Encyclopedia of Hinduism

593 Pages · 2008 · 10.57 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Hinduism

    Encyclopedia of




    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd i 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM Encyclopedia of Buddhism

    Encyclopedia of Catholicism

    Encyclopedia of Hinduism

    Encyclopedia of Islam

    Encyclopedia of Judaism

    Encyclopedia of Protestantism

    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd ii 12/14/06 1:02:34 AM nEncnycnlopnedina onf Wnorlnd Rnelignionns

    Encyclopedia of




    Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan

    J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor

    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM Encyclopedia of Hinduism

    Copyright © 2007 by Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or

    by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any

    information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the pub-

    lisher. For information contact:

    Facts On File, Inc.

    An imprint of Infobase Publishing

    132 West 31st Street

    New York NY 10001

    ISBN-10: 0-8160-5458-4

    ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-5458-9

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Jones, Constance A., 1961–

    Encyclopedia of Hinduism / Constance A. Jones and James D. Ryan.

    p. cm. — (Encyclopedia of world religions)

    Includes index.

    ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9

    1. Hinduism—Encyclopedias. I. Ryan, James D. II. Title. III. Series.

    BL1105.J56 2006

    294.503—dc22 2006044419

    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk

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    Text design by Erika K. Arroyo

    Cover design by Cathy Rincon

    Printed in the United States of America

    VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd iv 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM contents


    About the Editor vii

    List of Illustrations ix

    Preface xi

    Acknowledgments xiii

    Note on Terms and Spelling xv

    Introduction: Hinduism xvii

    Chronology xxvii


    Bibliography 519

    Index 525

    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd v 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vi 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM about the editor


    Series editor J. Gordon Melton is the director of books and anthologies as well as numerous papers

    the Institute for the Study of American Religion and articles for scholarly journals. He is the series

    in Santa Barbara, California. He holds an M.Div. editor for Religious Information Systems, which

    from the Garrett Theological Seminary and a supplies data and information in religious stud-

    Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Melton is ies and related fields. Melton is a member of the

    the author of American Religions: An Illustrated American Academy of Religion, the Society for

    History, The Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Scientific Study of Religion, the American

    Religious Leaders of America, and several com- Society of Church History, the Communal Stud-

    prehensive works on Islamic culture, African- ies Association, and the Society for the Study of

    American religion, cults, and alternative religions. Metaphysical Religion.

    He has written or edited more than three dozen


    i-xL-hindu-fm.indd vii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM i-xL-hindu-fm.indd viii 12/14/06 1:02:35 AM list of illustrations


    Amritanandamayi Ma 26 Hindu sculpture at Ellora Jiddu Krishnamurti 242

    Sikh devotees outside the Golden Caves 149 Swami Krishnananda 245

    Temple in Amritsar 28 Mohandas Karamchand Main symbols of Lord Shiva:

    Anandamayi Ma 32 “Mahatma” Gandhi 158 lingam and trident 260

    Sri Aurobindo 52 Lord Ganesha, the elephant- Monolithic stone architec-

    Devotional practice (bhakti) headed god 161 ture 267

    is a central feature of Morning bathing on the steps Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara of

    Hinduism 76 to the Ganges River 163 Jainism 271

    Birla Mandir, a temple devoted Hanuman 178 Hindu temple in Kuala Lum-

    to Vishnu 86 Baba Hari Dass 179 pur, Malaysia 274

    The Universal Peace Hall in Harihara, iconic deity that Wedding of Shiva and

    the Brahma Kumaris World combines Vishnu and Minakshi, goddess of

    Spiritual Organization 90 Shiva 181 Madurai 284

    Brahmin priest with sacred Woman worshipping her Meher Baba 286

    thread at village temple 92 personal divinity (ishta The Mother 292

    Haridas Chaudhuri 105 devata) 203 Swami Muktananda 295

    Gurumayi Chidvilas- Jain temple complex of white Naked hermit of Naga sect at

    ananda 108 marble 209 source of Ganges River 301

    Sri Chinmoy 111 Ma Jaya Sati Bhagavati 213 Guru Nanak 303

    Shantivanam 113 Temple to goddess Kali where Nandi, divine bull 304

    Goddess Durga slaying Sri Ramakrishna served as Neem Karoli Baba 310

    Mahesha, the buffalo priest 221 Swami Bhagawan Nity-

    demon 139 Sant Keshavadas 233 ananda 315

    Eknath Easwaran 143 Temple to the sun god, with om 319

    Brahmin householder per- his chariot 236 Parshvanath 325

    forming water ablutions at Lord Krishna, an incarna- Religious mendicants on pil-

    dawn on the banks of the tion of Vishnu, with consort grimage 328

    Ganges 148 Radha 239 Sri Harilal Poonja 331


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