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Encyclopedia of African Religion

897 Pages · 2009 · 14.6 MB · English

  • Encyclopedia of African Religion

    Editorial Board


    Editors


    Molefi Kete Asante Ama Mazama


    Temple University Temple University


    Editorial Board


    Chinua Achebe Marta Moreno Vega


    Bard College Caribbean Cultural Center


    Kwame Gyekye Isidore Okpewho


    University of Ghana Binghamton University,


    State University of New York


    Maulana Karenga


    California State University, Kofi Asare Opoku


    Long Beach Lafayette College AFRICAN


    ENCYCLOPEDIA OF


    RELIGION


    EDITORS


    MOLEFI KETE ASANTE


    TEMPLE UNIVERSITY


    AMA MAZAMA


    TEMPLE UNIVERSITY Copyright©2009bySAGEPublications,Inc.


    Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,


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    EncyclopediaofAfricanreligion/editors,MolefiKeteAsante,AmaMazama.


    p.cm.


    “ASAGEreferencepublication.”


    Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


    ISBN978-1-4129-3636-1(cloth:alk.paper)


    1. Africa—Religion—Encyclopedias. I.Asante,MolefiK.,1942-II.Mazama,Ama,1961-


    BL2400.E532009


    299.603—dc22 2008027578


    Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper.


    08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    Publisher/AcquisitionsEditor: RolfA.Janke


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    MarketingManager: AmberlynErzinger Contents


    List of Entries vii


    Reader’s Guide xi


    About the Editors xv


    Contributors xvii


    Introduction xxi


    Entries


    A 1 N 439


    B 85 O 469


    C 149 P 517


    D 191 Q 555


    E 229 R 557


    F 257 S 583


    G 279 T 645


    H 303 U 679


    I 325 V 685


    J 353 W 703


    K 359 X 729


    L 375 Y 731


    M 397 Z 741


    Appendix: African Names of God 747


    Bibliography: African Religious Sources 751


    Index 797 List of Entries


    Abaluyia Anukis Bata Drums


    Abasi Apep Batonga


    Abela Apis Bats


    Abosom Apuleius Batwa


    Abuk Asamando Bawon Samdi


    Adae Asante Baya


    Adinkra Symbols Asantehene Beads


    Adu Ogyinae Asase Yaa Beja


    Africism Ashe Bemba


    Afterlife Aten Bes


    Age Groups Atum Bete


    Agricultural Rites Ausar Birds


    Agwe Auset Birth


    Aida Wedo Ax Blessing


    Air Azaka, the Loa Blood


    Aiwel Azande Boats


    Akamba Bobo


    Akan Ba Bois Caiman


    Akhenaten Babalawo Bokonon


    Akhetaten Baga Bondo Society


    Alafin of Oyo Baganda Bondye


    Altars Bakongo Book of the Coming Forth by


    Amen Bakota Day(TheBookoftheDead)


    Amenhotep Balanta Boukman


    Amma Balengue Bubembe


    Amokye Bali Bubi


    Amulet Baluba Bulls


    Ananse Bamana Bulu


    Ancestors Bamileke Bumuntu


    Ancestors and Harmonious Bamun Burial of the Dead


    Life Bantu Philosophy


    Animal Images Banyankore Calamities


    Animals Banyarwanda Candomblé


    Animatism Bariba Caves


    Animism Barotse Ceremonies


    Ankh Bassa Chagga


    Anubis Basuto Chaminuka


    vii viii ListofEntries


    Chewa Elders Haya


    Chi Eleda Healing


    Children Eniyan Health


    Chiwara Ennead Heka


    Chokwe Epa Society Heru, Horus


    Circumcision Epistemology Hoodoo


    Clay Esu, Elegba Hotep


    Clitorectomy Eternal Life Houngan


    Color Symbolism Evil Hounsi


    Congo Jack Ewe Hunting


    Conjurers Eye of Horus Husia


    Convince Ezili Dantò Hutu


    Cosmology Ezili Freda


    Cowrie Shells Ibibio


    Creation Fa Ibis, Symbol of Tehuti


    Crossroads Family Idoma


    Cultural Relocation Family Rites Ifa


    Curse Fang Igbo


    Faro Ikin


    Dagu Fatiman, Cécile Ilé-Ifè


    Danbala Wedo Fertility Imhotep


    Dance and Song Fetish Incarnation


    Dausi Fire Incense


    Death Flag and Flag Planting Infertility


    Desounen Fon Initiation


    Destiny Food Intermediaries


    Diaspora Fula (Fulbe) Invocations


    Dinka Funeral Iwa


    Diola Iwa Pele


    Dioula Ga Iyalorisha


    Disease Gamo Religion


    Divination Systems Gèlèdè Jok (Acholi)


    Divinities Ginen Jola


    Dogon God Juju


    Dogon Religion and Science Goddesses Justice


    Dreams Gola


    Drum, The Govi Ka


    Duala Groves, Sacred Kabre of Togo


    Dwat Gulu Kalûnga


    Dyow Initiations Guro Khnum


    Gurunsi Khonsu


    Earth Gwobonanj Kimbundu


    Efik Kings


    Egungun Hapi Kintu Myth Cycle


    Ekoi Harvest Kirdi


    Ekpo Secret Society Hathor Kisalian Graves ListofEntries ix


    Kumina Ngai Palo


    Kurumba Nganga Pedi


    Kwa Ba Ngewo Personhood


    Nkisi Petwo


    Lakes Nkulunkulu Peul


    Laveau, Marie Nkwa Phoenix


    Lele Nommo Placenta


    Lightning North America, African Plants


    Lobi Religion in Pocomania


    Lomwe Nuer Poro Society


    Lovedu Number Potomitan


    Symbolism


    Lugbara Predestination


    Nyame


    Luo Pregnancy


    Nzambi


    Lwa Priests


    Procreation


    Oaths


    Maasai Proverbs and Teaching


    Obatala


    Maat Ptah


    Obeah


    Magic Puberty


    Ocean


    Makandal Punishment


    Oduduwa


    Mambo Purification


    Odu Ifa


    Mami Wata Pyramids


    Offering


    Maroon Communities Pythons


    Ogboni Society


    Marriage


    Ogdoad


    Mawu-Lisa Queens


    Ogun


    Medicine


    Ohum Festival


    Medicine Men and Women Ra


    Okande


    Mediums Rada


    Okomfo Anokye


    Mende Rain


    Olodumare


    Min Rain Dance


    Olokun


    Montu Rain Queen


    Olorun


    Moon Red


    Ontology


    Mossi Reincarnation


    Opening of the Mouth


    Mountains and Hills Resistance to Enslavement


    Ceremony


    Mount Cameroon Rites of Passage


    Oracles


    Mount Kenya Rites of Reclamation


    Oral Text


    Mummification Rituals


    Oral Tradition


    Muntu. See Bumuntu Rivers and Streams


    Ori


    Music Origin of Religion River Tano. See Tano River


    Mutwa, Credo Vusamazulu Orisha Rocks and Stones


    Orisha Nla Ruhanga


    Naming Orunmila


    Nana Buluku Oshun Sacrifice


    Nanny Oumfò Sangoma


    N’domo Ovaherero Sankofa, Concept


    Neb Ankh Ovambo Sankofa, Film


    Nehanda Oya Santeria


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