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Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

947 Pages · 2008 · 14.77 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

    FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page i FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page iii


    Volumes


    & FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page iv


    Copyright © 2008 by SAGE Publications,Inc.


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical,including


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    Printed in the United States of America.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Encyclopedia of psychology and law/editor,Brian L. Cutler.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-1-4129-5189-0 (cloth)


    1. Law—Psychological aspects—Encyclopedias. 2. Law—United States—Psychological aspects—Encyclopedias. 3. Forensic


    psychology—Encyclopedias. 4. Forensic psychology—United States—Encyclopedias. I. Cutler,Brian L.


    K346.E53 2008


    340′.19—dc22 2007029845


    This book is printed on acid-free paper.


    07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    Publisher: Rolf A. Janke


    Acquisitions Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson


    Developmental Editor: Diana E. Axelsen


    Reference Systems Manager: Leticia Gutierrez


    Production Editor: Kate Schroeder


    Copy Editor: QuADS Prepress (P) Ltd.


    Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.


    Proofreaders: Penny Sippel,Dennis Webb


    Indexer: Janet Perlman


    Cover Designer: Janet Foulger


    Marketing Manager: Amberlyn Erzinger FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page v


    Contents


    Editorial Board vi


    List of Entries vii


    Reader’s Guide xiii


    About the Editors xxi


    Contributors xxii


    Introduction xxxiii


    Entries


    Volume 1: A–K


    1–444


    Volume 2: L–Z


    445–874


    Index I-1–I-40 FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page vi


    Editorial Board


    Editor


    Brian L. Cutler


    University of North Carolina at Charlotte


    Associate Editor


    Patricia A. Zapf


    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York


    Managing Editor


    Sarah Greathouse


    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York


    Senior Advisory Board Members


    Brian H. Bornstein Steven D. Penrod


    University of Nebraska, Lincoln John Jay College of Criminal Justice,


    City University of New York


    Neil Brewer


    Flinders University


    John Petrila


    Mary Connell University of South Florida


    Private Practice


    Ronald Roesch


    I. Bruce Frumkin


    Simon Fraser University


    Forensic and Clinical Psychology Associates, P.A.


    R. Barry Ruback


    Edith Greene


    Pennsylvania State University


    University of Colorado at Colorado Springs


    Kirk Heilbrun Christopher Slobogin


    University of Florida


    Drexel University


    Margaret Bull Kovera Loretta J. Stalans


    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Loyola University


    City University of New York


    P. J. van Koppen


    Daniel J. Krauss Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime


    Claremont McKenna College and Law Enforcement


    John Monahan Aldert Vrij


    University of Virginia University of Portsmouth


    vi FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page vii


    List of Entries


    Ackerman-Schoendorf Parent Evaluation Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory


    of Custody Test (ASPECT) Child Custody Evaluations


    Adjudicative Competence of Youth Child Maltreatment


    Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Children’s Testimony


    Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances, Children’s Testimony, Evaluation by Juries


    Evaluation of in Capital Cases Child Sexual Abuse


    Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances in Civil Commitment


    Capital Trials, Effects on Jurors Classification of Violence Risk (COVR)


    Alcohol Intoxication. SeeSubstance Abuse and Clothing Bias in Identification Procedures


    Intimate Partner Violence; Substance Use Disorders Cognitive Interview


    Alcohol Intoxication, Impact on Eyewitness Memory Community Corrections


    Alibi Witnesses Competence Assessment for Standing Trial for


    Alternative Dispute Resolution Defendants With Mental Retardation (CAST*MR)


    AMBER Alert System Competency, Foundational and Decisional


    American Bar Association Resolution on Mental Competency, Restoration of


    Disability and the Death Penalty Competency Assessment Instrument (CAI)


    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Competency for Execution


    Amicus Curiae Briefs Competency Screening Test (CST)


    Antisocial Personality Disorder Competency to Be Sentenced


    Appearance-Change Instruction in Lineups Competency to Confess


    Automatism Competency to Stand Trial


    Competency to Waive Appeals


    Bail-Setting Decisions Competency to Waive Counsel (Proceed Pro Se)


    Battered Woman Syndrome Complex Evidence in Litigation


    Battered Woman Syndrome,Testimony on Computer-Assisted Lineups


    Behavior Analysis Interview Conditional Release Programs


    Bias Crime Conduct Disorder


    Confession Evidence


    Capacity to Consent to Treatment Confidence in Identifications


    Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument (CCTI) Confidence in Identifications, Malleability


    Capacity to Waive Miranda Rights Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS)


    Capacity to Waive Rights Conformity in Eyewitness Reports


    Capital Mitigation Consent to Clinical Research


    Capital Punishment. See Death Penalty Coping Strategies of Adult Sexual Assault Victims


    Checklist for Competency for Execution Evaluations Criminal Behavior,Theories of


    Chicago Jury Project Criminal Responsibility,Assessment of


    vii FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page viii


    viii———Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law


    Criminal Responsibility, Defenses and Standards Ethical Guidelines and Principles


    Crisis and Hostage Negotiation Ethnic Differences in Psychopathy


    Critical Incidents Evaluation of Competence to Stand Trial–Revised


    Cross-Race Effect in Eyewitness Identification (ECST–R)


    CSI Effect Expert Psychological Testimony


    Cybercrime Expert Psychological Testimony,Admissibility


    Standards


    Damage Awards Expert Psychological Testimony, Forms of


    Danger Assessment Instrument (DA) Expert Psychological Testimony on Eyewitness


    Death Penalty Identification


    Death Qualification of Juries Expert Testimony, Qualifications of Experts


    Delusions Exposure Time and Eyewitness Memory


    Detection of Deception: Cognitive Load Extreme Emotional Disturbance


    Detection of Deception: Event-Related Potentials Eyewitness Descriptions,Accuracy of


    Detection of Deception: Magnetic Resonance Eyewitness Identification: Effect of Disguises and


    Imaging (MRI) Appearance Changes


    Detection of Deception: Nonverbal Cues Eyewitness Identification: Field Studies


    Detection of Deception: Reality Monitoring Eyewitness Identification: General Acceptance


    Detection of Deception: Use of Evidence in in the Scientific Community


    Detection of Deception by Detection “Wizards” Eyewitness Memory


    Detection of Deception in Adults Eyewitness Memory, Lay Beliefs About


    Detection of Deception in Children


    Detection of Deception in High-Stakes Liars Facial Composites


    Developing Comprehensive Theories of False Confessions


    Eyewitness Identification. SeeWITNESS Model False Memories


    Diminished Capacity Financial Capacity


    Diplomates in Forensic Psychology Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI)


    Disability and Workers’Compensation Claims, Fingerprint Evidence, Evaluation of


    Assessment of Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations


    Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact Fitness Interview Test–Revised (FIT–R)


    Evaluations Forced Confabulation


    Dissociative Identity Disorder Forcible Medication


    Divorce and Child Custody Forensic Assessment


    Doctoral Programs in Psychology and Law


    Domestic Violence. See Intimate Partner Violence Georgia Court Competence Test (GCCT)


    Domestic Violence Courts Grisso’s Instruments for Assessing


    Domestic Violence Screening Instrument (DVSI) Understanding and Appreciation


    Double-Blind Lineup Administration of Miranda Rights


    Drug Courts Guardianship


    “Dynamite Charge” Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales


    Guilty but Mentally Ill Verdict


    Elder Abuse


    Elderly Defendants Hallucinations


    Elderly Eyewitnesses Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised


    End-of-Life Issues (2nd edition) (PCL–R)


    Estimator and System Variables in Eyewitness Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version


    Identification (PCL:SV) FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page ix


    List of Entries———ix


    Hare Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version Lineup Filler Selection


    (PCL:YV) Lineup Size and Bias


    Hate Crime. See Bias Crime Litigation Stress


    HCR–20 for Violence Risk Assessment


    Hearsay Testimony MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool


    Homicide, Psychology of for Clinical Research (MacCAT–CR)


    Hopkins Competency Assessment Test (HCAT) MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool


    Hypnosis and Eyewitness Memory for Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT–CA)


    MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool


    Identification Tests, Best Practices in for Treatment (MacCAT–T)


    Inadmissible Evidence, Impact on Juries MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study


    Insanity Defense, Juries and Malingering


    Insanity Defense Reform Act (IDRA) Malingering Probability Scale


    Institutionalization and Deinstitutionalization Mandated Community Treatment


    Instructions to the Witness Massachusetts Youth Screening


    Interdisciplinary Fitness Interview (IFI) Instrument–Version 2 (MAYSI–2)


    Interrogation of Suspects Master’s Programs in Psychology and Law


    Intimate Partner Violence Media Violence and Behavior


    Involuntary Commitment. See Civil Commitment; Megan’s Laws. See Sex Offender Community


    Outpatient Commitment, Involuntary Notification (Megan’s Laws)


    Mens Rea and Actus Reus


    Jail Screening Assessment Tool (JSAT) Mental Health Courts


    Judges’Nonverbal Behavior Mental Health Law


    Juries and Eyewitnesses Mental Health Needs of Juvenile Offenders


    Juries and Joined Trials Mental Illness and the Death Penalty


    Juries and Judges’Instructions Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty


    Jury Administration Reforms Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,Assessment of


    Jury Competence Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms


    Jury Decisions Versus Judges’Decisions Test (M–FAST)


    Jury Deliberation Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III (MCMI–III)


    Jury Nullification Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2


    Jury Questionnaires (MMPI–2)


    Jury Reforms Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2


    Jury Selection (MMPI–2) Validity Scales


    Jury Size and Decision Rule Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool–Revised


    Jury Understanding of Judges’Instructions in (MnSOST–R)


    Capital Cases M’Naghten Standard


    Juvenile Boot Camps Mood Disorders


    Juvenile Offenders Moral Disengagement and Execution


    Juvenile Offenders, Risk Factors Motions to Suppress Eyewitness Identification


    Juvenile Psychopathy Mug Shots


    Juveniles and the Death Penalty Multiple Personality Disorder. See Dissociative


    Identity Disorder


    Legal Authoritarianism


    Legal Negotiation Neil v. Biggers Criteria for Evaluating Eyewitness


    Legal Socialization Identification


    Leniency Bias Novaco Anger Scale FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page x


    x———Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law


    Obscenity Psychopathy,Treatment of


    Optimality Hypothesis in Eyewitness Psychopathy Checklist–Revised. See Hare


    Identification Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (2nd edition)


    Outpatient Commitment, Involuntary (PCL–R)


    Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. See Hare


    Parens Patriae Doctrine Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version


    Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI) (PCL:SV)


    Parenting Satisfaction Scale (PSS) Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version. See Hare


    Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV)


    Parole Decisions Psychotic Disorders


    Patient’s Rights Public Opinion About Crime


    Pedophilia Public Opinion About Sentencing and Incarceration


    Personal Injury and Emotional Distress Public Opinion About the Courts


    Personality Disorders Public Opinion About the Polygraph


    Plea Bargaining


    Police as Eyewitnesses Race, Impact on Juries


    Police Decision Making Racial Bias and the Death Penalty


    Police Decision Making and Domestic Violence Rape Trauma Syndrome


    Police Interaction With Mentally Ill Individuals Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense


    Police Occupational Socialization Recidivism (RRASOR)


    Police Psychologists Reconstructive Memory


    Police Psychology Reid Technique for Interrogations


    Police Selection Religion and the Death Penalty


    Police Stress Repeated Recall


    Police Training and Evaluation Reporting Crimes and Victimization


    Police Use of Force Repressed and Recovered Memories


    Polygraph and Polygraph Techniques Response Latency in Eyewitness Identification


    Popout Effect in Eyewitness Identification Retention Interval and Eyewitness Memory


    Pornography, Effects of Exposure to Return-to-Work Evaluations


    Postdoctoral Residencies in Forensic Psychology Risk Assessment Approaches


    Postevent Information and Eyewitness Memory Risk-Sophistication-Treatment Inventory (RSTI)


    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment


    Presence of Counsel Safeguard and Eyewitness Scales (R–CRAS)


    Identification


    Presentence Evaluations Scientific Jury Selection


    Pretrial Publicity, Impact on Juries Sentencing Decisions


    Prison Overcrowding Sentencing Diversion Programs


    Probation Decisions Serial Killers


    Procedural Justice Sex Offender Assessment


    Profiling Sex Offender Civil Commitment


    Prosecutorial Misconduct Sex Offender Community Notification (Megan’s


    Proxy Decision Making Laws)


    Psychiatric Advance Directives Sex Offender Needs Assessment Rating (SONAR)


    Psychological Autopsies Sex Offender Recidivism


    Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)


    Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) Sex Offender Treatment


    Psychopathy Sex Offender Typologies


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