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Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering

1408 Pages · 2006 · 15.82 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering

    FIFTH EDITION


    E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F


    ENVIRONMENTAL


    SCIENC E


    and


    ENGINEERING


    VOLUME 1 A-L FIFTH EDITION


    E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F


    ENVIRONMENTAL


    SCIENC E


    and


    ENGINEERING


    VOLUME 1 A- L


    EDITED BY


    JAMES R. PFAFFLIN


    EDWARD N. ZIEGLER


    Boca Raton London New York


    A CRC title, part of the Taylor & Francis imprint, a member of the


    Taylor & Francis Group, the academic division of T&F Informa plc. Published in 2006 by


    CRC Press


    Taylor & Francis Group


    6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300


    Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742


    © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


    CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group


    No claim to original U.S. Government works


    Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-9843-6 (Hardcover)


    International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-9843-8 (Hardcover)


    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are


    indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the


    publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.


    No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known


    or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission


    from the publishers.


    For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact


    the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that


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    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation


    without intent to infringe.


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Catalog record is available from the Library of Congress


    Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at


    http://www.taylorandfrancis.com


    and the CRC Press Web site at


    Taylor & Francis Group is the Academic Division of Informa plc. http://www.crcpress.com EDITORS


    JAMES R. PFAFFLIN


    EDWARD N. ZIEGLER


    Polytechnic University


    EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD


    N EAL E. ARMSTRONG


    U niversity of Texas at Austin


    GERARD P. CANEVARI


    G . P. Canevari Associates


    TAKESHI GODA


    R itsumeikan University


    JOSEPH M. LYNCH


    Mayo Lynch Associates


    JOHN H. SEINFELD


    California Institute of Technology


    FRANCES P. SOLOMON


    King County Department of Natural Resources


    CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd vv 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM Thou ever-darting Globe! through Space and Air!


    Thou waters that encompass us!


    Thou that in all the life and death of us, in action or in sleep!


    Thou laws invisible that permeate them and all,


    Thou that in all, and over all, and through and under all, incessant!


    Thou! thou! the vital, universal, giant force resistless, sleepless, calm,


    Holding Humanity as in thy open hand, as some ephemeral toy,


    How ill to e’er forget thee!


    One thought ever at the fore—


    That in the Divine Ship, the World, breasting Time and Space,


    All Peoples of the globe together sail, sail the same voyage, are b ound


    to the same destination.


    —Walt Whitman (ca 1890)


    CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd vviiii 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM CONTENTS


    Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv


    Editors’ Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii


    Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix


    List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi


    VOLUME 1


    Acid Rain


    Gary J. Stensland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


    Aerosols


    John H. Seinfeld, Yasuo Kousaka, and Kikuo Okuyama . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5


    Air Pollutant Effects


    Edward F. Ferrand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9


    Air Pollution Instrumentation


    James Geiger and Mark D. Mueller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4


    Air Pollution Meteorology


    Hans A. Panofsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9


    Air Pollution Sources


    Jehuda Menczel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0


    Aquatic Primary Production


    Charles R. Goldman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113


    Atmospheric Chemistry


    Larry G. Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118


    Biological Treatment of Wastewater


    J. K. Bewtra and N. Biswas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 37


    Brownfields


    Lee Dorigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 60


    Coal Gasification Processes


    Robert J. Farrell and Edward N. Ziegler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 66


    Community Health


    John B. De Hoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 71


    Composting


    J. K. McCarthy and Raul R. Cardenas, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 85


    CC000000__000000__VVooll11__rr0033..iinndddd iixx 1111//2222//22000055 1122::3355::1188 PPMM


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