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Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

481 Pages · 2008 · 4.77 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt


    Encyclopedia of


    ancient egypt


    REVISEDEDITION Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt


    Cyprus


    N


    O


    N


    A


    Mediterranean Sea B


    E


    L


    E


    N


    I


    T


    Mendes ES Dead(cid:13)


    AlexandriaSSeebbeannnnyyttooss AL Sea


    TTaanniiss P


    LIBYA SSaaiiss Tjel


    Naukratis Daphnae


    LLeeoottooppoolliiss PPiirraammeessssee


    LOWER(cid:13)


    BBuubbaassttiiss


    AAtthhrriibbiiss


    EGYPT HHeelliiooppoolliiss


    Suez


    The Pyramids Cairo SINAI


    Memphis


    Wadi(cid:13)


    SIWA(cid:13) Hierakleopolis Maghara


    OASIS BAHARIYA(cid:13) El-Hiba


    OASIS EASTERN(cid:13)


    DESERT


    Ashmunein Beni Hasan


    Akhetaten Tell el-Amarna


    FARAFRA(cid:13) Deir el-Gebrawi


    OASIS Assiut


    Athribis


    WESTERN DESERT Thinis NileR. Dendereh HamWmadaim(cid:13)at


    Abydos Koptos


    Naqada Red Sea


    Valley of the Kings Thebes (Luxor)


    Moalla


    Hierakonpolis El-Kab


    DAKHLA(cid:13) KHARGA(cid:13) Esna


    Edfu


    OASIS OASIS Kom Ombo


    Gebel Silsila


    UPPER(cid:13)


    Elephantine


    EGYPT Aswan


    1st cataract


    Abu Simbel


    2nd cataract NUBIAN(cid:13)


    SALIMA(cid:13)


    OASIS DESERT


    Southern Boundary(cid:13)


    of the Middle Kingdom


    N


    3rd cataract


    NUBIA(cid:13)


    0 150 Miles (KUSH)(cid:13) 4th cataract


    0 150 Kilometers (cid:13) BAYUDA(cid:13) 5th cataract


    Nile DESERT


    Important historic site(cid:13) R.


    Southern Boundary(cid:13)


    Oasis of the Old Kingdom Encyclopedia of


    ancient egypt


    revised edition


    Margaret R. Bunson Dedicated to the memory of


    Dr. Rafael Zamora of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico


    Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Revised Edition


    Copyright © 2002, 1991 Margaret R. Bunson


    All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in


    any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy-


    ing, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without


    permission in writing from the publisher.


    For information contact:


    Facts On File, Inc.


    132 West 31st Street


    New York NY 10001


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Bunson, Margaret R.


    Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt / Margaret R. Bunson.—Rev. ed.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 0-8160-4563-1 (hardcover)


    1. Egypt—Civilization—To 332 B.C.—Dictionaries.


    2. Egypt—Antiquities—Dictionaries. I. Title.


    DT58 .B96 2002


    932' .003—dc21 2002003550


    Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk


    quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions.


    Please call our Special Sales Department in New York


    at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755.


    You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at


    http://www.factsonfile.com


    Text design by Joan Toro


    Cover design by Cathy Rincon


    Maps and genealogies by Dale Williams, Sholto Ainslie,


    and Patricia Meschino


    Printed in the United States of America


    VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    This book is printed on acid-free paper. C


    ONTENTS


    List of Illustrations and Maps


    vi


    Acknowledgments


    ix


    Introduction


    x


    How to Use This Book


    xi


    Chronology of Major Events


    xiii


    Entries A to Z


    1


    Glossary


    439


    Suggested Readings


    442


    Index


    449 L I


    IST OF LLUSTRATIONS


    M


    AND APS


    Photographs and Illustrations


    The mortuarytemple of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel 5


    Reconstruction of the sun temple of Izi (Niuserré) at Abusir 6


    Temple remains from Seti I’s cenotaph at Abydos 7


    Atomb display of New Kingdom agriculture 11


    The ruins of Old Alexandria 22


    The warrior pharaoh Amenemhet III 26


    Amenhotep, Son of Hapu 32


    Astatue of the Old Kingdom pyramid builder Khafré 48


    The canon of the human figure 49


    Monumental figures at Abu Simbel 52


    The massive temple columns, supports used at a shrine of Horus 54


    Asilver denarius struck in honor of Octavian (Augustus) 60


    The bark of Amun, from a temple relief in Thebes 65


    An illustration of daily life from the Book of the Dead 72


    Byssus,the fine linen of Egypt 76


    Achariot design from a New Kingdom temple relief 82


    Arelief depicting Cleopatra VII 84


    The Colossi of Memnon 87


    The Great Pyramid stands at Giza 88


    The crowns of Egypt’skings 90


    Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri 96


    Adetail of Hatshepsut’smortuarytemple at Deir el-Bahri 96


    The ruins of Deir el-Medina, the Valley of the Kings 98


    The opening to the shrine of Hathor at Dendereh 99


    Wall painting using pigments derived from Egypt’snatural resources 128


    The deities of the Elephantine and the first cataract of the Nile 131


    Wall paintings of Egyptian religious festivals 137


    vi List of Illustrations and Maps vii


    Arelief of workers caging wild geese from the Nile marshes 140


    The watcher on the horizon, the Great Sphinx 147


    Renditions of the god Sobek and other deities 148


    Aprocession of divine beings at Abydos 149


    The opening to the temple of Isis at Philae 150


    Apantheon of divine beings in the White Chapel at Karnak 151


    The mythical creature saget,found on a tomb wall in Beni Hasan 152


    Columns honoring the goddess Hathor at Dendereh 159


    The Dendereh temple of the goddess Hathor 160


    Hatshepsut’s Karnak apartment 161


    Heh, the god of eternity 163


    Horus, the great deity of Egypt 172


    Hypostyle columns displayed in the temple of Luxor 176


    Columns leading to an interior chamber in the Isis Temple at Philae 184


    ASpirit Boat 188


    Anighttime image of the great temple complex at Karnak 193


    Asection of the great religious complex at Thebes 195


    The Great Pyramid at Giza—Khufu’s monument 203


    Hieroglyphs, the writing of ancient Egyptians 210


    The great temple pylon gates of Luxor 218


    Medinet Habu, the migdolcomplex of Ramesses III at Thebes 232


    Arelief depicting Ramesses II in battle array 245


    Tuthmosis III, one of the greatest warrior kings of Egypt 247


    Mummy wigs 254


    The golden mortuary mask of King Tut’ankhamun 256


    The monument honoring Queen Nefertari Merymut 269


    An obelisk of the New Kingdom 285


    Acenotaph temple honoring the deity Osiris and eternity 288


    An Osiride Pillar, a statue of Ramesses II 289


    The Persea Tree on a bas-relief from the Ramesseum 301


    Alimestone relief of Amenhotep III in his war chariot 305


    The temple of Isis at Philae 306


    An engraving of Ptolemy I 314


    Aportrait of Ptolemy II, called Philadelphus 315


    Apylon from the temple of Isis at Philae 319


    Passageway into the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza 320


    The burial complex of Khafré (Chephren) at Giza 322


    Nefertiti, wife of Akhenaten 327


    Ramesses II depicted in a colossal statue in Luxor temple 335


    Ramesseum columns in the funerarymonument of Ramesses II 339


    The complex at Saqqara of the Step Pyramid of Djoser 353


    Rendering of a sarcophagus in a tomb at Thebes 354


    Acolumn from the White Chapel, built at Karnak by Senwosret I 363 viii List of Illustrations and Maps


    An oil portrait of Senwosret III 364


    The mummified head of Seti I 368


    The shabtisin the burial chamber of King Tut’ankhamun 369


    Arelief depicting life on the Nile in the Middle Kingdom 382


    Golden tableware from the Nineteenth Dynasty 383


    The Step Pyramid at Saqqara 389


    Atemple kiosk at Philae in the Ptolemaic Period 398


    Columned corridors dating to the New Kingdom 401


    Luxor temple at Thebes 403


    Tomb paintings depicting Ramesses II 409


    Afalse door in a tomb from the Old Kingdom 410


    Apapyrus tomb text from the Book of the Dead 410


    Tuthmosis III, the “Napoleon of Egypt” 417


    Khamerernebty, the consort of Menkauré of the Old Kingdom 433


    Maps


    Land of the Nile: Ancient Egypt ii


    Alexandria 23


    Plan of the fortress of Buhen 74


    Temple complex at Deir el-Bahri 97


    Geography of ancient Egypt 116


    Egyptian Asiatic Empire under Tuthmosis III, 1450 B.C.E. 124


    Natural resources of ancient Egypt 129


    Layout of the Giza Plateau 146


    Layout of the massive Karnak complex 194


    Temple of Sobek and Heroeris (Horus) at Kom Ombo 206


    Temple complex at Luxor 219


    Egypt under the Ptolemies, c. 250 B.C.E. 314


    Sacred sites in Egypt, c. 2600 B.C.E.–300 C.E. 400


    Valley of the Kings 423 A


    CKNOWLEDGMENTS


    This revised edition of The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt was made possible


    and encouraged by Claudia Schaab of Facts On File. The work was greatly


    aided by Stephen M. Bunson, who is an inspiration. Thanks are also owed to


    several individuals for their generous assistance in the completion of this


    work. Among them are: Steve Beikirch; Thierry Ailleret; John Lavender of


    Historical Coins, Ltd.; and Rosa DiSalvo of Hulton/Getty.


    ix


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