Encyclopedia of Islam

801 Pages · 2009 · 11.55 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Islam

    Encyclopedia of



    :F Encyclopedia of Buddhism

    Encyclopedia of Catholicism

    Encyclopedia of Hinduism

    Encyclopedia of Islam

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

    Encyclopedia of Protestantism Encyclopedia of World Religions


    Encyclopedia of




    Juan E. Campo

    J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor Encyclopedia of Islam

    Copyright © 2009 by Juan E. Campo

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form

    or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by

    any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the

    publisher. For information contact:

    Facts On File, Inc.

    An imprint of Infobase Publishing

    132 West 31st Street

    New York NY 10001

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Campo, Juan Eduardo, 1950–

    Encyclopedia of Islam / Juan E. Campo.

    p. cm.— (Encyclopedia of world religions)

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5454-1

    ISBN-10: 0-8160-5454-1

    1. Islamic countries—Encyclopedias—Juvenile literature. 2. Islam—Encyclope-

    dias—Juvenile literature. I. Title.

    DS35.53.C36 2008

    297.03—dc22 2008005621

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    Text design by Erika K. Arroyo

    Cover design by Cathy Rincon/Takeshi Takahashi

    Illustrations by Sholto Ainslie

    Printed in the United States of America

    VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    This book is printed on acid-free paper and contains 30 percent postconsumer

    recycled content. For Magda, Andrés, and Federico

    In Memory of Julio H. Campo (1925–2006)

    Que bonita es esta vida . . . contents


    About the Editors and Contributors ix

    List of Illustrations and Maps xv

    Preface xvii

    Acknowledgments xix

    Introduction xxi

    Chronology xxxvii


    Bibliography 725

    Index 731 about the editors

    and contributors


    Series Editor program. He specializes in the comparative

    J. Gordon Melton is the director of the Institute for study of the cultural formations of Islam in the

    the Study of American Religion in Santa Bar- Middle East and South Asia, sacred space and

    bara, California. He holds an M.Div. from the pilgrimage, and political Islam in the contexts

    Garrett Theological Seminary and a Ph.D. from of modernity. His research has taken him to

    Northwestern University. Melton is the author Egypt, where he has lived, studied, or taught

    of American Religions: An Illustrated History, The for nearly six years, as well as India, Saudi

    Encyclopedia of American Religions, Religious Arabia, Bahrain, Turkey, Malaysia, Singapore,

    Leaders of America, and several comprehensive Thailand, and Israel. Professor Campo’s first

    works on Islamic culture, African-American book, The Other Sides of Paradise: Explorations

    religion, cults, and alternative religions. He has in the Religious Meanings of Domestic Space in

    written or edited more than three dozen books Islam, won the American Academy of Religion’s

    and anthologies as well as numerous papers and award for excellence, in 1991. He has edited

    articles for scholarly journals. He is the series or contributed articles to a number of leading

    editor for Religious Information Systems, which reference works, including Merriam-Webster’s

    supplies data and information in religious stud- Encyclopedia of World Religions, Encyclopedia of

    ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the the Qur’an, and the Macmillan Encyclopedia of

    American Academy of Religion, the Society for Islam and the Muslim World. His current projects

    the Scientific Study of Religion, the American include a comparative study of modern Muslim,

    Society of Church History, the Communal Stud- Hindu, and Christian pilgrimage.

    ies Association, and the Society for the Study of

    Metaphysical Religion. Contributors

    Fahad A. Alhomoudi holds a Ph.D. from McGill

    Volume Editor University. He is the vice dean of academic

    Juan E. Campo, associate professor of religious research at al-Imam Muhammad bin Saud

    studies at the University of California, Santa Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. He

    Barbara, holds an M.A. and Ph.D. from the specializes in Islamic thought and Islamic law,

    University of Chicago’s History of Religions with a focus on its origins. He is the author of


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