ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DISASTERS

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DISASTERS

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DISASTERS

816 Pages ·2008·8.76 MB ·English

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF DISASTERS

ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF DISASTERS


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U 11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF DISASTERS


Environmental Catastrophes


and Human Tragedies


VOLUME 1


ANGUS M. GUNN


GREENWOOD PRESS



Westport, Connecticut London


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Gunn, Angus M. (Angus Macleod), 1920–


Encyclopedia of disasters : environmental catastrophes and human


tragedies / Angus M. Gunn.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34002–4 ((set) : alk. paper)


ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34003–1 ((vol 1) : alk. paper)


ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34004–8 ((vol 2) : alk. paper)


1. Natural disasters—Encyclopedias. I. Title.


GB5014.G86 2008


904—dc22 2007031001


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.


uf6d9


Copyright 2008 by Angus M. Gunn


All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be


reproduced, by any process or technique, without the


express written consent of the publisher.


Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007031001


ISBN-13:978–0–313–34002–4 (set)


978–0–313–34003–1 (vol 1)


978–0–313–34004–8 (vol 2)


First published in 2008


Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881


An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.


www.greenwood.com


Printed in the United States of America


The paper used in this book complies with the


Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National


Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984).


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U Contents


Credits for Illustrations xi


Guide to Thematic Entries xvii


Preface xxiii


Acknowledgments xxvii


Introduction xxix


Volume 1


1. Supervolcano Toba, Indonesia, 74000 BC 1


2. Rome, Italy, fire, 64 5


3. Pompeii, Italy, volcanic eruption, 79 11


4. Alexandria, Egypt, tsunami, 365 17


5. Antioch, Syria (now Antakya, Turkey), earthquake, 526 21


6. Constantinople, Byzantine Empire, Black Death plague, 542 26


7. Corinth, Greece, earthquake, 856 32


8. Damghan, Persia, earthquake, 856 34


9. Aleppo, Syria, earthquake, 1138 38


10. Shaanxi, China, earthquake, 1556 41


11. Arequipa, Peru, volcanic eruption, 1600 46


12. London, England, Black Death plague, 1665 52


13. London, England, fire, 1666 58


14. Port Royal, Jamaica, earthquake, 1692 63


15. Cascadia earthquake, 1700 68


16. Lisbon, Portugal, earthquake and tsunami, 1755 75


17. Massachusetts offshore earthquake, 1755 81


18. Bengal, India, famine, 1770 83


19. Connecticut earthquake, 1791 88


20. New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes, 1811 and 1812 90


21. West Ventura, California, earthquake, 1812 95


22. Tambora, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1815 98


23. Natchez, Mississippi, tornado, 1840 103


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U vi CONTENTS


24. Fort Tejon, California, earthquake, 1857 106


25. Calcutta, India, cyclone, 1864 111


26. Kau, Hawaii, earthquake, 1868 114


27. Chicago, Illinois, fire, 1871 119


28. Owens Valley, California, earthquake, 1872 122


29. Bangladesh cyclone, 1876 124


30. Marshfield, Missouri, tornado, 1880 126


31. Georgia/South Carolina hurricane, 1881 128


32. Haiphong, Vietnam, typhoon, 1881 130


33. Krakatau, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1883 132


34. Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake, 1886 137


35. Yellow River, China, flood, 1887 141


36. Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood, 1889 145


37. Louisville, Kentucky, tornado, 1890 151


38. Japan earthquake, 1891 153


39. Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, 1892 155


40. Georgia/South Carolina hurricane, 1893 156


41. Louisiana hurricane, 1893 158


42. St. Louis, Missouri, tornado, 1896 160


43. Sanriku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami, 1896 163


44. Assam, India, earthquake, 1897 165


45. Eureka, California, earthquake, 1899 168


46. New Richmond, Wisconsin, tornado, 1899 169


47. Yakutat, Alaska, earthquake, 1899 171


48. Galveston, Texas, hurricane, 1900 176


49. Cook Inlet, Alaska, earthquake, 1901 181


50. Mount Pelee volcanic eruption, 1902 186


51. Goliad, Texas, tornado, 1902 192


52. Santa Maria, Guatemala, volcanic eruption, 1902 195


53. Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada, landslide, 1903 197


54. Chicago, Illinois, fire, 1903 202


55. St. Petersburg, Russia, revolution, 1905 209


56. Mongolia earthquake, 1905 215


57. San Francisco, California, earthquake, 1906 217


58. Socorro 1, New Mexico, earthquake, 1906 224


59. Socorro 2, New Mexico, earthquake, 1906 226


60. Ecuador offshore earthquake, 1906 228


61. Monongah, Pennsylvania, explosion 1907 231


62. Amite, Louisiana, tornado, 1908 236


63. Louisiana hurricane, 1909 238


64. Oregon earthquake, 1910 241


65. Titanic iceburg tragedy, 1912 243


66. Katmai, Alaska, volcanic eruption, 1912 250


67. Omaha, Nebraska, tornado, 1913 256


68. Texas hurricane, 1915 258


69. Pleasant Valley, Nevada, earthquake, 1915 260


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U CONTENTS vii


70. Mattoon, Illinois, tornado, 1917 263


71. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, explosion, 1917 265


72. World-wide flu pandemic, 1918–1919 270


73. Mona Passage, Puerto Rico, earthquake, 1918 276


74. Vancouver Island, Canada, earthquake, 1918 279


75. Kelud, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1919 281


76. Florida/Gulf of Mexico hurricane, 1919 283


77. Humboldt, California, earthquake, 1923 286


78. Kamchatka, Russia, earthquake, 1923 288


79. Tokyo, Japan, earthquake, 1923 291


80. Charlevoix, Quebec, earthquake, 1925 296


81. Illinois/Indiana/Missouri tornado, 1925 299


82. Clarkston Valley, Montana, earthquake, 1925 302


83. Santa Barbara, California, earthquake, 1925 305


84. Florida hurricane, 1926 307


85. Lompoc, California, earthquake, 1927 310


86. St. Francis Dam failure, 1928 312


87. Lake Okeechobee hurricane, 1928 316


88. Stock Market Collapse, 1929 319


89. Grand Banks, Nova Scotia, earthquake, 1929 324


90. Ukraine catastrophe, 1932 326


91. Nevada earthquake, 1932 331


92. Sanriku, Japan, earthquake, 1933 333


93. Baffin Bay, Canada, earthquake, 1933 335


94. Bihar, India, earthquake, 1934 337


95. Quetta earthquake, 1935 340


96. Labor Day hurricane 1935 343


97. Gainesville tornado, 1936 345


98. Hindenburg crash, 1937 347


99. Nanking massacre, 1937 353


Volume 2


100. New England hurricane, 1938 359


101. Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, 1940 364


102. Paricutin, Mexico, volcanic eruption, 1943 366


103. San Juan, Argentina, earthquake, 1944 371


104. Shinnston, West Virginia, tornado, 1944 373


105. Northeast United States hurricane, 1944 375


106. Cleveland, Ohio, gas explosion, 1944 377


107. Hiroshima, Japan, nuclear bomb, 1945 383


108. Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, nuclear tests, 1946 389


109. Unimak, Alaska, tsunami, 1946 396


110. Vancouver Island, Canada, earthquake, 1946 399


111. Nankaido, Japan, earthquake, 1946 402


112. Woodward, Oklahoma, tornado, 1947 404


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U viii CONTENTS


113. Texas City, Texas, explosion, 1947 406


114. Puget Sound, Washington, earthquake, 1949 412


115. Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, earthquake, 1949 414


116. Assam, India, earthquake, 1950 417


117. Kern County, California, earthquake, 1952 419


118. Kamchatka, Russia, earthquake, 1952 422


119. London, England, suffocating smog, 1952 425


120. Netherlands (Holland) flood, 1953 431


121. Waco, Texas, tornado, 1953 436


122. Flint, Michigan, tornado, 1953 438


123. Fallon-Stillwater, Nevada, earthquake, 1954 441


124. Thalidomide drug tragedy, 1957 444


125. Lituya Bay, Alaska, earthquake, 1958 449


126. West Yellowstone, Montana, earthquake, 1959 451


127. Japan typhoon, 1959 456


128. Chile earthquake, 1960 459


129. New York City, New York, mid-air collision, 1960 464


130. Tristan da Cunha volcanic eruption, 1961 470


131. Vaiont Dam, Italy, collapse, 1963 475


132. Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake, 1964 479


133. Hurricane Betsy, 1965 484


134. Aberfan, South Wales, Britain, landslide, 1966 487


135. Hurricane Camille, 1969 493


136. Peru earthquake, 1970 497


137. Bangladesh cyclone, 1970 501


138. Iraq mercury poisoning, 1971 503


139. Hurricane Agnes, 1972 508


140. Munich, Germany, terrorism, 1972 510


141. Managua, Nicaragua, earthquake, 1972 515


142. Iceland volcanic eruption, 1973 518


143. Brisbane, Australia, flood, 1974 521


144. Kalapana, Hawaii, earthquake, 1975 525


145. Guatemala earthquake, 1976 528


146. Teton Dam, Idaho, collapse, 1976 531


147. Seveso, Italy, dioxin spill, 1976 536


148. Tangshan, China, earthquake, 1976 541


149. France oil spill, 1978 545


150. Love Canal, New York, contamination, 1978 549


151. Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, nuclear accident, 1979 554


152. Mount St. Helens, Washington, volcanic eruption, 1980 559


153. Canada, sinking of oil platform, 1982 565


154. Coalinga, California, earthquake, 1983 569


155. Bhopal, India, gas poisoning, 1984 572


156. Air terrorism, 1985 577


157. Mexico earthquake, 1985 582


158. Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, volcanic eruption, 1985 584


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U CONTENTS ix


159. Challenger (space shuttle), Florida, fire/explosion, 1986 587


160. Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident, 1986 591


161. Armenia earthquake, 1988 596


162. Alaska oil spill, 1989 598


163. Tiananmen Square, China, massacre, 1989 604


164. Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, 1989 608


165. Persian Gulf oil inferno, 1991 611


166. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, volcanic eruption, 1991 615


167. Hurricane Andrew, 1992 619


168. New York City, New York, terrorism, 1993 623


169. Northridge, California, earthquake, 1994 628


170. Rwanda genocide, 1994 631


171. Kobe, Japan, earthquake, 1995 639


172. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, terrorism, 1995 642


173. Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina, genocide, 1995 652


174. Red River flood, 1997 658


175. Hurricane Floyd, 1999 661


176. Peru offshore earthquake, 2001 664


177. Nine Eleven, New York City, New York, terrorism, 2001 666


178. United States anthrax terrorism, 2001 672


179. Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake and tsunami, 2004 676


180. Northern California offshore earthquake, 2005 682


181. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 686


182. Pakistan earthquake, 2005 696


183. Taiwan earthquake, 2006 698


184. Greensburg, Kansas, tornado, 2007 701


Appendix 1:USGS List of Worldwide Earthquakes


(1500–2007) 705


Appendix 2: U.S. Natural Environments 716


Appendix 3: World’s Deadliest Disasters 720


Appendix 4: Measuring Natural Disasters 723


Bibliography 727


Index 729


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U 11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U


ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF DISASTERS


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U 11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF DISASTERS


Environmental Catastrophes


and Human Tragedies


VOLUME 1


ANGUS M. GUNN


GREENWOOD PRESS



Westport, Connecticut London


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Gunn, Angus M. (Angus Macleod), 1920–


Encyclopedia of disasters : environmental catastrophes and human


tragedies / Angus M. Gunn.


p. cm.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34002–4 ((set) : alk. paper)


ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34003–1 ((vol 1) : alk. paper)


ISBN-13: 978–0–313–34004–8 ((vol 2) : alk. paper)


1. Natural disasters—Encyclopedias. I. Title.


GB5014.G86 2008


904—dc22 2007031001


British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.


uf6d9


Copyright 2008 by Angus M. Gunn


All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be


reproduced, by any process or technique, without the


express written consent of the publisher.


Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2007031001


ISBN-13:978–0–313–34002–4 (set)


978–0–313–34003–1 (vol 1)


978–0–313–34004–8 (vol 2)


First published in 2008


Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881


An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.


www.greenwood.com


Printed in the United States of America


The paper used in this book complies with the


Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National


Information Standards Organization (Z39.48–1984).


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U Contents


Credits for Illustrations xi


Guide to Thematic Entries xvii


Preface xxiii


Acknowledgments xxvii


Introduction xxix


Volume 1


1. Supervolcano Toba, Indonesia, 74000 BC 1


2. Rome, Italy, fire, 64 5


3. Pompeii, Italy, volcanic eruption, 79 11


4. Alexandria, Egypt, tsunami, 365 17


5. Antioch, Syria (now Antakya, Turkey), earthquake, 526 21


6. Constantinople, Byzantine Empire, Black Death plague, 542 26


7. Corinth, Greece, earthquake, 856 32


8. Damghan, Persia, earthquake, 856 34


9. Aleppo, Syria, earthquake, 1138 38


10. Shaanxi, China, earthquake, 1556 41


11. Arequipa, Peru, volcanic eruption, 1600 46


12. London, England, Black Death plague, 1665 52


13. London, England, fire, 1666 58


14. Port Royal, Jamaica, earthquake, 1692 63


15. Cascadia earthquake, 1700 68


16. Lisbon, Portugal, earthquake and tsunami, 1755 75


17. Massachusetts offshore earthquake, 1755 81


18. Bengal, India, famine, 1770 83


19. Connecticut earthquake, 1791 88


20. New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes, 1811 and 1812 90


21. West Ventura, California, earthquake, 1812 95


22. Tambora, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1815 98


23. Natchez, Mississippi, tornado, 1840 103


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U vi CONTENTS


24. Fort Tejon, California, earthquake, 1857 106


25. Calcutta, India, cyclone, 1864 111


26. Kau, Hawaii, earthquake, 1868 114


27. Chicago, Illinois, fire, 1871 119


28. Owens Valley, California, earthquake, 1872 122


29. Bangladesh cyclone, 1876 124


30. Marshfield, Missouri, tornado, 1880 126


31. Georgia/South Carolina hurricane, 1881 128


32. Haiphong, Vietnam, typhoon, 1881 130


33. Krakatau, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1883 132


34. Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake, 1886 137


35. Yellow River, China, flood, 1887 141


36. Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood, 1889 145


37. Louisville, Kentucky, tornado, 1890 151


38. Japan earthquake, 1891 153


39. Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, 1892 155


40. Georgia/South Carolina hurricane, 1893 156


41. Louisiana hurricane, 1893 158


42. St. Louis, Missouri, tornado, 1896 160


43. Sanriku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami, 1896 163


44. Assam, India, earthquake, 1897 165


45. Eureka, California, earthquake, 1899 168


46. New Richmond, Wisconsin, tornado, 1899 169


47. Yakutat, Alaska, earthquake, 1899 171


48. Galveston, Texas, hurricane, 1900 176


49. Cook Inlet, Alaska, earthquake, 1901 181


50. Mount Pelee volcanic eruption, 1902 186


51. Goliad, Texas, tornado, 1902 192


52. Santa Maria, Guatemala, volcanic eruption, 1902 195


53. Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada, landslide, 1903 197


54. Chicago, Illinois, fire, 1903 202


55. St. Petersburg, Russia, revolution, 1905 209


56. Mongolia earthquake, 1905 215


57. San Francisco, California, earthquake, 1906 217


58. Socorro 1, New Mexico, earthquake, 1906 224


59. Socorro 2, New Mexico, earthquake, 1906 226


60. Ecuador offshore earthquake, 1906 228


61. Monongah, Pennsylvania, explosion 1907 231


62. Amite, Louisiana, tornado, 1908 236


63. Louisiana hurricane, 1909 238


64. Oregon earthquake, 1910 241


65. Titanic iceburg tragedy, 1912 243


66. Katmai, Alaska, volcanic eruption, 1912 250


67. Omaha, Nebraska, tornado, 1913 256


68. Texas hurricane, 1915 258


69. Pleasant Valley, Nevada, earthquake, 1915 260


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U CONTENTS vii


70. Mattoon, Illinois, tornado, 1917 263


71. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, explosion, 1917 265


72. World-wide flu pandemic, 1918–1919 270


73. Mona Passage, Puerto Rico, earthquake, 1918 276


74. Vancouver Island, Canada, earthquake, 1918 279


75. Kelud, Indonesia, volcanic eruption, 1919 281


76. Florida/Gulf of Mexico hurricane, 1919 283


77. Humboldt, California, earthquake, 1923 286


78. Kamchatka, Russia, earthquake, 1923 288


79. Tokyo, Japan, earthquake, 1923 291


80. Charlevoix, Quebec, earthquake, 1925 296


81. Illinois/Indiana/Missouri tornado, 1925 299


82. Clarkston Valley, Montana, earthquake, 1925 302


83. Santa Barbara, California, earthquake, 1925 305


84. Florida hurricane, 1926 307


85. Lompoc, California, earthquake, 1927 310


86. St. Francis Dam failure, 1928 312


87. Lake Okeechobee hurricane, 1928 316


88. Stock Market Collapse, 1929 319


89. Grand Banks, Nova Scotia, earthquake, 1929 324


90. Ukraine catastrophe, 1932 326


91. Nevada earthquake, 1932 331


92. Sanriku, Japan, earthquake, 1933 333


93. Baffin Bay, Canada, earthquake, 1933 335


94. Bihar, India, earthquake, 1934 337


95. Quetta earthquake, 1935 340


96. Labor Day hurricane 1935 343


97. Gainesville tornado, 1936 345


98. Hindenburg crash, 1937 347


99. Nanking massacre, 1937 353


Volume 2


100. New England hurricane, 1938 359


101. Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, 1940 364


102. Paricutin, Mexico, volcanic eruption, 1943 366


103. San Juan, Argentina, earthquake, 1944 371


104. Shinnston, West Virginia, tornado, 1944 373


105. Northeast United States hurricane, 1944 375


106. Cleveland, Ohio, gas explosion, 1944 377


107. Hiroshima, Japan, nuclear bomb, 1945 383


108. Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, nuclear tests, 1946 389


109. Unimak, Alaska, tsunami, 1946 396


110. Vancouver Island, Canada, earthquake, 1946 399


111. Nankaido, Japan, earthquake, 1946 402


112. Woodward, Oklahoma, tornado, 1947 404


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U viii CONTENTS


113. Texas City, Texas, explosion, 1947 406


114. Puget Sound, Washington, earthquake, 1949 412


115. Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, earthquake, 1949 414


116. Assam, India, earthquake, 1950 417


117. Kern County, California, earthquake, 1952 419


118. Kamchatka, Russia, earthquake, 1952 422


119. London, England, suffocating smog, 1952 425


120. Netherlands (Holland) flood, 1953 431


121. Waco, Texas, tornado, 1953 436


122. Flint, Michigan, tornado, 1953 438


123. Fallon-Stillwater, Nevada, earthquake, 1954 441


124. Thalidomide drug tragedy, 1957 444


125. Lituya Bay, Alaska, earthquake, 1958 449


126. West Yellowstone, Montana, earthquake, 1959 451


127. Japan typhoon, 1959 456


128. Chile earthquake, 1960 459


129. New York City, New York, mid-air collision, 1960 464


130. Tristan da Cunha volcanic eruption, 1961 470


131. Vaiont Dam, Italy, collapse, 1963 475


132. Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake, 1964 479


133. Hurricane Betsy, 1965 484


134. Aberfan, South Wales, Britain, landslide, 1966 487


135. Hurricane Camille, 1969 493


136. Peru earthquake, 1970 497


137. Bangladesh cyclone, 1970 501


138. Iraq mercury poisoning, 1971 503


139. Hurricane Agnes, 1972 508


140. Munich, Germany, terrorism, 1972 510


141. Managua, Nicaragua, earthquake, 1972 515


142. Iceland volcanic eruption, 1973 518


143. Brisbane, Australia, flood, 1974 521


144. Kalapana, Hawaii, earthquake, 1975 525


145. Guatemala earthquake, 1976 528


146. Teton Dam, Idaho, collapse, 1976 531


147. Seveso, Italy, dioxin spill, 1976 536


148. Tangshan, China, earthquake, 1976 541


149. France oil spill, 1978 545


150. Love Canal, New York, contamination, 1978 549


151. Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, nuclear accident, 1979 554


152. Mount St. Helens, Washington, volcanic eruption, 1980 559


153. Canada, sinking of oil platform, 1982 565


154. Coalinga, California, earthquake, 1983 569


155. Bhopal, India, gas poisoning, 1984 572


156. Air terrorism, 1985 577


157. Mexico earthquake, 1985 582


158. Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, volcanic eruption, 1985 584


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U CONTENTS ix


159. Challenger (space shuttle), Florida, fire/explosion, 1986 587


160. Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident, 1986 591


161. Armenia earthquake, 1988 596


162. Alaska oil spill, 1989 598


163. Tiananmen Square, China, massacre, 1989 604


164. Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, 1989 608


165. Persian Gulf oil inferno, 1991 611


166. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, volcanic eruption, 1991 615


167. Hurricane Andrew, 1992 619


168. New York City, New York, terrorism, 1993 623


169. Northridge, California, earthquake, 1994 628


170. Rwanda genocide, 1994 631


171. Kobe, Japan, earthquake, 1995 639


172. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, terrorism, 1995 642


173. Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina, genocide, 1995 652


174. Red River flood, 1997 658


175. Hurricane Floyd, 1999 661


176. Peru offshore earthquake, 2001 664


177. Nine Eleven, New York City, New York, terrorism, 2001 666


178. United States anthrax terrorism, 2001 672


179. Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake and tsunami, 2004 676


180. Northern California offshore earthquake, 2005 682


181. Hurricane Katrina, 2005 686


182. Pakistan earthquake, 2005 696


183. Taiwan earthquake, 2006 698


184. Greensburg, Kansas, tornado, 2007 701


Appendix 1:USGS List of Worldwide Earthquakes


(1500–2007) 705


Appendix 2: U.S. Natural Environments 716


Appendix 3: World’s Deadliest Disasters 720


Appendix 4: Measuring Natural Disasters 723


Bibliography 727


Index 729


11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U 11-07-0708:42:13GUNN$$FM1U


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