Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

481 Pages · 2008 · 4.77 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

    Encyclopedia of

    ancient egypt

    REVISEDEDITION Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt






    Mediterranean Sea B







    Mendes ES Dead(cid:13)

    AlexandriaSSeebbeannnnyyttooss AL Sea

    TTaanniiss P

    LIBYA SSaaiiss Tjel

    Naukratis Daphnae

    LLeeoottooppoolliiss PPiirraammeessssee




    EGYPT HHeelliiooppoolliiss


    The Pyramids Cairo SINAI



    SIWA(cid:13) Hierakleopolis Maghara

    OASIS BAHARIYA(cid:13) El-Hiba

    OASIS EASTERN(cid:13)


    Ashmunein Beni Hasan

    Akhetaten Tell el-Amarna

    FARAFRA(cid:13) Deir el-Gebrawi

    OASIS Assiut


    WESTERN DESERT Thinis NileR. Dendereh HamWmadaim(cid:13)at

    Abydos Koptos

    Naqada Red Sea

    Valley of the Kings Thebes (Luxor)


    Hierakonpolis El-Kab

    DAKHLA(cid:13) KHARGA(cid:13) Esna


    OASIS OASIS Kom Ombo

    Gebel Silsila



    EGYPT Aswan

    1st cataract

    Abu Simbel

    2nd cataract NUBIAN(cid:13)



    Southern Boundary(cid:13)

    of the Middle Kingdom


    3rd cataract


    0 150 Miles (KUSH)(cid:13) 4th cataract

    0 150 Kilometers (cid:13) BAYUDA(cid:13) 5th cataract

    Nile DESERT

    Important historic site(cid:13) R.

    Southern Boundary(cid:13)

    Oasis of the Old Kingdom Encyclopedia of

    ancient egypt

    revised edition

    Margaret R. Bunson Dedicated to the memory of

    Dr. Rafael Zamora of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico

    Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Revised Edition

    Copyright © 2002, 1991 Margaret R. Bunson

    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in

    any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy-

    ing, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without

    permission in writing from the publisher.

    For information contact:

    Facts On File, Inc.

    132 West 31st Street

    New York NY 10001

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Bunson, Margaret R.

    Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt / Margaret R. Bunson.—Rev. ed.

    p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 0-8160-4563-1 (hardcover)

    1. Egypt—Civilization—To 332 B.C.—Dictionaries.

    2. Egypt—Antiquities—Dictionaries. I. Title.

    DT58 .B96 2002

    932' .003—dc21 2002003550

    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk

    quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions.

    Please call our Special Sales Department in New York

    at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.

    You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at


    Text design by Joan Toro

    Cover design by Cathy Rincon

    Maps and genealogies by Dale Williams, Sholto Ainslie,

    and Patricia Meschino

    Printed in the United States of America

    VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    This book is printed on acid-free paper. C


    List of Illustrations and Maps






    How to Use This Book


    Chronology of Major Events


    Entries A to Z




    Suggested Readings



    449 L I




    Photographs and Illustrations

    The mortuarytemple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 5

    Reconstruction of the sun temple of Izi (Niuserré) at Abusir 6

    Temple remains from Seti I’s cenotaph at Abydos 7

    Atomb display of New Kingdom agriculture 11

    The ruins of Old Alexandria 22

    The warrior pharaoh Amenemhet III 26

    Amenhotep, Son of Hapu 32

    Astatue of the Old Kingdom pyramid builder Khafré 48

    The canon of the human figure 49

    Monumental figures at Abu Simbel 52

    The massive temple columns, supports used at a shrine of Horus 54

    Asilver denarius struck in honor of Octavian (Augustus) 60

    The bark of Amun, from a temple relief in Thebes 65

    An illustration of daily life from the Book of the Dead 72

    Byssus,the fine linen of Egypt 76

    Achariot design from a New Kingdom temple relief 82

    Arelief depicting Cleopatra VII 84

    The Colossi of Memnon 87

    The Great Pyramid stands at Giza 88

    The crowns of Egypt’skings 90

    Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri 96

    Adetail of Hatshepsut’smortuarytemple at Deir el-Bahri 96

    The ruins of Deir el-Medina, the Valley of the Kings 98

    The opening to the shrine of Hathor at Dendereh 99

    Wall painting using pigments derived from Egypt’snatural resources 128

    The deities of the Elephantine and the first cataract of the Nile 131

    Wall paintings of Egyptian religious festivals 137

    vi List of Illustrations and Maps vii

    Arelief of workers caging wild geese from the Nile marshes 140

    The watcher on the horizon, the Great Sphinx 147

    Renditions of the god Sobek and other deities 148

    Aprocession of divine beings at Abydos 149

    The opening to the temple of Isis at Philae 150

    Apantheon of divine beings in the White Chapel at Karnak 151

    The mythical creature saget,found on a tomb wall in Beni Hasan 152

    Columns honoring the goddess Hathor at Dendereh 159

    The Dendereh temple of the goddess Hathor 160

    Hatshepsut’s Karnak apartment 161

    Heh, the god of eternity 163

    Horus, the great deity of Egypt 172

    Hypostyle columns displayed in the temple of Luxor 176

    Columns leading to an interior chamber in the Isis Temple at Philae 184

    ASpirit Boat 188

    Anighttime image of the great temple complex at Karnak 193

    Asection of the great religious complex at Thebes 195

    The Great Pyramid at Giza—Khufu’s monument 203

    Hieroglyphs, the writing of ancient Egyptians 210

    The great temple pylon gates of Luxor 218

    Medinet Habu, the migdolcomplex of Ramesses III at Thebes 232

    Arelief depicting Ramesses II in battle array 245

    Tuthmosis III, one of the greatest warrior kings of Egypt 247

    Mummy wigs 254

    The golden mortuary mask of King Tut’ankhamun 256

    The monument honoring Queen Nefertari Merymut 269

    An obelisk of the New Kingdom 285

    Acenotaph temple honoring the deity Osiris and eternity 288

    An Osiride Pillar, a statue of Ramesses II 289

    The Persea Tree on a bas-relief from the Ramesseum 301

    Alimestone relief of Amenhotep III in his war chariot 305

    The temple of Isis at Philae 306

    An engraving of Ptolemy I 314

    Aportrait of Ptolemy II, called Philadelphus 315

    Apylon from the temple of Isis at Philae 319

    Passageway into the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza 320

    The burial complex of Khafré (Chephren) at Giza 322

    Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten 327

    Ramesses II depicted in a colossal statue in Luxor temple 335

    Ramesseum columns in the funerarymonument of Ramesses II 339

    The complex at Saqqara of the Step Pyramid of Djoser 353

    Rendering of a sarcophagus in a tomb at Thebes 354

    Acolumn from the White Chapel, built at Karnak by Senwosret I 363 viii List of Illustrations and Maps

    An oil portrait of Senwosret III 364

    The mummified head of Seti I 368

    The shabtisin the burial chamber of King Tut’ankhamun 369

    Arelief depicting life on the Nile in the Middle Kingdom 382

    Golden tableware from the Nineteenth Dynasty 383

    The Step Pyramid at Saqqara 389

    Atemple kiosk at Philae in the Ptolemaic Period 398

    Columned corridors dating to the New Kingdom 401

    Luxor temple at Thebes 403

    Tomb paintings depicting Ramesses II 409

    Afalse door in a tomb from the Old Kingdom 410

    Apapyrus tomb text from the Book of the Dead 410

    Tuthmosis III, the “Napoleon of Egypt” 417

    Khamerernebty, the consort of Menkauré of the Old Kingdom 433


    Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt ii

    Alexandria 23

    Plan of the fortress of Buhen 74

    Temple complex at Deir el-Bahri 97

    Geography of ancient Egypt 116

    Egyptian Asiatic Empire under Tuthmosis III, 1450 B.C.E. 124

    Natural resources of ancient Egypt 129

    Layout of the Giza Plateau 146

    Layout of the massive Karnak complex 194

    Temple of Sobek and Heroeris (Horus) at Kom Ombo 206

    Temple complex at Luxor 219

    Egypt under the Ptolemies, c. 250 B.C.E. 314

    Sacred sites in Egypt, c. 2600 B.C.E.–300 C.E. 400

    Valley of the Kings 423 A


    This revised edition of The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt was made possible

    and encouraged by Claudia Schaab of Facts On File. The work was greatly

    aided by Stephen M. Bunson, who is an inspiration. Thanks are also owed to

    several individuals for their generous assistance in the completion of this

    work. Among them are: Steve Beikirch; Thierry Ailleret; John Lavender of

    Historical Coins, Ltd.; and Rosa DiSalvo of Hulton/Getty.


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