Encyclopedia of Hinduism

Encyclopedia of Hinduism

Encyclopedia of Hinduism

593 Pages ·2008·10.57 MB ·English

Encyclopedia of Hinduism

Encyclopedia of


Hinduism


JA


:F


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd i 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM Encyclopedia of Buddhism


Encyclopedia of Catholicism


Encyclopedia of Hinduism


Encyclopedia of Islam


Encyclopedia of Judaism


Encyclopedia of Protestantism


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd ii 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM nEncnycnlopnedina onf Wnorlnd Rnelignionns


Encyclopedia of


Hinduism


JA


:F


Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan


J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM Encyclopedia of Hinduism


Copyright © 2007 by Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or


by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any


information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the pub-


lisher. For information contact:


Facts On File, Inc.


An imprint of Infobase Publishing


132 West 31st Street


New York NY 10001


ISBN-10: 0-8160-5458-4


ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5458-9


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data



Jones, Constance A., 1961–


Encyclopedia of Hinduism / Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan.


p. cm. — (Encyclopedia of world religions)


Includes index.


ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9


1. Hinduism—Encyclopedias. I. Ryan, James D. II. Title. III. Series.


BL1105.J56 2006


294.503—dc22 2006044419


Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk


quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call


our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com


Text design by Erika K. Arroyo


Cover design by Cathy Rincon


Printed in the United States of America


VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


This book is printed on acid-free paper.


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iv 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM contents


K


About the Editor vii


List of Illustrations ix


Preface xi


Acknowledgments xiii


Note on Terms and Spelling xv


Introduction: Hinduism xvii


Chronology xxvii


ENTRIES A TO Z 1


Bibliography 519


Index 525


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd v 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vi 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM about the editor


K


Series editor J. Gordon Melton is the director of books and anthologies as well as numerous papers


the Institute for the Study of American Religion and articles for scholarly journals. He is the series


in Santa Barbara, California. He holds an M.Div. editor for Religious Information Systems, which


from the Garrett Theological Seminary and a supplies data and information in religious stud-


Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Melton is ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the


the author of American Religions: An Illustrated American Academy of Religion, the Society for


History, The Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Scientific Study of Religion, the American


Religious Leaders of America, and several com- Society of Church History, the Communal Stud-


prehensive works on Islamic culture, African- ies Association, and the Society for the Study of


American religion, cults, and alternative religions. Metaphysical Religion.


He has written or edited more than three dozen


vii


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd viii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM list of illustrations


K


Amritanandamayi Ma 26 Hindu sculpture at Ellora Jiddu Krishnamurti 242


Sikh devotees outside the Golden Caves 149 Swami Krishnananda 245


Temple in Amritsar 28 Mohandas Karamchand Main symbols of Lord Shiva:


Anandamayi Ma 32 “Mahatma” Gandhi 158 lingam and trident 260


Sri Aurobindo 52 Lord Ganesha, the elephant- Monolithic stone architec-


Devotional practice (bhakti) headed god 161 ture 267


is a central feature of Morning bathing on the steps Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara of


Hinduism 76 to the Ganges River 163 Jainism 271


Birla Mandir, a temple devoted Hanuman 178 Hindu temple in Kuala Lum-


to Vishnu 86 Baba Hari Dass 179 pur, Malaysia 274


The Universal Peace Hall in Harihara, iconic deity that Wedding of Shiva and


the Brahma Kumaris World combines Vishnu and Minakshi, goddess of


Spiritual Organization 90 Shiva 181 Madurai 284


Brahmin priest with sacred Woman worshipping her Meher Baba 286


thread at village temple 92 personal divinity (ishta The Mother 292


Haridas Chaudhuri 105 devata) 203 Swami Muktananda 295


Gurumayi Chidvilas- Jain temple complex of white Naked hermit of Naga sect at


ananda 108 marble 209 source of Ganges River 301


Sri Chinmoy 111 Ma Jaya Sati Bhagavati 213 Guru Nanak 303


Shantivanam 113 Temple to goddess Kali where Nandi, divine bull 304


Goddess Durga slaying Sri Ramakrishna served as Neem Karoli Baba 310


Mahesha, the buffalo priest 221 Swami Bhagawan Nity-


demon 139 Sant Keshavadas 233 ananda 315


Eknath Easwaran 143 Temple to the sun god, with om 319


Brahmin householder per- his chariot 236 Parshvanath 325


forming water ablutions at Lord Krishna, an incarna- Religious mendicants on pil-


dawn on the banks of the tion of Vishnu, with consort grimage 328


Ganges 148 Radha 239 Sri Harilal Poonja 331


ix


Encyclopedia of


Hinduism


JA


:F


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd i 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM Encyclopedia of Buddhism


Encyclopedia of Catholicism


Encyclopedia of Hinduism


Encyclopedia of Islam


Encyclopedia of Judaism


Encyclopedia of Protestantism


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd ii 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM nEncnycnlopnedina onf Wnorlnd Rnelignionns


Encyclopedia of


Hinduism


JA


:F


Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan


J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM Encyclopedia of Hinduism


Copyright © 2007 by Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or


by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any


information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the pub-


lisher. For information contact:


Facts On File, Inc.


An imprint of Infobase Publishing


132 West 31st Street


New York NY 10001


ISBN-10: 0-8160-5458-4


ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5458-9


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data



Jones, Constance A., 1961–


Encyclopedia of Hinduism / Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan.


p. cm. — (Encyclopedia of world religions)


Includes index.


ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9


1. Hinduism—Encyclopedias. I. Ryan, James D. II. Title. III. Series.


BL1105.J56 2006


294.503—dc22 2006044419


Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk


quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call


our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com


Text design by Erika K. Arroyo


Cover design by Cathy Rincon


Printed in the United States of America


VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


This book is printed on acid-free paper.


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iv 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM contents


K


About the Editor vii


List of Illustrations ix


Preface xi


Acknowledgments xiii


Note on Terms and Spelling xv


Introduction: Hinduism xvii


Chronology xxvii


ENTRIES A TO Z 1


Bibliography 519


Index 525


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd v 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vi 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM about the editor


K


Series editor J. Gordon Melton is the director of books and anthologies as well as numerous papers


the Institute for the Study of American Religion and articles for scholarly journals. He is the series


in Santa Barbara, California. He holds an M.Div. editor for Religious Information Systems, which


from the Garrett Theological Seminary and a supplies data and information in religious stud-


Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Melton is ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the


the author of American Religions: An Illustrated American Academy of Religion, the Society for


History, The Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Scientific Study of Religion, the American


Religious Leaders of America, and several com- Society of Church History, the Communal Stud-


prehensive works on Islamic culture, African- ies Association, and the Society for the Study of


American religion, cults, and alternative religions. Metaphysical Religion.


He has written or edited more than three dozen


vii


i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd viii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM list of illustrations


K


Amritanandamayi Ma 26 Hindu sculpture at Ellora Jiddu Krishnamurti 242


Sikh devotees outside the Golden Caves 149 Swami Krishnananda 245


Temple in Amritsar 28 Mohandas Karamchand Main symbols of Lord Shiva:


Anandamayi Ma 32 “Mahatma” Gandhi 158 lingam and trident 260


Sri Aurobindo 52 Lord Ganesha, the elephant- Monolithic stone architec-


Devotional practice (bhakti) headed god 161 ture 267


is a central feature of Morning bathing on the steps Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara of


Hinduism 76 to the Ganges River 163 Jainism 271


Birla Mandir, a temple devoted Hanuman 178 Hindu temple in Kuala Lum-


to Vishnu 86 Baba Hari Dass 179 pur, Malaysia 274


The Universal Peace Hall in Harihara, iconic deity that Wedding of Shiva and


the Brahma Kumaris World combines Vishnu and Minakshi, goddess of


Spiritual Organization 90 Shiva 181 Madurai 284


Brahmin priest with sacred Woman worshipping her Meher Baba 286


thread at village temple 92 personal divinity (ishta The Mother 292


Haridas Chaudhuri 105 devata) 203 Swami Muktananda 295


Gurumayi Chidvilas- Jain temple complex of white Naked hermit of Naga sect at


ananda 108 marble 209 source of Ganges River 301


Sri Chinmoy 111 Ma Jaya Sati Bhagavati 213 Guru Nanak 303


Shantivanam 113 Temple to goddess Kali where Nandi, divine bull 304


Goddess Durga slaying Sri Ramakrishna served as Neem Karoli Baba 310


Mahesha, the buffalo priest 221 Swami Bhagawan Nity-


demon 139 Sant Keshavadas 233 ananda 315


Eknath Easwaran 143 Temple to the sun god, with om 319


Brahmin householder per- his chariot 236 Parshvanath 325


forming water ablutions at Lord Krishna, an incarna- Religious mendicants on pil-


dawn on the banks of the tion of Vishnu, with consort grimage 328


Ganges 148 Radha 239 Sri Harilal Poonja 331


ix


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