Encyclopedia of African Religion

Encyclopedia of African Religion

Encyclopedia of African Religion

897 Pages ·2009·14.6 MB ·English

Encyclopedia of African Religion

Editorial Board


Editors


Molefi Kete Asante Ama Mazama


Temple University Temple University


Editorial Board


Chinua Achebe Marta Moreno Vega


Bard College Caribbean Cultural Center


Kwame Gyekye Isidore Okpewho


University of Ghana Binghamton University,


State University of New York


Maulana Karenga


California State University, Kofi Asare Opoku


Long Beach Lafayette College AFRICAN


ENCYCLOPEDIA OF


RELIGION


EDITORS


MOLEFI KETE ASANTE


TEMPLE UNIVERSITY


AMA MAZAMA


TEMPLE UNIVERSITY Copyright©2009bySAGEPublications,Inc.


Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,


includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthe


publisher.


Forinformation:


SAGEPublications,Inc.


2455TellerRoad


ThousandOaks,California91320


E-mail:order@sagepub.com


SAGEPublicationsLtd.


1Oliver’sYard


55CityRoad


LondonEC1Y1SP


UnitedKingdom


SAGEPublicationsIndiaPvt.Ltd.


B1/I1MohanCooperativeIndustrialArea


MathuraRoad,NewDelhi110044


India


SAGEPublicationsAsia-PacificPte.Ltd.


33PekinStreet#02-01


FarEastSquare


Singapore048763


PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.


LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


EncyclopediaofAfricanreligion/editors,MolefiKeteAsante,AmaMazama.


p.cm.


“ASAGEreferencepublication.”


Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


ISBN978-1-4129-3636-1(cloth:alk.paper)


1. Africa—Religion—Encyclopedias. I.Asante,MolefiK.,1942-II.Mazama,Ama,1961-


BL2400.E532009


299.603—dc22 2008027578


Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper.


08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Publisher/AcquisitionsEditor: RolfA.Janke


AssistanttothePublisher: MicheleThompson


DevelopmentalEditors: YvettePollastrini,JacquelineA.Tasch


ReferenceSystemsManager: LeticiaGutierrez


ProductionEditor: TracyBuyan


CopyEditor: HeatherJefferson


Typesetter: C&MDigitals(P)Ltd.


Proofreaders: TheresaKay,ScottOney


Indexer: JulieShermanGrayson


CoverDesigner: JanetFoulger


CoverPhotography: JanayE.Garrick


MarketingManager: AmberlynErzinger Contents


List of Entries vii


Reader’s Guide xi


About the Editors xv


Contributors xvii


Introduction xxi


Entries


A 1 N 439


B 85 O 469


C 149 P 517


D 191 Q 555


E 229 R 557


F 257 S 583


G 279 T 645


H 303 U 679


I 325 V 685


J 353 W 703


K 359 X 729


L 375 Y 731


M 397 Z 741


Appendix: African Names of God 747


Bibliography: African Religious Sources 751


Index 797 List of Entries


Abaluyia Anukis Bata Drums


Abasi Apep Batonga


Abela Apis Bats


Abosom Apuleius Batwa


Abuk Asamando Bawon Samdi


Adae Asante Baya


Adinkra Symbols Asantehene Beads


Adu Ogyinae Asase Yaa Beja


Africism Ashe Bemba


Afterlife Aten Bes


Age Groups Atum Bete


Agricultural Rites Ausar Birds


Agwe Auset Birth


Aida Wedo Ax Blessing


Air Azaka, the Loa Blood


Aiwel Azande Boats


Akamba Bobo


Akan Ba Bois Caiman


Akhenaten Babalawo Bokonon


Akhetaten Baga Bondo Society


Alafin of Oyo Baganda Bondye


Altars Bakongo Book of the Coming Forth by


Amen Bakota Day(TheBookoftheDead)


Amenhotep Balanta Boukman


Amma Balengue Bubembe


Amokye Bali Bubi


Amulet Baluba Bulls


Ananse Bamana Bulu


Ancestors Bamileke Bumuntu


Ancestors and Harmonious Bamun Burial of the Dead


Life Bantu Philosophy


Animal Images Banyankore Calamities


Animals Banyarwanda Candomblé


Animatism Bariba Caves


Animism Barotse Ceremonies


Ankh Bassa Chagga


Anubis Basuto Chaminuka


vii viii ListofEntries


Chewa Elders Haya


Chi Eleda Healing


Children Eniyan Health


Chiwara Ennead Heka


Chokwe Epa Society Heru, Horus


Circumcision Epistemology Hoodoo


Clay Esu, Elegba Hotep


Clitorectomy Eternal Life Houngan


Color Symbolism Evil Hounsi


Congo Jack Ewe Hunting


Conjurers Eye of Horus Husia


Convince Ezili Dantò Hutu


Cosmology Ezili Freda


Cowrie Shells Ibibio


Creation Fa Ibis, Symbol of Tehuti


Crossroads Family Idoma


Cultural Relocation Family Rites Ifa


Curse Fang Igbo


Faro Ikin


Dagu Fatiman, Cécile Ilé-Ifè


Danbala Wedo Fertility Imhotep


Dance and Song Fetish Incarnation


Dausi Fire Incense


Death Flag and Flag Planting Infertility


Desounen Fon Initiation


Destiny Food Intermediaries


Diaspora Fula (Fulbe) Invocations


Dinka Funeral Iwa


Diola Iwa Pele


Dioula Ga Iyalorisha


Disease Gamo Religion


Divination Systems Gèlèdè Jok (Acholi)


Divinities Ginen Jola


Dogon God Juju


Dogon Religion and Science Goddesses Justice


Dreams Gola


Drum, The Govi Ka


Duala Groves, Sacred Kabre of Togo


Dwat Gulu Kalûnga


Dyow Initiations Guro Khnum


Gurunsi Khonsu


Earth Gwobonanj Kimbundu


Efik Kings


Egungun Hapi Kintu Myth Cycle


Ekoi Harvest Kirdi


Ekpo Secret Society Hathor Kisalian Graves ListofEntries ix


Kumina Ngai Palo


Kurumba Nganga Pedi


Kwa Ba Ngewo Personhood


Nkisi Petwo


Lakes Nkulunkulu Peul


Laveau, Marie Nkwa Phoenix


Lele Nommo Placenta


Lightning North America, African Plants


Lobi Religion in Pocomania


Lomwe Nuer Poro Society


Lovedu Number Potomitan


Symbolism


Lugbara Predestination


Nyame


Luo Pregnancy


Nzambi


Lwa Priests


Procreation


Oaths


Maasai Proverbs and Teaching


Obatala


Maat Ptah


Obeah


Magic Puberty


Ocean


Makandal Punishment


Oduduwa


Mambo Purification


Odu Ifa


Mami Wata Pyramids


Offering


Maroon Communities Pythons


Ogboni Society


Marriage


Ogdoad


Mawu-Lisa Queens


Ogun


Medicine


Ohum Festival


Medicine Men and Women Ra


Okande


Mediums Rada


Okomfo Anokye


Mende Rain


Olodumare


Min Rain Dance


Olokun


Montu Rain Queen


Olorun


Moon Red


Ontology


Mossi Reincarnation


Opening of the Mouth


Mountains and Hills Resistance to Enslavement


Ceremony


Mount Cameroon Rites of Passage


Oracles


Mount Kenya Rites of Reclamation


Oral Text


Mummification Rituals


Oral Tradition


Muntu. See Bumuntu Rivers and Streams


Ori


Music Origin of Religion River Tano. See Tano River


Mutwa, Credo Vusamazulu Orisha Rocks and Stones


Orisha Nla Ruhanga


Naming Orunmila


Nana Buluku Oshun Sacrifice


Nanny Oumfò Sangoma


N’domo Ovaherero Sankofa, Concept


Neb Ankh Ovambo Sankofa, Film


Nehanda Oya Santeria


Editorial Board


Editors


Molefi Kete Asante Ama Mazama


Temple University Temple University


Editorial Board


Chinua Achebe Marta Moreno Vega


Bard College Caribbean Cultural Center


Kwame Gyekye Isidore Okpewho


University of Ghana Binghamton University,


State University of New York


Maulana Karenga


California State University, Kofi Asare Opoku


Long Beach Lafayette College AFRICAN


ENCYCLOPEDIA OF


RELIGION


EDITORS


MOLEFI KETE ASANTE


TEMPLE UNIVERSITY


AMA MAZAMA


TEMPLE UNIVERSITY Copyright©2009bySAGEPublications,Inc.


Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,


includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthe


publisher.


Forinformation:


SAGEPublications,Inc.


2455TellerRoad


ThousandOaks,California91320


E-mail:order@sagepub.com


SAGEPublicationsLtd.


1Oliver’sYard


55CityRoad


LondonEC1Y1SP


UnitedKingdom


SAGEPublicationsIndiaPvt.Ltd.


B1/I1MohanCooperativeIndustrialArea


MathuraRoad,NewDelhi110044


India


SAGEPublicationsAsia-PacificPte.Ltd.


33PekinStreet#02-01


FarEastSquare


Singapore048763


PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.


LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


EncyclopediaofAfricanreligion/editors,MolefiKeteAsante,AmaMazama.


p.cm.


“ASAGEreferencepublication.”


Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


ISBN978-1-4129-3636-1(cloth:alk.paper)


1. Africa—Religion—Encyclopedias. I.Asante,MolefiK.,1942-II.Mazama,Ama,1961-


BL2400.E532009


299.603—dc22 2008027578


Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper.


08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


Publisher/AcquisitionsEditor: RolfA.Janke


AssistanttothePublisher: MicheleThompson


DevelopmentalEditors: YvettePollastrini,JacquelineA.Tasch


ReferenceSystemsManager: LeticiaGutierrez


ProductionEditor: TracyBuyan


CopyEditor: HeatherJefferson


Typesetter: C&MDigitals(P)Ltd.


Proofreaders: TheresaKay,ScottOney


Indexer: JulieShermanGrayson


CoverDesigner: JanetFoulger


CoverPhotography: JanayE.Garrick


MarketingManager: AmberlynErzinger Contents


List of Entries vii


Reader’s Guide xi


About the Editors xv


Contributors xvii


Introduction xxi


Entries


A 1 N 439


B 85 O 469


C 149 P 517


D 191 Q 555


E 229 R 557


F 257 S 583


G 279 T 645


H 303 U 679


I 325 V 685


J 353 W 703


K 359 X 729


L 375 Y 731


M 397 Z 741


Appendix: African Names of God 747


Bibliography: African Religious Sources 751


Index 797 List of Entries


Abaluyia Anukis Bata Drums


Abasi Apep Batonga


Abela Apis Bats


Abosom Apuleius Batwa


Abuk Asamando Bawon Samdi


Adae Asante Baya


Adinkra Symbols Asantehene Beads


Adu Ogyinae Asase Yaa Beja


Africism Ashe Bemba


Afterlife Aten Bes


Age Groups Atum Bete


Agricultural Rites Ausar Birds


Agwe Auset Birth


Aida Wedo Ax Blessing


Air Azaka, the Loa Blood


Aiwel Azande Boats


Akamba Bobo


Akan Ba Bois Caiman


Akhenaten Babalawo Bokonon


Akhetaten Baga Bondo Society


Alafin of Oyo Baganda Bondye


Altars Bakongo Book of the Coming Forth by


Amen Bakota Day(TheBookoftheDead)


Amenhotep Balanta Boukman


Amma Balengue Bubembe


Amokye Bali Bubi


Amulet Baluba Bulls


Ananse Bamana Bulu


Ancestors Bamileke Bumuntu


Ancestors and Harmonious Bamun Burial of the Dead


Life Bantu Philosophy


Animal Images Banyankore Calamities


Animals Banyarwanda Candomblé


Animatism Bariba Caves


Animism Barotse Ceremonies


Ankh Bassa Chagga


Anubis Basuto Chaminuka


vii viii ListofEntries


Chewa Elders Haya


Chi Eleda Healing


Children Eniyan Health


Chiwara Ennead Heka


Chokwe Epa Society Heru, Horus


Circumcision Epistemology Hoodoo


Clay Esu, Elegba Hotep


Clitorectomy Eternal Life Houngan


Color Symbolism Evil Hounsi


Congo Jack Ewe Hunting


Conjurers Eye of Horus Husia


Convince Ezili Dantò Hutu


Cosmology Ezili Freda


Cowrie Shells Ibibio


Creation Fa Ibis, Symbol of Tehuti


Crossroads Family Idoma


Cultural Relocation Family Rites Ifa


Curse Fang Igbo


Faro Ikin


Dagu Fatiman, Cécile Ilé-Ifè


Danbala Wedo Fertility Imhotep


Dance and Song Fetish Incarnation


Dausi Fire Incense


Death Flag and Flag Planting Infertility


Desounen Fon Initiation


Destiny Food Intermediaries


Diaspora Fula (Fulbe) Invocations


Dinka Funeral Iwa


Diola Iwa Pele


Dioula Ga Iyalorisha


Disease Gamo Religion


Divination Systems Gèlèdè Jok (Acholi)


Divinities Ginen Jola


Dogon God Juju


Dogon Religion and Science Goddesses Justice


Dreams Gola


Drum, The Govi Ka


Duala Groves, Sacred Kabre of Togo


Dwat Gulu Kalûnga


Dyow Initiations Guro Khnum


Gurunsi Khonsu


Earth Gwobonanj Kimbundu


Efik Kings


Egungun Hapi Kintu Myth Cycle


Ekoi Harvest Kirdi


Ekpo Secret Society Hathor Kisalian Graves ListofEntries ix


Kumina Ngai Palo


Kurumba Nganga Pedi


Kwa Ba Ngewo Personhood


Nkisi Petwo


Lakes Nkulunkulu Peul


Laveau, Marie Nkwa Phoenix


Lele Nommo Placenta


Lightning North America, African Plants


Lobi Religion in Pocomania


Lomwe Nuer Poro Society


Lovedu Number Potomitan


Symbolism


Lugbara Predestination


Nyame


Luo Pregnancy


Nzambi


Lwa Priests


Procreation


Oaths


Maasai Proverbs and Teaching


Obatala


Maat Ptah


Obeah


Magic Puberty


Ocean


Makandal Punishment


Oduduwa


Mambo Purification


Odu Ifa


Mami Wata Pyramids


Offering


Maroon Communities Pythons


Ogboni Society


Marriage


Ogdoad


Mawu-Lisa Queens


Ogun


Medicine


Ohum Festival


Medicine Men and Women Ra


Okande


Mediums Rada


Okomfo Anokye


Mende Rain


Olodumare


Min Rain Dance


Olokun


Montu Rain Queen


Olorun


Moon Red


Ontology


Mossi Reincarnation


Opening of the Mouth


Mountains and Hills Resistance to Enslavement


Ceremony


Mount Cameroon Rites of Passage


Oracles


Mount Kenya Rites of Reclamation


Oral Text


Mummification Rituals


Oral Tradition


Muntu. See Bumuntu Rivers and Streams


Ori


Music Origin of Religion River Tano. See Tano River


Mutwa, Credo Vusamazulu Orisha Rocks and Stones


Orisha Nla Ruhanga


Naming Orunmila


Nana Buluku Oshun Sacrifice


Nanny Oumfò Sangoma


N’domo Ovaherero Sankofa, Concept


Neb Ankh Ovambo Sankofa, Film


Nehanda Oya Santeria


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