Encyclopedia of Islam

Encyclopedia of Islam

Encyclopedia of Islam

801 Pages ·2009·11.55 MB ·English

Encyclopedia of Islam


Encyclopedia of


Islam


JA


:F Encyclopedia of Buddhism


Encyclopedia of Catholicism


Encyclopedia of Hinduism


Encyclopedia of Islam


Encyclopedia of Judaism


Encyclopedia of Protestantism Encyclopedia of World Religions


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Encyclopedia of


Islam


JA


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Juan E. Campo


J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor Encyclopedia of Islam


Copyright © 2009 by Juan E. Campo


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form


or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by


any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the


publisher. For information contact:


Facts On File, Inc.


An imprint of Infobase Publishing


132 West 31st Street


New York NY 10001


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Campo, Juan Eduardo, 1950–


Encyclopedia of Islam / Juan E. Campo.


p. cm.— (Encyclopedia of world religions)


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5454-1


ISBN-10: 0-8160-5454-1


1. Islamic countries—Encyclopedias—Juvenile literature. 2. Islam—Encyclope-


dias—Juvenile literature. I. Title.


DS35.53.C36 2008


297.03—dc22 2008005621


Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk


quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call


our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com


Text design by Erika K. Arroyo


Cover design by Cathy Rincon/Takeshi Takahashi


Illustrations by Sholto Ainslie


Printed in the United States of America


VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


This book is printed on acid-free paper and contains 30 percent postconsumer


recycled content. For Magda, Andrés, and Federico


In Memory of Julio H. Campo (1925–2006)



Que bonita es esta vida . . . contents


K


About the Editors and Contributors ix


List of Illustrations and Maps xv


Preface xvii


Acknowledgments xix


Introduction xxi


Chronology xxxvii


ENTRIES A TO Z 1


Bibliography 725


Index 731 about the editors


and contributors


K


Series Editor program. He specializes in the comparative


J. Gordon Melton is the director of the Institute for study of the cultural formations of Islam in the


the Study of American Religion in Santa Bar- Middle East and South Asia, sacred space and


bara, California. He holds an M.Div. from the pilgrimage, and political Islam in the contexts


Garrett Theological Seminary and a Ph.D. from of modernity. His research has taken him to


Northwestern University. Melton is the author Egypt, where he has lived, studied, or taught


of American Religions: An Illustrated History, The for nearly six years, as well as India, Saudi


Encyclopedia of American Religions, Religious Arabia, Bahrain, Turkey, Malaysia, Singapore,


Leaders of America, and several comprehensive Thailand, and Israel. Professor Campo’s first


works on Islamic culture, African-American book, The Other Sides of Paradise: Explorations


religion, cults, and alternative religions. He has in the Religious Meanings of Domestic Space in


written or edited more than three dozen books Islam, won the American Academy of Religion’s


and anthologies as well as numerous papers and award for excellence, in 1991. He has edited


articles for scholarly journals. He is the series or contributed articles to a number of leading


editor for Religious Information Systems, which reference works, including Merriam-Webster’s


supplies data and information in religious stud- Encyclopedia of World Religions, Encyclopedia of


ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the the Qur’an, and the Macmillan Encyclopedia of


American Academy of Religion, the Society for Islam and the Muslim World. His current projects


the Scientific Study of Religion, the American include a comparative study of modern Muslim,


Society of Church History, the Communal Stud- Hindu, and Christian pilgrimage.


ies Association, and the Society for the Study of


Metaphysical Religion. Contributors


Fahad A. Alhomoudi holds a Ph.D. from McGill


Volume Editor University. He is the vice dean of academic


Juan E. Campo, associate professor of religious research at al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud


studies at the University of California, Santa Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He


Barbara, holds an M.A. and Ph.D. from the specializes in Islamic thought and Islamic law,


University of Chicago’s History of Religions with a focus on its origins. He is the author of


ix



Encyclopedia of


Islam


JA


:F Encyclopedia of Buddhism


Encyclopedia of Catholicism


Encyclopedia of Hinduism


Encyclopedia of Islam


Encyclopedia of Judaism


Encyclopedia of Protestantism Encyclopedia of World Religions


nnnnnnnnnnn



Encyclopedia of


Islam


JA


:F


Juan E. Campo


J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor Encyclopedia of Islam


Copyright © 2009 by Juan E. Campo


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form


or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by


any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the


publisher. For information contact:


Facts On File, Inc.


An imprint of Infobase Publishing


132 West 31st Street


New York NY 10001


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Campo, Juan Eduardo, 1950–


Encyclopedia of Islam / Juan E. Campo.


p. cm.— (Encyclopedia of world religions)


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5454-1


ISBN-10: 0-8160-5454-1


1. Islamic countries—Encyclopedias—Juvenile literature. 2. Islam—Encyclope-


dias—Juvenile literature. I. Title.


DS35.53.C36 2008


297.03—dc22 2008005621


Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk


quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call


our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com


Text design by Erika K. Arroyo


Cover design by Cathy Rincon/Takeshi Takahashi


Illustrations by Sholto Ainslie


Printed in the United States of America


VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


This book is printed on acid-free paper and contains 30 percent postconsumer


recycled content. For Magda, Andrés, and Federico


In Memory of Julio H. Campo (1925–2006)



Que bonita es esta vida . . . contents


K


About the Editors and Contributors ix


List of Illustrations and Maps xv


Preface xvii


Acknowledgments xix


Introduction xxi


Chronology xxxvii


ENTRIES A TO Z 1


Bibliography 725


Index 731 about the editors


and contributors


K


Series Editor program. He specializes in the comparative


J. Gordon Melton is the director of the Institute for study of the cultural formations of Islam in the


the Study of American Religion in Santa Bar- Middle East and South Asia, sacred space and


bara, California. He holds an M.Div. from the pilgrimage, and political Islam in the contexts


Garrett Theological Seminary and a Ph.D. from of modernity. His research has taken him to


Northwestern University. Melton is the author Egypt, where he has lived, studied, or taught


of American Religions: An Illustrated History, The for nearly six years, as well as India, Saudi


Encyclopedia of American Religions, Religious Arabia, Bahrain, Turkey, Malaysia, Singapore,


Leaders of America, and several comprehensive Thailand, and Israel. Professor Campo’s first


works on Islamic culture, African-American book, The Other Sides of Paradise: Explorations


religion, cults, and alternative religions. He has in the Religious Meanings of Domestic Space in


written or edited more than three dozen books Islam, won the American Academy of Religion’s


and anthologies as well as numerous papers and award for excellence, in 1991. He has edited


articles for scholarly journals. He is the series or contributed articles to a number of leading


editor for Religious Information Systems, which reference works, including Merriam-Webster’s


supplies data and information in religious stud- Encyclopedia of World Religions, Encyclopedia of


ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the the Qur’an, and the Macmillan Encyclopedia of


American Academy of Religion, the Society for Islam and the Muslim World. His current projects


the Scientific Study of Religion, the American include a comparative study of modern Muslim,


Society of Church History, the Communal Stud- Hindu, and Christian pilgrimage.


ies Association, and the Society for the Study of


Metaphysical Religion. Contributors


Fahad A. Alhomoudi holds a Ph.D. from McGill


Volume Editor University. He is the vice dean of academic


Juan E. Campo, associate professor of religious research at al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud


studies at the University of California, Santa Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He


Barbara, holds an M.A. and Ph.D. from the specializes in Islamic thought and Islamic law,


University of Chicago’s History of Religions with a focus on its origins. He is the author of


ix


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