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Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Language

859 Pages · 2009 · 7.95 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Language

    C E


    ONCISE NCYCLOPEDIA OF


    PHILOSOPHY


    OF LANGUAGE


    AND


    LINGUISTICS Thispageintentionallyleftblank C E


    ONCISE NCYCLOPEDIA OF


    PHILOSOPHY


    OF LANGUAGE


    AND


    LINGUISTICS


    COORDINATING EDITOR


    PROFESSOR KEITH BROWN


    University of Cambridge


    Cambridge, UK


    VOLUME CO-EDITORS


    PROFESSOR ALEX BARBER


    The Open University


    Milton Keynes, UK


    PROFESSOR ROBERT J. STAINTON


    University of Western Ontario


    London, ON


    Canada ElsevierLtd.,TheBoulevard,LangfordLane,Kidlington,Oxford,OX51GB,UK


    (cid:2)2010ElsevierLtd.


    Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorby


    anymeans,electronic,ormechanical,includingphotocopy,recording,oranyinformation


    storageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishers.


    PermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:


    phone(+44)1865843830;fax(+44)1865853333;e-mailpermissions@elsevier.com.


    Requestsmayalsobecompletedonlineviathehomepage


    (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions).


    MaterialinthisworkoriginallyappearedintheEncyclopediaofLanguage


    andLinguistics(SecondEdition),Ed.K.Brown,ElsevierLtd.,2006.


    LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2009932541


    AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary


    ISBN978-0-08-096500-0


    PrintedandboundintheUK


    101112131410987654321


    Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper THE EDITORS


    RobertJ.Staintonwasintroducedtophilosophyoflanguageandtolinguis-


    tics (specifically in the Systemic Functional tradition) at Toronto’s Glendon


    College. He completed his doctoral work in both areas at MIT. He has been


    CanadaResearchChairinCognitiveScienceatCarletonUniversityinOttawa,


    and is presently Professor of Philosophy and Associate Dean (Research) at


    The University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. His books include


    PhilosophicalPerspectivesonLanguageandWordsandThoughts.


    AlexBarberisLecturerinPhilosophyattheOpenUniversity.Heworksonthe


    philosophyoflanguageandlinguisticsaswellasonvarioustopicsinotherareas


    of philosophy, such as philosophy of mind, epistemology, and more recently,


    ethics. His published work includes papers on definite descriptions, opacity,


    speaker versus word reference, and syntactic reality, and various textbooks


    including Language and Thought (Open, 2005). He edited Epistemology of


    Language(Oxford,2003). Thispageintentionallyleftblank ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ARTICLES


    SubjectClassification xiii


    Introduction xvii


    Contributors xix


    APrioriKnowledge:LinguisticAspects GLavers 1


    ActionSentencesandAdverbs DBlair 3


    AnalyticPhilosophy MBeaney 6


    Analytic/Synthetic,Necessary/Contingent,andaPriori/aPosteriori:Distinction RElugardo 10


    Anaphora:PhilosophicalAspects JKing 19


    ArchitectureofGrammar RKempson 21


    AristotleandLinguistics PAMSeuren 25


    Assertion MSGreen 28


    Behaviorism:Varieties PPoirier 31


    BooleandAlgebraicSemantics ELKeenanandASzabolcsi 36


    CausalTheoriesofReferenceandMeaning ASullivan 41


    CharacterversusContent CSpencer 44


    CognitiveScienceandPhilosophyofLanguage SScott 47


    Communication:SemioticApproaches ERigottiandSGreco 57


    Communication,Understanding,andInterpretation:PhilosophicalAspects DHunter 64


    Comparatives:Semantics CKennedy 68


    Compositionality:PhilosophicalAspects FJPelletier 71


    Compositionality:SemanticAspects GSanduandPSalo 75


    Concepts EMargolisandSLaurence 78


    Conditionals SKaufmann 81


    ContextandCommonGround HHClark 85 viii AlphabeticalListofArticles


    ContextPrinciple RJStainton 88


    ContextualisminEpistemology HJackman 94


    ConventionsinLanguage MKo¨lbel 96


    CooperativePrinciple KLindblom 100


    Coreference:IdentityandSimilarity YHuang 107


    Counterfactuals SBarker 109


    CreativityinLanguage EVClark 112


    DataandEvidence CSchu¨tze 117


    DeDictoversusDeRe EEaker 124


    DefaultSemantics KJaszczolt 128


    DefiniteandIndefinite BAbbott 131


    Definitions:UsesandVarietiesof GLongworth 138


    Deflationism GMarti 141


    DeixisandAnaphora:PragmaticApproaches KGreen 144


    DescriptionandPrescription GNelson 146


    Descriptions,DefiniteandIndefinite:PhilosophicalAspects GOstertag 151


    DirectReference ASullivan 157


    DiscourseRepresentationTheory JvanEijck 160


    DonkeySentences PAMSeuren 169


    Dthat DBraun 171


    DynamicSemantics JGroenendijkandMStokhof 172


    E-LanguageversusI-Language GSRattan 179


    Empiricism JPrinz 183


    EmptyNames BCaplan 185


    EpistemologyandLanguage HJackman 189


    EssentialIndexical KRomdenh-Romluc 191


    Event-BasedSemantics PLasersohn 192


    EvolutionofSemantics VEvans 196


    EvolutionofSyntax BClarkandRJackendoff 204


    Existence BCaplan 211


    ExpressionMeaningversusUtterance/SpeakerMeaning ABezuidenhout 214


    ExpressivePowerofLanguage DGil 217


    ExtensionalityandIntensionality NOldager 219


    ExternalismaboutContent JBrown 222


    FictionalDiscourse:PhilosophicalAspects DDavies 227


    FigurativeLanguage:Semiotics FNuessel 230 AlphabeticalListofArticles ix


    FormalSemantics GChierchia 243


    Formalism/FormalistLinguistics PtenHacken 258


    FrameProblem CViger 265


    FunctionalistTheoriesofLanguage CSButler 268


    FutureTenseandFutureTimeReference O¨ Dahl 276


    Game-TheoreticalSemantics JHintikkaandGSandu 279


    GenerativeGrammar JRooryck 282


    GenerativeSemantics JDMcCawleyandRAHarris 284


    GenericReference GCarlson 289


    GrammaticalMeaning O¨ Dahl 293


    Holism,SemanticandEpistemic RValle´e 295


    IdeationalTheoriesofMeaning EJLowe 299


    IdentityandSameness:PhilosophicalAspects HWNoonan 302


    ImmunitytoErrorthroughMisidentification KRomdenh-Romluc 305


    Implicature JMeibauer 308


    Indeterminacy,Semantic MHymers 322


    Indexicality:PhilosophicalAspects ECorazza 324


    InnateIdeas EMargolisandSLaurence 327


    InnateKnowledge TSimpson 330


    IntentionandSemantics SBarker 333


    InterpretedLogicalForms MMontague 336


    Irony SAttardo 341


    LanguageasanObjectofStudy VZˇegarac 345


    LexicalConceptualStructure JSJun 349


    LexicalSemantics:Overview JPustejovsky 357


    LimitsofLanguage GPriest 365


    LinguisticReality LWetzel 368


    LinguisticsasaScience BClark 371


    Linguistics:Approaches NFabb 378


    Linguistics:Disciplineof NSmith 383


    LogicandLanguage:PhilosophicalAspects GCallaghanandGLavers 398


    LogicalConsequence PBlanchette 407


    LogicalForminLinguistics DBlair 410


    Lying,Honesty,andPromising DOwens 413


    MassNouns,CountNouns,andNon-countNouns:PhilosophicalAspects HLaycock 417


    MaximsandFlouting AKGreenall 421


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