Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

947 Pages · 2008 · 14.77 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

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    & FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page iv

    Copyright © 2008 by SAGE Publications,Inc.

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical,including

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Encyclopedia of psychology and law/editor,Brian L. Cutler.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-1-4129-5189-0 (cloth)

    1. Law—Psychological aspects—Encyclopedias. 2. Law—United States—Psychological aspects—Encyclopedias. 3. Forensic

    psychology—Encyclopedias. 4. Forensic psychology—United States—Encyclopedias. I. Cutler,Brian L.

    K346.E53 2008

    340′.19—dc22 2007029845

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    Publisher: Rolf A. Janke

    Acquisitions Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson

    Developmental Editor: Diana E. Axelsen

    Reference Systems Manager: Leticia Gutierrez

    Production Editor: Kate Schroeder

    Copy Editor: QuADS Prepress (P) Ltd.

    Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

    Proofreaders: Penny Sippel,Dennis Webb

    Indexer: Janet Perlman

    Cover Designer: Janet Foulger

    Marketing Manager: Amberlyn Erzinger FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page v


    Editorial Board vi

    List of Entries vii

    Reader’s Guide xiii

    About the Editors xxi

    Contributors xxii

    Introduction xxxiii


    Volume 1: A–K


    Volume 2: L–Z


    Index I-1–I-40 FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page vi

    Editorial Board


    Brian L. Cutler

    University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    Associate Editor

    Patricia A. Zapf

    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

    Managing Editor

    Sarah Greathouse

    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York

    Senior Advisory Board Members

    Brian H. Bornstein Steven D. Penrod

    University of Nebraska, Lincoln John Jay College of Criminal Justice,

    City University of New York

    Neil Brewer

    Flinders University

    John Petrila

    Mary Connell University of South Florida

    Private Practice

    Ronald Roesch

    I. Bruce Frumkin

    Simon Fraser University

    Forensic and Clinical Psychology Associates, P.A.

    R. Barry Ruback

    Edith Greene

    Pennsylvania State University

    University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

    Kirk Heilbrun Christopher Slobogin

    University of Florida

    Drexel University

    Margaret Bull Kovera Loretta J. Stalans

    John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Loyola University

    City University of New York

    P. J. van Koppen

    Daniel J. Krauss Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime

    Claremont McKenna College and Law Enforcement

    John Monahan Aldert Vrij

    University of Virginia University of Portsmouth

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    List of Entries

    Ackerman-Schoendorf Parent Evaluation Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory

    of Custody Test (ASPECT) Child Custody Evaluations

    Adjudicative Competence of Youth Child Maltreatment

    Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) Children’s Testimony

    Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances, Children’s Testimony, Evaluation by Juries

    Evaluation of in Capital Cases Child Sexual Abuse

    Aggravating and Mitigating Circumstances in Civil Commitment

    Capital Trials, Effects on Jurors Classification of Violence Risk (COVR)

    Alcohol Intoxication. SeeSubstance Abuse and Clothing Bias in Identification Procedures

    Intimate Partner Violence; Substance Use Disorders Cognitive Interview

    Alcohol Intoxication, Impact on Eyewitness Memory Community Corrections

    Alibi Witnesses Competence Assessment for Standing Trial for

    Alternative Dispute Resolution Defendants With Mental Retardation (CAST*MR)

    AMBER Alert System Competency, Foundational and Decisional

    American Bar Association Resolution on Mental Competency, Restoration of

    Disability and the Death Penalty Competency Assessment Instrument (CAI)

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Competency for Execution

    Amicus Curiae Briefs Competency Screening Test (CST)

    Antisocial Personality Disorder Competency to Be Sentenced

    Appearance-Change Instruction in Lineups Competency to Confess

    Automatism Competency to Stand Trial

    Competency to Waive Appeals

    Bail-Setting Decisions Competency to Waive Counsel (Proceed Pro Se)

    Battered Woman Syndrome Complex Evidence in Litigation

    Battered Woman Syndrome,Testimony on Computer-Assisted Lineups

    Behavior Analysis Interview Conditional Release Programs

    Bias Crime Conduct Disorder

    Confession Evidence

    Capacity to Consent to Treatment Confidence in Identifications

    Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument (CCTI) Confidence in Identifications, Malleability

    Capacity to Waive Miranda Rights Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS)

    Capacity to Waive Rights Conformity in Eyewitness Reports

    Capital Mitigation Consent to Clinical Research

    Capital Punishment. See Death Penalty Coping Strategies of Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    Checklist for Competency for Execution Evaluations Criminal Behavior,Theories of

    Chicago Jury Project Criminal Responsibility,Assessment of

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    viii———Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

    Criminal Responsibility, Defenses and Standards Ethical Guidelines and Principles

    Crisis and Hostage Negotiation Ethnic Differences in Psychopathy

    Critical Incidents Evaluation of Competence to Stand Trial–Revised

    Cross-Race Effect in Eyewitness Identification (ECST–R)

    CSI Effect Expert Psychological Testimony

    Cybercrime Expert Psychological Testimony,Admissibility


    Damage Awards Expert Psychological Testimony, Forms of

    Danger Assessment Instrument (DA) Expert Psychological Testimony on Eyewitness

    Death Penalty Identification

    Death Qualification of Juries Expert Testimony, Qualifications of Experts

    Delusions Exposure Time and Eyewitness Memory

    Detection of Deception: Cognitive Load Extreme Emotional Disturbance

    Detection of Deception: Event-Related Potentials Eyewitness Descriptions,Accuracy of

    Detection of Deception: Magnetic Resonance Eyewitness Identification: Effect of Disguises and

    Imaging (MRI) Appearance Changes

    Detection of Deception: Nonverbal Cues Eyewitness Identification: Field Studies

    Detection of Deception: Reality Monitoring Eyewitness Identification: General Acceptance

    Detection of Deception: Use of Evidence in in the Scientific Community

    Detection of Deception by Detection “Wizards” Eyewitness Memory

    Detection of Deception in Adults Eyewitness Memory, Lay Beliefs About

    Detection of Deception in Children

    Detection of Deception in High-Stakes Liars Facial Composites

    Developing Comprehensive Theories of False Confessions

    Eyewitness Identification. SeeWITNESS Model False Memories

    Diminished Capacity Financial Capacity

    Diplomates in Forensic Psychology Financial Capacity Instrument (FCI)

    Disability and Workers’Compensation Claims, Fingerprint Evidence, Evaluation of

    Assessment of Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations

    Disparate Treatment and Disparate Impact Fitness Interview Test–Revised (FIT–R)

    Evaluations Forced Confabulation

    Dissociative Identity Disorder Forcible Medication

    Divorce and Child Custody Forensic Assessment

    Doctoral Programs in Psychology and Law

    Domestic Violence. See Intimate Partner Violence Georgia Court Competence Test (GCCT)

    Domestic Violence Courts Grisso’s Instruments for Assessing

    Domestic Violence Screening Instrument (DVSI) Understanding and Appreciation

    Double-Blind Lineup Administration of Miranda Rights

    Drug Courts Guardianship

    “Dynamite Charge” Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales

    Guilty but Mentally Ill Verdict

    Elder Abuse

    Elderly Defendants Hallucinations

    Elderly Eyewitnesses Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised

    End-of-Life Issues (2nd edition) (PCL–R)

    Estimator and System Variables in Eyewitness Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version

    Identification (PCL:SV) FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page ix

    List of Entries———ix

    Hare Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version Lineup Filler Selection

    (PCL:YV) Lineup Size and Bias

    Hate Crime. See Bias Crime Litigation Stress

    HCR–20 for Violence Risk Assessment

    Hearsay Testimony MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool

    Homicide, Psychology of for Clinical Research (MacCAT–CR)

    Hopkins Competency Assessment Test (HCAT) MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool

    Hypnosis and Eyewitness Memory for Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT–CA)

    MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool

    Identification Tests, Best Practices in for Treatment (MacCAT–T)

    Inadmissible Evidence, Impact on Juries MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study

    Insanity Defense, Juries and Malingering

    Insanity Defense Reform Act (IDRA) Malingering Probability Scale

    Institutionalization and Deinstitutionalization Mandated Community Treatment

    Instructions to the Witness Massachusetts Youth Screening

    Interdisciplinary Fitness Interview (IFI) Instrument–Version 2 (MAYSI–2)

    Interrogation of Suspects Master’s Programs in Psychology and Law

    Intimate Partner Violence Media Violence and Behavior

    Involuntary Commitment. See Civil Commitment; Megan’s Laws. See Sex Offender Community

    Outpatient Commitment, Involuntary Notification (Megan’s Laws)

    Mens Rea and Actus Reus

    Jail Screening Assessment Tool (JSAT) Mental Health Courts

    Judges’Nonverbal Behavior Mental Health Law

    Juries and Eyewitnesses Mental Health Needs of Juvenile Offenders

    Juries and Joined Trials Mental Illness and the Death Penalty

    Juries and Judges’Instructions Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty

    Jury Administration Reforms Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,Assessment of

    Jury Competence Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms

    Jury Decisions Versus Judges’Decisions Test (M–FAST)

    Jury Deliberation Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III (MCMI–III)

    Jury Nullification Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2

    Jury Questionnaires (MMPI–2)

    Jury Reforms Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2

    Jury Selection (MMPI–2) Validity Scales

    Jury Size and Decision Rule Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool–Revised

    Jury Understanding of Judges’Instructions in (MnSOST–R)

    Capital Cases M’Naghten Standard

    Juvenile Boot Camps Mood Disorders

    Juvenile Offenders Moral Disengagement and Execution

    Juvenile Offenders, Risk Factors Motions to Suppress Eyewitness Identification

    Juvenile Psychopathy Mug Shots

    Juveniles and the Death Penalty Multiple Personality Disorder. See Dissociative

    Identity Disorder

    Legal Authoritarianism

    Legal Negotiation Neil v. Biggers Criteria for Evaluating Eyewitness

    Legal Socialization Identification

    Leniency Bias Novaco Anger Scale FM-Cutler (Encyc) Vol-1-45463.qxd 11/18/2007 12:42 PM Page x

    x———Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law

    Obscenity Psychopathy,Treatment of

    Optimality Hypothesis in Eyewitness Psychopathy Checklist–Revised. See Hare

    Identification Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (2nd edition)

    Outpatient Commitment, Involuntary (PCL–R)

    Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. See Hare

    Parens Patriae Doctrine Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version

    Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI) (PCL:SV)

    Parenting Satisfaction Scale (PSS) Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version. See Hare

    Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Psychopathy Checklist:Youth Version (PCL:YV)

    Parole Decisions Psychotic Disorders

    Patient’s Rights Public Opinion About Crime

    Pedophilia Public Opinion About Sentencing and Incarceration

    Personal Injury and Emotional Distress Public Opinion About the Courts

    Personality Disorders Public Opinion About the Polygraph

    Plea Bargaining

    Police as Eyewitnesses Race, Impact on Juries

    Police Decision Making Racial Bias and the Death Penalty

    Police Decision Making and Domestic Violence Rape Trauma Syndrome

    Police Interaction With Mentally Ill Individuals Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense

    Police Occupational Socialization Recidivism (RRASOR)

    Police Psychologists Reconstructive Memory

    Police Psychology Reid Technique for Interrogations

    Police Selection Religion and the Death Penalty

    Police Stress Repeated Recall

    Police Training and Evaluation Reporting Crimes and Victimization

    Police Use of Force Repressed and Recovered Memories

    Polygraph and Polygraph Techniques Response Latency in Eyewitness Identification

    Popout Effect in Eyewitness Identification Retention Interval and Eyewitness Memory

    Pornography, Effects of Exposure to Return-to-Work Evaluations

    Postdoctoral Residencies in Forensic Psychology Risk Assessment Approaches

    Postevent Information and Eyewitness Memory Risk-Sophistication-Treatment Inventory (RSTI)

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment

    Presence of Counsel Safeguard and Eyewitness Scales (R–CRAS)


    Presentence Evaluations Scientific Jury Selection

    Pretrial Publicity, Impact on Juries Sentencing Decisions

    Prison Overcrowding Sentencing Diversion Programs

    Probation Decisions Serial Killers

    Procedural Justice Sex Offender Assessment

    Profiling Sex Offender Civil Commitment

    Prosecutorial Misconduct Sex Offender Community Notification (Megan’s

    Proxy Decision Making Laws)

    Psychiatric Advance Directives Sex Offender Needs Assessment Rating (SONAR)

    Psychological Autopsies Sex Offender Recidivism

    Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)

    Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) Sex Offender Treatment

    Psychopathy Sex Offender Typologies

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