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Encyclopedia of Hinduism

593 Pages · 2008 · 10.57 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Hinduism

    Encyclopedia of


    Hinduism


    JA


    :F


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd i 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM Encyclopedia of Buddhism


    Encyclopedia of Catholicism


    Encyclopedia of Hinduism


    Encyclopedia of Islam


    Encyclopedia of Judaism


    Encyclopedia of Protestantism


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd ii 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM nEncnycnlopnedina onf Wnorlnd Rnelignionns


    Encyclopedia of


    Hinduism


    JA


    :F


    Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan


    J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM Encyclopedia of Hinduism


    Copyright © 2007 by Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or


    by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any


    information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the pub-


    lisher. For information contact:


    Facts On File, Inc.


    An imprint of Infobase Publishing


    132 West 31st Street


    New York NY 10001


    ISBN-10: 0-8160-5458-4


    ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5458-9


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data



    Jones, Constance A., 1961–


    Encyclopedia of Hinduism / Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan.


    p. cm. — (Encyclopedia of world religions)


    Includes index.


    ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9


    1. Hinduism—Encyclopedias. I. Ryan, James D. II. Title. III. Series.


    BL1105.J56 2006


    294.503—dc22 2006044419


    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk


    quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call


    our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


    You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com


    Text design by Erika K. Arroyo


    Cover design by Cathy Rincon


    Printed in the United States of America


    VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    This book is printed on acid-free paper.


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iv 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM contents


    K


    About the Editor vii


    List of Illustrations ix


    Preface xi


    Acknowledgments xiii


    Note on Terms and Spelling xv


    Introduction: Hinduism xvii


    Chronology xxvii


    ENTRIES A TO Z 1


    Bibliography 519


    Index 525


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd v 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vi 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM about the editor


    K


    Series editor J. Gordon Melton is the director of books and anthologies as well as numerous papers


    the Institute for the Study of American Religion and articles for scholarly journals. He is the series


    in Santa Barbara, California. He holds an M.Div. editor for Religious Information Systems, which


    from the Garrett Theological Seminary and a supplies data and information in religious stud-


    Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Melton is ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the


    the author of American Religions: An Illustrated American Academy of Religion, the Society for


    History, The Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Scientific Study of Religion, the American


    Religious Leaders of America, and several com- Society of Church History, the Communal Stud-


    prehensive works on Islamic culture, African- ies Association, and the Society for the Study of


    American religion, cults, and alternative religions. Metaphysical Religion.


    He has written or edited more than three dozen


    vii


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd viii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM list of illustrations


    K


    Amritanandamayi Ma 26 Hindu sculpture at Ellora Jiddu Krishnamurti 242


    Sikh devotees outside the Golden Caves 149 Swami Krishnananda 245


    Temple in Amritsar 28 Mohandas Karamchand Main symbols of Lord Shiva:


    Anandamayi Ma 32 “Mahatma” Gandhi 158 lingam and trident 260


    Sri Aurobindo 52 Lord Ganesha, the elephant- Monolithic stone architec-


    Devotional practice (bhakti) headed god 161 ture 267


    is a central feature of Morning bathing on the steps Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara of


    Hinduism 76 to the Ganges River 163 Jainism 271


    Birla Mandir, a temple devoted Hanuman 178 Hindu temple in Kuala Lum-


    to Vishnu 86 Baba Hari Dass 179 pur, Malaysia 274


    The Universal Peace Hall in Harihara, iconic deity that Wedding of Shiva and


    the Brahma Kumaris World combines Vishnu and Minakshi, goddess of


    Spiritual Organization 90 Shiva 181 Madurai 284


    Brahmin priest with sacred Woman worshipping her Meher Baba 286


    thread at village temple 92 personal divinity (ishta The Mother 292


    Haridas Chaudhuri 105 devata) 203 Swami Muktananda 295


    Gurumayi Chidvilas- Jain temple complex of white Naked hermit of Naga sect at


    ananda 108 marble 209 source of Ganges River 301


    Sri Chinmoy 111 Ma Jaya Sati Bhagavati 213 Guru Nanak 303


    Shantivanam 113 Temple to goddess Kali where Nandi, divine bull 304


    Goddess Durga slaying Sri Ramakrishna served as Neem Karoli Baba 310


    Mahesha, the buffalo priest 221 Swami Bhagawan Nity-


    demon 139 Sant Keshavadas 233 ananda 315


    Eknath Easwaran 143 Temple to the sun god, with om 319


    Brahmin householder per- his chariot 236 Parshvanath 325


    forming water ablutions at Lord Krishna, an incarna- Religious mendicants on pil-


    dawn on the banks of the tion of Vishnu, with consort grimage 328


    Ganges 148 Radha 239 Sri Harilal Poonja 331


    ix


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