2

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DISASTERS

816 Pages · 2008 · 8.76 MB · English

  • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DISASTERS

    ENCYCLOPEDIA


    OF DISASTERS


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U 11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U ENCYCLOPEDIA


    OF DISASTERS


    Environmental Catastrophes


    and Human Tragedies


    VOLUME 1


    ANGUS M. GUNN


    GREENWOOD PRESS



    Westport, Connecticut London


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Gunn, Angus M. (Angus Macleod), 1920–


    Encyclopedia of disasters : environmental catastrophes and human


    tragedies / Angus M. Gunn.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34002–4 ((set) : alk. paper)


    ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34003–1 ((vol 1) : alk. paper)


    ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34004–8 ((vol 2) : alk. paper)


    1. Natural disasters—Encyclopedias. I. Title.


    GB5014.G86 2008


    904—dc22 2007031001


    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.


    uf6d9


    Copyright 2008 by Angus M. Gunn


    All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be


    reproduced, by any process or technique, without the


    express written consent of the publisher.


    Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007031001


    ISBN-13:978–0–313–34002–4 (set)


    978–0–313–34003–1 (vol 1)


    978–0–313–34004–8 (vol 2)


    First published in 2008


    Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881


    An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.


    www.greenwood.com


    Printed in the United States of America


    The paper used in this book complies with the


    Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National


    Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984).


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U Contents


    Credits for Illustrations xi


    Guide to Thematic Entries xvii


    Preface xxiii


    Acknowledgments xxvii


    Introduction xxix


    Volume 1


    1. Supervolcano Toba, Indonesia, 74000 BC 1


    2. Rome, Italy, fire, 64 5


    3. Pompeii, Italy, volcanic eruption, 79 11


    4. Alexandria, Egypt, tsunami, 365 17


    5. Antioch, Syria (now Antakya, Turkey), earthquake, 526 21


    6. Constantinople, Byzantine Empire, Black Death plague, 542 26


    7. Corinth, Greece, earthquake, 856 32


    8. Damghan, Persia, earthquake, 856 34


    9. Aleppo, Syria, earthquake, 1138 38


    10. Shaanxi, China, earthquake, 1556 41


    11. Arequipa, Peru, volcanic eruption, 1600 46


    12. London, England, Black Death plague, 1665 52


    13. London, England, fire, 1666 58


    14. Port Royal, Jamaica, earthquake, 1692 63


    15. Cascadia earthquake, 1700 68


    16. Lisbon, Portugal, earthquake and tsunami, 1755 75


    17. Massachusetts offshore earthquake, 1755 81


    18. Bengal, India, famine, 1770 83


    19. Connecticut earthquake, 1791 88


    20. New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes, 1811 and 1812 90


    21. West Ventura, California, earthquake, 1812 95


    22. Tambora, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1815 98


    23. Natchez, Mississippi, tornado, 1840 103


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U vi CONTENTS


    24. Fort Tejon, California, earthquake, 1857 106


    25. Calcutta, India, cyclone, 1864 111


    26. Kau, Hawaii, earthquake, 1868 114


    27. Chicago, Illinois, fire, 1871 119


    28. Owens Valley, California, earthquake, 1872 122


    29. Bangladesh cyclone, 1876 124


    30. Marshfield, Missouri, tornado, 1880 126


    31. Georgia/South Carolina hurricane, 1881 128


    32. Haiphong, Vietnam, typhoon, 1881 130


    33. Krakatau, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1883 132


    34. Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake, 1886 137


    35. Yellow River, China, flood, 1887 141


    36. Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood, 1889 145


    37. Louisville, Kentucky, tornado, 1890 151


    38. Japan earthquake, 1891 153


    39. Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, 1892 155


    40. Georgia/South Carolina hurricane, 1893 156


    41. Louisiana hurricane, 1893 158


    42. St. Louis, Missouri, tornado, 1896 160


    43. Sanriku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami, 1896 163


    44. Assam, India, earthquake, 1897 165


    45. Eureka, California, earthquake, 1899 168


    46. New Richmond, Wisconsin, tornado, 1899 169


    47. Yakutat, Alaska, earthquake, 1899 171


    48. Galveston, Texas, hurricane, 1900 176


    49. Cook Inlet, Alaska, earthquake, 1901 181


    50. Mount Pelee volcanic eruption, 1902 186


    51. Goliad, Texas, tornado, 1902 192


    52. Santa Maria, Guatemala, volcanic eruption, 1902 195


    53. Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada, landslide, 1903 197


    54. Chicago, Illinois, fire, 1903 202


    55. St. Petersburg, Russia, revolution, 1905 209


    56. Mongolia earthquake, 1905 215


    57. San Francisco, California, earthquake, 1906 217


    58. Socorro 1, New Mexico, earthquake, 1906 224


    59. Socorro 2, New Mexico, earthquake, 1906 226


    60. Ecuador offshore earthquake, 1906 228


    61. Monongah, Pennsylvania, explosion 1907 231


    62. Amite, Louisiana, tornado, 1908 236


    63. Louisiana hurricane, 1909 238


    64. Oregon earthquake, 1910 241


    65. Titanic iceburg tragedy, 1912 243


    66. Katmai, Alaska, volcanic eruption, 1912 250


    67. Omaha, Nebraska, tornado, 1913 256


    68. Texas hurricane, 1915 258


    69. Pleasant Valley, Nevada, earthquake, 1915 260


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U CONTENTS vii


    70. Mattoon, Illinois, tornado, 1917 263


    71. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, explosion, 1917 265


    72. World-wide flu pandemic, 1918–1919 270


    73. Mona Passage, Puerto Rico, earthquake, 1918 276


    74. Vancouver Island, Canada, earthquake, 1918 279


    75. Kelud, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1919 281


    76. Florida/Gulf of Mexico hurricane, 1919 283


    77. Humboldt, California, earthquake, 1923 286


    78. Kamchatka, Russia, earthquake, 1923 288


    79. Tokyo, Japan, earthquake, 1923 291


    80. Charlevoix, Quebec, earthquake, 1925 296


    81. Illinois/Indiana/Missouri tornado, 1925 299


    82. Clarkston Valley, Montana, earthquake, 1925 302


    83. Santa Barbara, California, earthquake, 1925 305


    84. Florida hurricane, 1926 307


    85. Lompoc, California, earthquake, 1927 310


    86. St. Francis Dam failure, 1928 312


    87. Lake Okeechobee hurricane, 1928 316


    88. Stock Market Collapse, 1929 319


    89. Grand Banks, Nova Scotia, earthquake, 1929 324


    90. Ukraine catastrophe, 1932 326


    91. Nevada earthquake, 1932 331


    92. Sanriku, Japan, earthquake, 1933 333


    93. Baffin Bay, Canada, earthquake, 1933 335


    94. Bihar, India, earthquake, 1934 337


    95. Quetta earthquake, 1935 340


    96. Labor Day hurricane 1935 343


    97. Gainesville tornado, 1936 345


    98. Hindenburg crash, 1937 347


    99. Nanking massacre, 1937 353


    Volume 2


    100. New England hurricane, 1938 359


    101. Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, 1940 364


    102. Paricutin, Mexico, volcanic eruption, 1943 366


    103. San Juan, Argentina, earthquake, 1944 371


    104. Shinnston, West Virginia, tornado, 1944 373


    105. Northeast United States hurricane, 1944 375


    106. Cleveland, Ohio, gas explosion, 1944 377


    107. Hiroshima, Japan, nuclear bomb, 1945 383


    108. Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, nuclear tests, 1946 389


    109. Unimak, Alaska, tsunami, 1946 396


    110. Vancouver Island, Canada, earthquake, 1946 399


    111. Nankaido, Japan, earthquake, 1946 402


    112. Woodward, Oklahoma, tornado, 1947 404


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U viii CONTENTS


    113. Texas City, Texas, explosion, 1947 406


    114. Puget Sound, Washington, earthquake, 1949 412


    115. Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, earthquake, 1949 414


    116. Assam, India, earthquake, 1950 417


    117. Kern County, California, earthquake, 1952 419


    118. Kamchatka, Russia, earthquake, 1952 422


    119. London, England, suffocating smog, 1952 425


    120. Netherlands (Holland) flood, 1953 431


    121. Waco, Texas, tornado, 1953 436


    122. Flint, Michigan, tornado, 1953 438


    123. Fallon-Stillwater, Nevada, earthquake, 1954 441


    124. Thalidomide drug tragedy, 1957 444


    125. Lituya Bay, Alaska, earthquake, 1958 449


    126. West Yellowstone, Montana, earthquake, 1959 451


    127. Japan typhoon, 1959 456


    128. Chile earthquake, 1960 459


    129. New York City, New York, mid-air collision, 1960 464


    130. Tristan da Cunha volcanic eruption, 1961 470


    131. Vaiont Dam, Italy, collapse, 1963 475


    132. Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake, 1964 479


    133. Hurricane Betsy, 1965 484


    134. Aberfan, South Wales, Britain, landslide, 1966 487


    135. Hurricane Camille, 1969 493


    136. Peru earthquake, 1970 497


    137. Bangladesh cyclone, 1970 501


    138. Iraq mercury poisoning, 1971 503


    139. Hurricane Agnes, 1972 508


    140. Munich, Germany, terrorism, 1972 510


    141. Managua, Nicaragua, earthquake, 1972 515


    142. Iceland volcanic eruption, 1973 518


    143. Brisbane, Australia, flood, 1974 521


    144. Kalapana, Hawaii, earthquake, 1975 525


    145. Guatemala earthquake, 1976 528


    146. Teton Dam, Idaho, collapse, 1976 531


    147. Seveso, Italy, dioxin spill, 1976 536


    148. Tangshan, China, earthquake, 1976 541


    149. France oil spill, 1978 545


    150. Love Canal, New York, contamination, 1978 549


    151. Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, nuclear accident, 1979 554


    152. Mount St. Helens, Washington, volcanic eruption, 1980 559


    153. Canada, sinking of oil platform, 1982 565


    154. Coalinga, California, earthquake, 1983 569


    155. Bhopal, India, gas poisoning, 1984 572


    156. Air terrorism, 1985 577


    157. Mexico earthquake, 1985 582


    158. Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, volcanic eruption, 1985 584


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U CONTENTS ix


    159. Challenger (space shuttle), Florida, fire/explosion, 1986 587


    160. Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident, 1986 591


    161. Armenia earthquake, 1988 596


    162. Alaska oil spill, 1989 598


    163. Tiananmen Square, China, massacre, 1989 604


    164. Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, 1989 608


    165. Persian Gulf oil inferno, 1991 611


    166. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, volcanic eruption, 1991 615


    167. Hurricane Andrew, 1992 619


    168. New York City, New York, terrorism, 1993 623


    169. Northridge, California, earthquake, 1994 628


    170. Rwanda genocide, 1994 631


    171. Kobe, Japan, earthquake, 1995 639


    172. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, terrorism, 1995 642


    173. Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina, genocide, 1995 652


    174. Red River flood, 1997 658


    175. Hurricane Floyd, 1999 661


    176. Peru offshore earthquake, 2001 664


    177. Nine Eleven, New York City, New York, terrorism, 2001 666


    178. United States anthrax terrorism, 2001 672


    179. Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake and tsunami, 2004 676


    180. Northern California offshore earthquake, 2005 682


    181. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 686


    182. Pakistan earthquake, 2005 696


    183. Taiwan earthquake, 2006 698


    184. Greensburg, Kansas, tornado, 2007 701


    Appendix 1:USGS List of Worldwide Earthquakes


    (1500–2007) 705


    Appendix 2: U.S. Natural Environments 716


    Appendix 3: World’s Deadliest Disasters 720


    Appendix 4: Measuring Natural Disasters 723


    Bibliography 727


    Index 729


    11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U 11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.