Earth Science

Earth Science

Earth Science

352 Pages ·2015·9.06 MB ·English

Earth Science





Credits



1.1 Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2013.



Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this book are licensed under


the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike license.


Detailed information about the license is available online at


http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode



Prior to making this book publicly available, we have reviewed its


contents extensively to determine the correct ownership of the material


and obtain the appropriate licenses to make the material available. We


will promptly remove any material that is determined to be infringing on


the rights of others. If you believe that a portion of this book infringes


another's copyright, contact Ricky Scott at the Utah State Office of


Education: richard.scott@schools.utah.gov.



If you do not include an electronic signature with your claim, you may


be asked to send or fax a follow-up copy with a signature. To file the


notification, you must be either the copyright owner of the work or an


individual authorized to act on behalf of the copyright owner. Your


notification must include:



1. Identification of the copyrighted work, or, in the case of multiple



works at the same location, a representative list of such works


at that site.


2. Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to



be the subject of infringing activity. You must include sufficient


information, such as a specific page number or other specific


identification, for us to locate the material.


3. Information for us to be able to contact the claimant (e.g., email



address, phone number).


4. A statement that the claimant believes that the use of the



material has not been authorized by the copyright owner or an


authorized agent.


5. A statement that the information in the notification is accurate



and that the claimant is, or is authorized to act on behalf of, the


copyright owner.






This book is adapted primarily from the excellent materials created by


the CK-12 Foundation – http://ck12.org/ – which are licensed under the


Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike license. We


express our gratitude to the CK-12 Foundation for their pioneering work


on secondary science textbooks ,without which the current book would


not be possible.



We also thank the amazing Utah science teachers whose collaborative


efforts made the book possible. Thank you for your commitment to


science education and Utah students!



Cover and textbook design by Corrine Beaumont, PhD. Photo issued under a


Creative Commons attribution license, Corrine Beaumont.




Cover adapted from “Grand Canyon National Park: View from Yaki


Point, Christmas Day 2014” by Grand Canyon National Park


https://www.flickr.com/photos/grand_canyon_nps/16086864956/










This book is yours to keep, so write on all the


pages you like. There’s even space on the back



cover for your name.







It’s your learning,


It’s your book.


Enjoy!








WHY science?



Many students equate science to learning vocabulary terms, labeling


pictures, and memorizing facts. Science by nature is much more


inclusive and loosely defined. Have you ever asked yourself questions


about your surroundings and wondered how or why they are


happening? This is science. Science works best when driven by


curiosity and innovation. In order for you to experience science in its


fullest sense you must take it beyond the textbook and into your


everyday experience, but in order to be meaningful there are certain


guidelines that can help us. Science is not constrained to Earth


Science, but there are cross-cutting concepts threaded throughout all


scientific disciplines. These include:



uf0b7 Patterns


Example found in Earth Science:


We observe specific patterns in weather over time, which helps us define


regional climates.



uf0b7 Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation;


Example found in Earth Science:


If sections of the Earth’s crust moves, then earth quakes occur, mountains


form, and volcano erupt.



uf0b7 Scale, proportion, and quantity;


Example found in Earth Science:


The size and distance the solar system is massive, so we produce scale models.



uf0b7 Systems and system models;


Example found in Earth Science:


We create models of Earth’s mantle, to show how convection currents move


the magma, acting as a conveyer belt for the Earth’s crust. Understanding


this model can show how moving Earth’s crust creates many of the land


features we observe.



uf0b7 Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation;


Example found in Earth Science:


Light from the sun is absorbed by the surface of the Earth and converted to


heat. The heat energy is then cycled through the Earth’s atmosphere


powering the weather.




5















uf0b7 Structure and function;


Example found in Earth Science:


The structure of a water molecule creates unique characteristic. These


characteristics allow it to support life on Earth.



uf0b7 Stability and change;


Example found in Earth Science:


When we remove vegetation away a hillside to build a home, we affect the


stability of the ground which may cause a mud or land slide when it rains.


When studying any specific scientific discipline you should attempt to


keep these cross-cutting concepts in mind in order to gain a better


perspective of the world as whole and the nature of science. Included


in the concepts are the skills and practices that a scientist utilizes.


When asking questions about the natural world there are certain skills


and practices that can help you be generate better conclusions,


explanations and inferences. These practices include:



uf0b7 Asking questions and defining problems


uf0b7 Developing and using models


uf0b7 Planning and carrying out investigations


uf0b7 Analyzing and interpreting data


uf0b7 Using mathematics and computational thinking


uf0b7 Constructing explanations and designing solutions


uf0b7 Engaging in argument from evidence


uf0b7 Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information


While these practices and cross-cutting concepts are crucial to your


overall success in science, in order to be most meaningful they do


need some context. This is where the study of disciplinary core ideas


are most impactful. If you study (Earth Science) or any other scientific


discipline without the cross-cutting concepts and scientific practices then


you limit yourself to fact memorization and miss how these concepts


relate to our everyday life and our society as a whole. Studying


individual scientific disciplines are the vehicle for understanding cross-


cutting concepts and acquiring scientific skills. When individual


disciplines are studied within the context of practices and cross-cutting


concepts they become more meaningful and more impactful.



For example: When looking for solutions to atmospheric pollutions it


is not a problem to be solved by chemists or physicists or geologists


independently. It can only be solved when scientists come together


with an understanding of how their independent research relates to the



6















larger problem at hand. If we focus solely upon a few facts or cool


phenomenon we can overlook how the study of science can really


i mprove and impact our soci ety and personal experiences.



7










Table of Contents



Chapter 1: Universe



- How do we know what we know about the universe? (Pg 16)


- What fuels a star? (Pg 27)


- What is at the center of the universe? (Pg 37)


- What are conditions like on the inner planets? (Pg 47)


- What are condition like on the outer planets? (Pg 58)


- What other objects are in the solar system? (Pg 68)



Chapter 2: Inside Earth



- How does the internal structure of the Earth affect the temperature


of the Earth? (Pg 78)


- What causes earthquakes and volcanoes? (Pg 90)


- What discovery was made during World War II that revived the idea


of the continental drift hypothesis? (Pg 96)


- Does the movement of Earth’s plates affect all living things? (Pg 110)



Chapter 3: Atmosphere



- Is the Greenhouse Effect a good thing or a bad thing? (Pg 122)


- How does heat on Earth resemble a household budget? (Pg 128)


- Why is it winter in the Southern Hemisphere when it is summer in


the Northern Hemisphere? (Pg 132)


- What makes the wind blow? (Pg 135)


- Why were winds so important to the early explorers? (Pg 142)


- What is ozone and why are we concerned about a hole in the


ozone? (Pg 148)


- What causes the change in the weather? (Pg 155)


- How do they forecast the weather? (Pg 160)


- What causes severe weather? (Pg 164)


- What are short-term climate changes? (Pg 168)


- How has Earth’s climate changed? (Pg 171)


- What causes climate change? (Pg 174)








- How are fossil fuels formed? (Pg 180)


Chapter 4: Hydrosphere



- Why can’t we drink most of the water on Earth? (Pg 188)


- How do we use water? (Pg 196)


- How do humans and animals cause water pollution? (Pg 201)


- What makes H O unique? (Pg 207)


2


- What is a freshwater ecosystem? (Pg 212)


- Was there always water on Earth? (Pg 218)


- What causes water to move in the ocean? (Pg 224)



Chapter 5: People and Planet



- How do technological advances increase human knowledge? (Pg


234)


- How is a seismologist like a medical doctor? (Pg 238)


- Will water cause the next war? (Pg 239)


- Are soil and water renewable resources? (Pg 246)


- How will the removal of the Elwha Dam affect the freshwater


ecosystem upstream? (Pg 250)


- What data do scientists provide that informs the discussion of Earth


resource use? (Pg 255)


- Can we predict natural hazards? (Pg 260)


- What causes a heat wave? (Pg 272)


- What is a tsunami? (Pg 278)


- Which human activities contribute to the frequency and intensity of


natural hazards? (Pg 282)


- How do humans impact the carbon cycle? (Pg 289)


- How do scientists use technology to continually improve estimates


of when and where natural hazards occur? (Pg 293)


- What is one of the deadliest science jobs? (Pg 298)


- Does a picnic bring rain? (Pg 303)




9















Utah Science Core Curriculum Alignment


Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that


supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar


system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in


the solar system.



Objective 1: Describe both the big bang theory of universe formation


and the nebular theory of solar system formation and evidence


supporting them.



a) Identify the scientific evidence for the age of the solar system (4.6



billion years), including Earth (e.g., radioactive decay).


b) Describe the big bang theory and the evidence that supports this



theory (e.g., cosmic background radiation, abundance of elements,


distance/redshift relation for galaxies).


c) Describe the nebular theory of solar system formation and the



evidence supporting it (e.g., solar system structure due to gravity,


motion and temperature; composition and age of meteorites;


observations of newly forming stars).


d) Explain that heavy elements found on Earth are formed in stars.



e) Investigate and report how science has changed the accepted ideas



regarding the nature of the universe throughout history.


f) Provide an example of how technology has helped scientists



investigate the universe.


Objective 2: Analyze Earth as part of the solar system, which is part of


the Milky Way galaxy.



a) Relate the composition of objects in the solar system to their



distance from the Sun.


b) Compare the size of the solar system to the Milky Way galaxy.



c) Compare the size and scale of objects within the solar system.



d) Evaluate the conditions that currently support life on Earth



(biosphere) and compare them to the conditions that exist on other


planets and moons in the solar system (e.g., atmosphere,


hydrosphere, geosphere, amounts of incoming solar energy,


habitable zone).



10













Credits



1.1 Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2013.



Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this book are licensed under


the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike license.


Detailed information about the license is available online at


http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/legalcode



Prior to making this book publicly available, we have reviewed its


contents extensively to determine the correct ownership of the material


and obtain the appropriate licenses to make the material available. We


will promptly remove any material that is determined to be infringing on


the rights of others. If you believe that a portion of this book infringes


another's copyright, contact Ricky Scott at the Utah State Office of


Education: richard.scott@schools.utah.gov.



If you do not include an electronic signature with your claim, you may


be asked to send or fax a follow-up copy with a signature. To file the


notification, you must be either the copyright owner of the work or an


individual authorized to act on behalf of the copyright owner. Your


notification must include:



1. Identification of the copyrighted work, or, in the case of multiple



works at the same location, a representative list of such works


at that site.


2. Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to



be the subject of infringing activity. You must include sufficient


information, such as a specific page number or other specific


identification, for us to locate the material.


3. Information for us to be able to contact the claimant (e.g., email



address, phone number).


4. A statement that the claimant believes that the use of the



material has not been authorized by the copyright owner or an


authorized agent.


5. A statement that the information in the notification is accurate



and that the claimant is, or is authorized to act on behalf of, the


copyright owner.






This book is adapted primarily from the excellent materials created by


the CK-12 Foundation – http://ck12.org/ – which are licensed under the


Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike license. We


express our gratitude to the CK-12 Foundation for their pioneering work


on secondary science textbooks ,without which the current book would


not be possible.



We also thank the amazing Utah science teachers whose collaborative


efforts made the book possible. Thank you for your commitment to


science education and Utah students!



Cover and textbook design by Corrine Beaumont, PhD. Photo issued under a


Creative Commons attribution license, Corrine Beaumont.




Cover adapted from “Grand Canyon National Park: View from Yaki


Point, Christmas Day 2014” by Grand Canyon National Park


https://www.flickr.com/photos/grand_canyon_nps/16086864956/










This book is yours to keep, so write on all the


pages you like. There’s even space on the back



cover for your name.







It’s your learning,


It’s your book.


Enjoy!








WHY science?



Many students equate science to learning vocabulary terms, labeling


pictures, and memorizing facts. Science by nature is much more


inclusive and loosely defined. Have you ever asked yourself questions


about your surroundings and wondered how or why they are


happening? This is science. Science works best when driven by


curiosity and innovation. In order for you to experience science in its


fullest sense you must take it beyond the textbook and into your


everyday experience, but in order to be meaningful there are certain


guidelines that can help us. Science is not constrained to Earth


Science, but there are cross-cutting concepts threaded throughout all


scientific disciplines. These include:



uf0b7 Patterns


Example found in Earth Science:


We observe specific patterns in weather over time, which helps us define


regional climates.



uf0b7 Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation;


Example found in Earth Science:


If sections of the Earth’s crust moves, then earth quakes occur, mountains


form, and volcano erupt.



uf0b7 Scale, proportion, and quantity;


Example found in Earth Science:


The size and distance the solar system is massive, so we produce scale models.



uf0b7 Systems and system models;


Example found in Earth Science:


We create models of Earth’s mantle, to show how convection currents move


the magma, acting as a conveyer belt for the Earth’s crust. Understanding


this model can show how moving Earth’s crust creates many of the land


features we observe.



uf0b7 Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation;


Example found in Earth Science:


Light from the sun is absorbed by the surface of the Earth and converted to


heat. The heat energy is then cycled through the Earth’s atmosphere


powering the weather.




5















uf0b7 Structure and function;


Example found in Earth Science:


The structure of a water molecule creates unique characteristic. These


characteristics allow it to support life on Earth.



uf0b7 Stability and change;


Example found in Earth Science:


When we remove vegetation away a hillside to build a home, we affect the


stability of the ground which may cause a mud or land slide when it rains.


When studying any specific scientific discipline you should attempt to


keep these cross-cutting concepts in mind in order to gain a better


perspective of the world as whole and the nature of science. Included


in the concepts are the skills and practices that a scientist utilizes.


When asking questions about the natural world there are certain skills


and practices that can help you be generate better conclusions,


explanations and inferences. These practices include:



uf0b7 Asking questions and defining problems


uf0b7 Developing and using models


uf0b7 Planning and carrying out investigations


uf0b7 Analyzing and interpreting data


uf0b7 Using mathematics and computational thinking


uf0b7 Constructing explanations and designing solutions


uf0b7 Engaging in argument from evidence


uf0b7 Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information


While these practices and cross-cutting concepts are crucial to your


overall success in science, in order to be most meaningful they do


need some context. This is where the study of disciplinary core ideas


are most impactful. If you study (Earth Science) or any other scientific


discipline without the cross-cutting concepts and scientific practices then


you limit yourself to fact memorization and miss how these concepts


relate to our everyday life and our society as a whole. Studying


individual scientific disciplines are the vehicle for understanding cross-


cutting concepts and acquiring scientific skills. When individual


disciplines are studied within the context of practices and cross-cutting


concepts they become more meaningful and more impactful.



For example: When looking for solutions to atmospheric pollutions it


is not a problem to be solved by chemists or physicists or geologists


independently. It can only be solved when scientists come together


with an understanding of how their independent research relates to the



6















larger problem at hand. If we focus solely upon a few facts or cool


phenomenon we can overlook how the study of science can really


i mprove and impact our soci ety and personal experiences.



7










Table of Contents



Chapter 1: Universe



- How do we know what we know about the universe? (Pg 16)


- What fuels a star? (Pg 27)


- What is at the center of the universe? (Pg 37)


- What are conditions like on the inner planets? (Pg 47)


- What are condition like on the outer planets? (Pg 58)


- What other objects are in the solar system? (Pg 68)



Chapter 2: Inside Earth



- How does the internal structure of the Earth affect the temperature


of the Earth? (Pg 78)


- What causes earthquakes and volcanoes? (Pg 90)


- What discovery was made during World War II that revived the idea


of the continental drift hypothesis? (Pg 96)


- Does the movement of Earth’s plates affect all living things? (Pg 110)



Chapter 3: Atmosphere



- Is the Greenhouse Effect a good thing or a bad thing? (Pg 122)


- How does heat on Earth resemble a household budget? (Pg 128)


- Why is it winter in the Southern Hemisphere when it is summer in


the Northern Hemisphere? (Pg 132)


- What makes the wind blow? (Pg 135)


- Why were winds so important to the early explorers? (Pg 142)


- What is ozone and why are we concerned about a hole in the


ozone? (Pg 148)


- What causes the change in the weather? (Pg 155)


- How do they forecast the weather? (Pg 160)


- What causes severe weather? (Pg 164)


- What are short-term climate changes? (Pg 168)


- How has Earth’s climate changed? (Pg 171)


- What causes climate change? (Pg 174)








- How are fossil fuels formed? (Pg 180)


Chapter 4: Hydrosphere



- Why can’t we drink most of the water on Earth? (Pg 188)


- How do we use water? (Pg 196)


- How do humans and animals cause water pollution? (Pg 201)


- What makes H O unique? (Pg 207)


2


- What is a freshwater ecosystem? (Pg 212)


- Was there always water on Earth? (Pg 218)


- What causes water to move in the ocean? (Pg 224)



Chapter 5: People and Planet



- How do technological advances increase human knowledge? (Pg


234)


- How is a seismologist like a medical doctor? (Pg 238)


- Will water cause the next war? (Pg 239)


- Are soil and water renewable resources? (Pg 246)


- How will the removal of the Elwha Dam affect the freshwater


ecosystem upstream? (Pg 250)


- What data do scientists provide that informs the discussion of Earth


resource use? (Pg 255)


- Can we predict natural hazards? (Pg 260)


- What causes a heat wave? (Pg 272)


- What is a tsunami? (Pg 278)


- Which human activities contribute to the frequency and intensity of


natural hazards? (Pg 282)


- How do humans impact the carbon cycle? (Pg 289)


- How do scientists use technology to continually improve estimates


of when and where natural hazards occur? (Pg 293)


- What is one of the deadliest science jobs? (Pg 298)


- Does a picnic bring rain? (Pg 303)




9















Utah Science Core Curriculum Alignment


Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that


supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar


system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in


the solar system.



Objective 1: Describe both the big bang theory of universe formation


and the nebular theory of solar system formation and evidence


supporting them.



a) Identify the scientific evidence for the age of the solar system (4.6



billion years), including Earth (e.g., radioactive decay).


b) Describe the big bang theory and the evidence that supports this



theory (e.g., cosmic background radiation, abundance of elements,


distance/redshift relation for galaxies).


c) Describe the nebular theory of solar system formation and the



evidence supporting it (e.g., solar system structure due to gravity,


motion and temperature; composition and age of meteorites;


observations of newly forming stars).


d) Explain that heavy elements found on Earth are formed in stars.



e) Investigate and report how science has changed the accepted ideas



regarding the nature of the universe throughout history.


f) Provide an example of how technology has helped scientists



investigate the universe.


Objective 2: Analyze Earth as part of the solar system, which is part of


the Milky Way galaxy.



a) Relate the composition of objects in the solar system to their



distance from the Sun.


b) Compare the size of the solar system to the Milky Way galaxy.



c) Compare the size and scale of objects within the solar system.



d) Evaluate the conditions that currently support life on Earth



(biosphere) and compare them to the conditions that exist on other


planets and moons in the solar system (e.g., atmosphere,


hydrosphere, geosphere, amounts of incoming solar energy,


habitable zone).



10









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