrespondinahealing,oftenlife-savingwaytothetravailsofthesufferingsoulandthe


impoverishedspirit.


With the emergence and then dominance of scientific rationalism, however, the fields of religion and psychology


diverged and entered into a relation of mutual suspicion. Beginning with the Enlightenment and its materialistic,


secular,andrationalisticweltanschauung,thepreviouslygenerallyacceptedreligiousandspiritualdelineationofhuman


naturewasseriouslychallenged.Intime,asplitoccurredbetweenstudiesofhumannaturebasedonseculardefinitions


andtheage-oldreligiousknowledgeofthehumansoulandspirit.Thetwofieldsthatshouldhavebeenalliedandin


creativedialogueinsteadbecameestrangedfromeachother,andoftenignoredorrejectedtheknowledgethateachcould


havecontributedtotheenterpriseofunderstandinghumannature.Purelysecularnotionsofhumannatureemerged:


humanbeingswereseenasrationalanimals;apersonwasbornatabularasa,neithergoodnorevil,withparentingand


education forming the personality; human beings were a composite of their economic and social relations; human


beings were initially motivated by instinctive, irrational, and unrealistic drives and desires; all human behavior,


emotions,andmotivationsandthosemostsublimeculturalcreations,religiousbeliefsandexperiences,weretheresult


of complexorganic, neurological, and biochemical interactions. The tradition inspired by Sigmund Freud tended to


viewreligionasanillusion,aculturalvestigeofimmaturityandprojection.Consequently,thoseinthereligiouscamp


cametoviewpsychologyasareductionistenterprisethatdeniedthesacredandtranscendentaspectsofreality.


Whilesomecontinuetosubscribetosuchstereotypes,amoresophisticatedunderstandingofreligion–particularly


asadvancedbythefieldofdepthpsychology–hasdonemuchtoovercomethem.Thesecularparadigmthathasruled


thedomainofpsychologyforthepastcenturieswaschallengedearlyonbypioneerssuchasWilliamJames,C.G.Jung,


RobertoAssagioli,ViktorFrankl,ErikErikson,andthehumanisticpsychologistsGordonAllport,ErichFromm,and


AbrahamMaslow.Duringthe1970s,thesethinkerswerejoinedbythetranspersonalpsychologists,whohavesoughta


synthesisbetweensecularpsychologyandthegreatspiritualtraditions.Whiletheyhaveacceptedthestagesofpersonal


development described by various exponents of secular psychology, they have added the stages of transpersonal


developmentevidencedintheworld’scontemplativeandmeditativetraditions.Becauseoftheculturalshiftrepresented


by the above and the persistence of religious beliefs in the vast majority of populations worldwide, contemporary


psychologistsarebeginningtorecognizethatapurelysecularapproachtothestudyandtreatmentofhumanbeingsis


inadequate.Asciencededicatedtotheexplorationofthebasiccharacteristicsandstrivingsofhumanbeingsandtothe


classificationofthelawsofhumanbehaviorneedstobeinclusiveandnotexclusiveofthereligiousdimension.


The need to address religious and spiritual problems is now deemed not only legitimate, but also clinically and


ethically imperative. The 1994 edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the


AmericanPsychiatricAssociation,forexample,containsanewclassification,‘‘ReligiousorSpiritualProblems.’’


ThisEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligiongrowsoutofthedevelopingawarenessoftheneedtoreintegratethe


sciencesofthemindwiththescienceofthespirit. Bybringing together thedisciplines ofpsychology andreligion, it viii Introduction


unitesthetwoareasofstudyconcernedwiththebehaviorandmotivationsofhumanbeingsandprovidesacrucialnew


resourceforthecollaborationandmutualilluminationofthesetwofields.Forthoseinthestudyofreligion,itoffers


new toolsforunderstandingtheimages,structures,symbols, andrhythmsthatconstitute thevocabularyofreligious


experience. For those in the field of psychology it reveals deep patterns of meaning and practice that inform human


cultureandthepersonalidentityofmillions.


ThisEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionillustrates,eventotheskeptical,thevitalimportanceofreligioninour


worldandtheseriousdepthsofitssymbolicuniverse.Forthosealreadyimmersedinreligiousstudies,itdemonstrates


layersofmeaningthatareenriched–notreduced–bythetoolsofpsychologicalinvestigation.


Wetrustthisencyclopediaprovidescomprehensivetimelyaccessibleinformationfromamulti-facetedperspective


thatreflectstheintersectionandthegrowingsynthesisofpsychologyandreligion.


DavidA.Leeming,KathrynMadden,andStantonMarlan Editors-in-Chief


DavidA.Leeming


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


KathrynMadden


NationalInstituteforthePsychotherapies


250West57thStreet,Suite501


NewYork,NY10019


USA


StantonMarlan


PittsburghCenterforPsychotherapyandPsychoanalysis


4527WinthropStreet


Pittsburgh,PA15213-3722


USA


Managing Editor


DavidA.Leeming


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


Associate Managing Editor


FeliceNoelleRodriguez


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion David A. Leeming, Kathryn Madden, Stanton Marlan (Eds.)


Encyclopedia of Psychology


and Religion


With15Figuresand2Tables Editors-in-Chief:


DavidA.Leeming,Ph.D.


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


KathrynMadden,Ph.D.


NationalInstituteforthePsychotherapies


250West57thStreet,Suite501


NewYork,NY10019


USA


StantonMarlan,Ph.D.


PittsburghCenterforPsychotherapyandPsychoanalysis


4527WinthropStreet


Pittsburgh,PA15213-3722


USA


AC.I.P.CatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongress


LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2009934794


ISBN:978-0-387-71801-9


TheelectronicversionwillbeavailableunderISBN978-0-387-71802-6


TheprintandelectronicbundlewillbeavailableunderISBN978-0-387-71803-3


ßSpringerScience+BusinessMediaLLC2010(USA)


Allrightsreserved.Thisworkmaynotbetranslatedorcopiedinwholeorinpartwithoutthewrittenpermissionofthepublisher


(SpringerScience+BusinessMedia,LLC,233SpringStreet,NewYork,NY10013,USA),exceptforbriefexcerptsinconnectionwithreviews


orscholarlyanalysis.Useinconnectionwithanyformofinformationstorageandretrieval,electronicadaptation,computersoftware,orby


similarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafterdevelopedisforbidden.


Theuseinthispublicationoftradenames,trademarks,servicemarks,andsimilarterms,eveniftheyarenotidentifiedassuch,isnottobetaken


asanexpressionofopinionastowhetherornottheyaresubjecttoproprietaryrights.


springer.com


Printedonacid-freepaper SPIN:115287082109—543210 Preface


Mr.KennethGinigersometimeagosuggestedtoDr.HollyJohnson,thenPresidentofBlanton-PealeInstitute,NewYork,


NY,thatBlanton-Pealecompileanencyclopediaofpsychologyandreligion,acomprehensivereferenceworkconsisting


of articles contributed by scholars of importance in the fields of religion, psychology, psychology and religion, and


psychologyofreligion.Dr.Johnsonalsosawtheneedforsuchaninformationsourceandbeganplanningworkonthe


projectwiththeassistanceofBlanton-Pealecolleagues,Dr.WalterOdajnykandDr.DavidA.Leeming.Longworking


together with Blanton-Peale on behalf of Journal of Religion and Health, Springer Science+Business Media became


publisher, with Dr.Leeming, Dr. Kathryn Madden, and Dr. Stanton Marlan named as Editors-in-Chief. Dr. Leeming


becameManagingEditoroftheproject.Hehastaughtcoursesinmyth,religion,andliteratureformanyyearsandhas


publishedseveralbooksonthesesubjects,includingtheOxfordCompaniontoWorldMythology,anduntilrecentlywas


Editor-in-Chiefoftheaward-winningJournalofReligionandHealthandDeanofBlanton-Peale’sGraduateInstitute.He


iscurrentlyPresidentofBlanton-PealeInstitute.Dr.MaddenservedasDeanandlaterPresidentofBlanton-Peale,was


AssociateEditorandlaterExecutiveEditoroftheJournalofReligionandHealth,andhasrecentlypublishedDarkLight


of the Soul (Lindisfarme Books). She teaches and lectures regularly and is in private practice. She received her M.A.,


M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in Psychology and Religion from Union Theological Seminary inNew York City. Shehas


publishedmanyarticlesinherfieldandisEditorofQuadrant.Dr.Marlanisaclinicalpsychologistinprivatepractice.


He is a training and supervising analyst for the Inter-Regional Society of Jungian Analysts and is President of the


PittsburghSocietyofJungianAnalysts.HeisalsoAdjunctClinicalProfessorofPsychologyatDuquesneUniversityand


holdsdiplomatesinbothClinicalPsychologyandPsychoanalysisfromtheAmericanBoardofProfessionalPsychology.


HehasbeenEditoroftheJournalofJungianTheoryandPracticeandistheauthorofnumerousarticlesandbooksinthe


fieldofJungian psychology.Parentageofthe Encyclopedia ofPsychologyandReligioncomes naturally to theBlanton-


PealeInstitute.Foundedin1937byDr.NormanVincentPealeandpsychologistSmileyBlanton,theInstituteisamental


healthclinicandpsychologicaltraininginstitutededicatedtotheconstructiveintegrationofreligionandpsychology.


TheEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionprovidesacrucialnewresourceforthecollaborationandmutualillumina-


tionofthesetwofields.


Entriesaredrawnfromawidevarietyofreligioustraditions,notonlymodernworldreligions,suchasChristianity,


Judaism,Islam,Buddhism,andHinduism,butalso,forexample,AfricanAnimism,pre-ChristianCelticandGermanic


traditions,Egyptian,Greek,Gnostic,andNativeNorthAmericanandMesoamericanreligiousmovements.Approaches


to the subjects demonstrate a broad range of methodologies. Each entry is intended to create a tension of meaning


betweentraditionalreligioustermsandpsychologicalinterpretations.Thegoalisnottoimposethecorrectordefinitive


meaning, but to explore new and latent deposits of meaning that bear implications for human self-understanding,


cross-culturalinterpretation,andtherapeuticpossibilities.


Occasionally,morethanonearticleonagivensubjectisincludedtopresentdifferentpointsofview.Extensivecross-


referencingallowsthereadertoenhanceunderstandingofparticularsubjectsthroughdirectaccesstorelatedtopics.The


EncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionwillserveasavaluableandaccessiblereferenceworkinbothelectronicandprint


versionsforacademiclibrariesandtheirpatronsandwillbeofparticularusetothegrowingcommunityofresearchers,


academics, teachers, clergy, therapists, counselors, and other professionals who are involved in the developing


reintegrationofthefieldsofreligionandpsychology. Acknowledgment


TheEditorsandBlanton-PealeInstitutethankthemembersofSpringerScience+BusinessMediastaffinbothGermany


andtheUnitedStatesfortheirsupportonthisproject.WeareparticularlygratefultoCarolBischoff,ThomasMager,


SusanneFriedrichsen,HeikeRichini,andChristineHausmannfortheirconsistenthelpandsupport.


DavidA.Leeming,KathrynMadden,andStantonMarlan Introduction


The world’s great religions have always served as the repository of the psychological truths and values of mankind.


Religionsaddressthefundamentalquestionsofhumanexistence:thepurposeandmeaningoflife;ourrelationshipwith


God;thenatureofthesoul;theexistenceofevil,suffering,anddeath;ethicalbehaviorandconscience;oursearchfor


happiness,redemption,andsalvation.Inpreviouscenturiestheologiansandreligiousphilosopherswerenotinclinedto


differentiatebetweenmattersof‘‘soul’’or‘‘psyche.’’FiguressuchasSt.Paul,St.Augustine,MartinLuther,Pascal,and


Kierkegaardwerepeopleoffaithwhoalsograppledwiththemysteriesofhumaninteriority,will,andmotivation.


Inthecourseofaddressingtheseissues,everyreligionhasdevelopedadefinitionofhumannatureandexaminedour


fundamentalmotivations,drives,anddesires.Religionshavebeencruciblesforthetime-testedpsychologicalprinciples


thatassureasenseofidentity,community,andmeaningfullife.Allreligions,forexample,havediscoveredthatnegative


psychologicalstates, suchas pride,anger,hatred,lust,envy,ignorance,selfishness, andegotism,lead topersonaland


socialconflict,injustice,andpain.Ontheotherhand,positivementalandemotionalattitudes,suchaslove,altruism,


forgiveness,compassion,generosity,humility,equanimity,andwisdom,leadtoasenseofpersonalwell-beingandsocial


harmony.Fromapsychologicalperspective,religionsareall-encompassingtherapeuticsystemsthatdealwithmajorlife


events,transitions,andcrisesandrespondinahealing,oftenlife-savingwaytothetravailsofthesufferingsoulandthe


impoverishedspirit.


With the emergence and then dominance of scientific rationalism, however, the fields of religion and psychology


diverged and entered into a relation of mutual suspicion. Beginning with the Enlightenment and its materialistic,


secular,andrationalisticweltanschauung,thepreviouslygenerallyacceptedreligiousandspiritualdelineationofhuman


naturewasseriouslychallenged.Intime,asplitoccurredbetweenstudiesofhumannaturebasedonseculardefinitions


andtheage-oldreligiousknowledgeofthehumansoulandspirit.Thetwofieldsthatshouldhavebeenalliedandin


creativedialogueinsteadbecameestrangedfromeachother,andoftenignoredorrejectedtheknowledgethateachcould


havecontributedtotheenterpriseofunderstandinghumannature.Purelysecularnotionsofhumannatureemerged:


humanbeingswereseenasrationalanimals;apersonwasbornatabularasa,neithergoodnorevil,withparentingand


education forming the personality; human beings were a composite of their economic and social relations; human


beings were initially motivated by instinctive, irrational, and unrealistic drives and desires; all human behavior,


emotions,andmotivationsandthosemostsublimeculturalcreations,religiousbeliefsandexperiences,weretheresult


of complexorganic, neurological, and biochemical interactions. The tradition inspired by Sigmund Freud tended to


viewreligionasanillusion,aculturalvestigeofimmaturityandprojection.Consequently,thoseinthereligiouscamp


cametoviewpsychologyasareductionistenterprisethatdeniedthesacredandtranscendentaspectsofreality.


Whilesomecontinuetosubscribetosuchstereotypes,amoresophisticatedunderstandingofreligion–particularly


asadvancedbythefieldofdepthpsychology–hasdonemuchtoovercomethem.Thesecularparadigmthathasruled


thedomainofpsychologyforthepastcenturieswaschallengedearlyonbypioneerssuchasWilliamJames,C.G.Jung,


RobertoAssagioli,ViktorFrankl,ErikErikson,andthehumanisticpsychologistsGordonAllport,ErichFromm,and


AbrahamMaslow.Duringthe1970s,thesethinkerswerejoinedbythetranspersonalpsychologists,whohavesoughta


synthesisbetweensecularpsychologyandthegreatspiritualtraditions.Whiletheyhaveacceptedthestagesofpersonal


development described by various exponents of secular psychology, they have added the stages of transpersonal


developmentevidencedintheworld’scontemplativeandmeditativetraditions.Becauseoftheculturalshiftrepresented


by the above and the persistence of religious beliefs in the vast majority of populations worldwide, contemporary


psychologistsarebeginningtorecognizethatapurelysecularapproachtothestudyandtreatmentofhumanbeingsis


inadequate.Asciencededicatedtotheexplorationofthebasiccharacteristicsandstrivingsofhumanbeingsandtothe


classificationofthelawsofhumanbehaviorneedstobeinclusiveandnotexclusiveofthereligiousdimension.


The need to address religious and spiritual problems is now deemed not only legitimate, but also clinically and


ethically imperative. The 1994 edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the


AmericanPsychiatricAssociation,forexample,containsanewclassification,‘‘ReligiousorSpiritualProblems.’’


ThisEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligiongrowsoutofthedevelopingawarenessoftheneedtoreintegratethe


sciencesofthemindwiththescienceofthespirit. Bybringing together thedisciplines ofpsychology andreligion, it viii Introduction


unitesthetwoareasofstudyconcernedwiththebehaviorandmotivationsofhumanbeingsandprovidesacrucialnew


resourceforthecollaborationandmutualilluminationofthesetwofields.Forthoseinthestudyofreligion,itoffers


new toolsforunderstandingtheimages,structures,symbols, andrhythmsthatconstitute thevocabularyofreligious


experience. For those in the field of psychology it reveals deep patterns of meaning and practice that inform human


cultureandthepersonalidentityofmillions.


ThisEncyclopediaofPsychologyandReligionillustrates,eventotheskeptical,thevitalimportanceofreligioninour


worldandtheseriousdepthsofitssymbolicuniverse.Forthosealreadyimmersedinreligiousstudies,itdemonstrates


layersofmeaningthatareenriched–notreduced–bythetoolsofpsychologicalinvestigation.


Wetrustthisencyclopediaprovidescomprehensivetimelyaccessibleinformationfromamulti-facetedperspective


thatreflectstheintersectionandthegrowingsynthesisofpsychologyandreligion.


DavidA.Leeming,KathrynMadden,andStantonMarlan Editors-in-Chief


DavidA.Leeming


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


KathrynMadden


NationalInstituteforthePsychotherapies


250West57thStreet,Suite501


NewYork,NY10019


USA


StantonMarlan


PittsburghCenterforPsychotherapyandPsychoanalysis


4527WinthropStreet


Pittsburgh,PA15213-3722


USA


Managing Editor


DavidA.Leeming


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


Associate Managing Editor


FeliceNoelleRodriguez


Blanton-PealeInstitute


3West29thStreet


NewYork,NY10001


USA


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