Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering

Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering

Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering

1408 Pages ·2006·15.82 MB ·English

Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering

FIFTH EDITION


E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F


ENVIRONMENTAL


SCIENC E


and


ENGINEERING


VOLUME 1 A-L FIFTH EDITION


E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F


ENVIRONMENTAL


SCIENC E


and


ENGINEERING


VOLUME 1 A- L


EDITED BY


JAMES R. PFAFFLIN


EDWARD N. ZIEGLER


Boca Raton London New York


A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the


Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc. Published in 2006 by


CRC Press


Taylor & Francis Group


6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300


Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742


© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group


No claim to original U.S. Government works


Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-9843-6 (Hardcover)


International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-9843-8 (Hardcover)


This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are


indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the


publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.


No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known


or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission


from the publishers.


For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact


the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that


provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system


of payment has been arranged.


Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation


without intent to infringe.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress


Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at


http://www.taylorandfrancis.com


and the CRC Press Web site at


Taylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of Informa plc. http://www.crcpress.com EDITORS


JAMES R. PFAFFLIN


EDWARD N. ZIEGLER


Polytechnic University


EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD


N EAL E. ARMSTRONG


U niversity of Texas at Austin


GERARD P. CANEVARI


G . P. Canevari Associates


TAKESHI GODA


R itsumeikan University


JOSEPH M. LYNCH


Mayo Lynch Associates


JOHN H. SEINFELD


California Institute of Technology


FRANCES P. SOLOMON


King County Department of Natural Resources


CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd vv 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM Thou ever-darting Globe! through Space and Air!


Thou waters that encompass us!


Thou that in all the life and death of us, in action or in sleep!


Thou laws invisible that permeate them and all,


Thou that in all, and over all, and through and under all, incessant!


Thou! thou! the vital, universal, giant force resistless, sleepless, calm,


Holding Humanity as in thy open hand, as some ephemeral toy,


How ill to e’er forget thee!


One thought ever at the fore—


That in the Divine Ship, the World, breasting Time and Space,


All Peoples of the globe together sail, sail the same voyage, are b ound


to the same destination.


—Walt Whitman (ca 1890)


CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd vviiii 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM CONTENTS


Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv


Editors’ Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii


Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix


List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi


VOLUME 1


Acid Rain


Gary J. Stensland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Aerosols


John H. Seinfeld, Yasuo Kousaka, and Kikuo Okuyama . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5


Air Pollutant Effects


Edward F. Ferrand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9


Air Pollution Instrumentation


James Geiger and Mark D. Mueller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4


Air Pollution Meteorology


Hans A. Panofsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9


Air Pollution Sources


Jehuda Menczel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0


Aquatic Primary Production


Charles R. Goldman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


Atmospheric Chemistry


Larry G. Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


Biological Treatment of Wastewater


J. K. Bewtra and N. Biswas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 37


Brownfields


Lee Dorigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 60


Coal Gasification Processes


Robert J. Farrell and Edward N. Ziegler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 66


Community Health


John B. De Hoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 71


Composting


J. K. McCarthy and Raul R. Cardenas, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 85


CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd iixx 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM


FIFTH EDITION


E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F


ENVIRONMENTAL


SCIENC E


and


ENGINEERING


VOLUME 1 A-L FIFTH EDITION


E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F


ENVIRONMENTAL


SCIENC E


and


ENGINEERING


VOLUME 1 A- L


EDITED BY


JAMES R. PFAFFLIN


EDWARD N. ZIEGLER


Boca Raton London New York


A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the


Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc. Published in 2006 by


CRC Press


Taylor & Francis Group


6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300


Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742


© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group


No claim to original U.S. Government works


Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-9843-6 (Hardcover)


International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-9843-8 (Hardcover)


This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are


indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the


publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.


No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known


or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission


from the publishers.


For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact


the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that


provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system


of payment has been arranged.


Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation


without intent to infringe.


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress


Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at


http://www.taylorandfrancis.com


and the CRC Press Web site at


Taylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of Informa plc. http://www.crcpress.com EDITORS


JAMES R. PFAFFLIN


EDWARD N. ZIEGLER


Polytechnic University


EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD


N EAL E. ARMSTRONG


U niversity of Texas at Austin


GERARD P. CANEVARI


G . P. Canevari Associates


TAKESHI GODA


R itsumeikan University


JOSEPH M. LYNCH


Mayo Lynch Associates


JOHN H. SEINFELD


California Institute of Technology


FRANCES P. SOLOMON


King County Department of Natural Resources


CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd vv 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM Thou ever-darting Globe! through Space and Air!


Thou waters that encompass us!


Thou that in all the life and death of us, in action or in sleep!


Thou laws invisible that permeate them and all,


Thou that in all, and over all, and through and under all, incessant!


Thou! thou! the vital, universal, giant force resistless, sleepless, calm,


Holding Humanity as in thy open hand, as some ephemeral toy,


How ill to e’er forget thee!


One thought ever at the fore—


That in the Divine Ship, the World, breasting Time and Space,


All Peoples of the globe together sail, sail the same voyage, are b ound


to the same destination.


—Walt Whitman (ca 1890)


CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd vviiii 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM CONTENTS


Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv


Editors’ Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii


Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix


List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi


VOLUME 1


Acid Rain


Gary J. Stensland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Aerosols


John H. Seinfeld, Yasuo Kousaka, and Kikuo Okuyama . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5


Air Pollutant Effects


Edward F. Ferrand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9


Air Pollution Instrumentation


James Geiger and Mark D. Mueller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4


Air Pollution Meteorology


Hans A. Panofsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9


Air Pollution Sources


Jehuda Menczel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0


Aquatic Primary Production


Charles R. Goldman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


Atmospheric Chemistry


Larry G. Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


Biological Treatment of Wastewater


J. K. Bewtra and N. Biswas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 37


Brownfields


Lee Dorigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 60


Coal Gasification Processes


Robert J. Farrell and Edward N. Ziegler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 66


Community Health


John B. De Hoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 71


Composting


J. K. McCarthy and Raul R. Cardenas, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 85


CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd iixx 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM


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