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Documentary History of Communism in Russia

431 Pages · 2012 · 7.46 MB · English

  • Documentary History of Communism in Russia

    A Documentary


    History of


    Communism


    in Russia -


    From Lenin to Gorbachev


    Edited by \


    Robert V. Daniels A Documentary History of


    Communism in Russia A Documentary


    History of


    Communism


    in Russia


    From Lenin to Gorbachev


    Edited, with introduction, notes,


    and original translations by


    Robert V. Daniels


    University of Vermont Press


    Burlington, Vermont


    Published by University Press of New England


    Hanover and London UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT PRESS


    Published by University Press of New England,


    One Court Street, Lebanon, NH 03766


    www.upne.com


    © 1993 by the Trustees of the University of Vermont


    Printed in the United States of America


    10 9 8 7 6 5


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    ISBN-13: 987-0-87451-616-6


    ISBN-IO: 0-87451-616-1 Contents


    Preface (i960 Edition) xiii


    Preface (Revised Edition) xv


    Preface (1993 Edition) xvii


    Introduction: The Evolution of the Communist Mind


    —In Russia xix


    CHAPTER ONE: Leninism and the Bolshevik Party, to 1917 3


    Lenin as a Marxist: What the "Friends of the People" Are and How They Fight the


    Social-Democrats (1894) 3


    The Foundation of the Russian Marxist Party: Manifesto of the Russian Social-


    Democratic Workers' Party (1898) 4


    Lenin's Theory of the Party: What Is to Be Done? (1902) 6


    Lenin on the Party Split: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back (May, 1904) 11


    Marxist Reactions to Lenin—Rosa Luxemburg: Leninism or Marxism (1904) 14


    Marxist Reactions to Lenin—Leon Trotsky: Our Political Tasks (1904) 16


    Organization of the Bolshevik Faction: Resolution of the Twenty-Two (August,


    1904) 17


    Lenin on the Revolution of 1905: Two Tactics of Social-Democraq^ in the


    Democratic Revolution (July, 1905) 19


    Trotsky on "Permanent Revolution": Results and Prospects (1906) 23


    Lenin on Democratic Centralism: Freedom of Criticism and Unity of Action (June,


    1906) 25


    Bogdanov's Philosophical Revision of Marxism: Empiriomonism (1905-6) 26


    Lenin's Philosophical Orthodoxy: Materialism and Empiriocriticism (1908) ^°


    The Purge of the Bolshevik Left Wing (June, 1909) 32


    a) Communique on the Conference ^^


    b) Resolution on Otzovism and Ultimatism ^


    The Ultra-Left on Lenin's Compromises: Declarations of the "Forward" Group


    (i9IQ) 34


    a) Bogdanov, "Letter to All Comrades" 34


    b) "Letter to Our Bolshevik Comrades" 3 5


    Stalin on National Self-Determination: Marxism and the National Question (1913) 36


    Lenin on the Uneven Prospects of Revolution: The United States of Europe Slogan


    (August, 1915) 38


    Bukharin on the Imperialist State: On the Theory of the Imperialist State (1916) 38 vi Contents


    CHAPTER TWO: The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1921 42


    Lenin's Return to Russia: On the Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution


    (April 7 [20], 1917) 42


    Lenin on the Soviets: On the Dual Power (April 9 [22] 1917) 44


    Lenin's Vision of the Revolutionary State: The State and Revolution


    (August-September, 1917) 47


    Lenin's Call for an Uprising: Marxism and Insurrection (September 13-14


    [26-27], 1917) 52


    The Declaration of Revolutionary Intent—Trotsky: Declaration of the Bolshevik


    Fraction (October 7 [20], 1917) 54


    The Decision to Seize Power: Resolution of the Central Committee, On the Armed


    Uprising (October 10 [23], 1917) 55


    Bolshevik Opposition to the Insurrection: Statement by Zinoviev and Kamenev


    (October 11 [24], 1917) 56


    The Military-Revolutionary Committee 57


    Triggering the Uprising 59


    a) Circular of the Military-Revolutionary Committee (October 24 [November


    6], 1917) 59


    b) Minutes of the Bolshevik Central Committee (October 24 [November 6],


    1917) 60


    The October Revolution: Proclamation of the Military-Revolutionary Committee


    (October 25 [November 7], 1917) 62


    The Soviet Government: Decree on the Formation of a Workers' and Peasants'


    Government (October 26 [November 8], 1917) 62


    Bolshevik Revolutionary Legislation 63


    a) Decree on the Land (October 26 [November 8], 1917) 63


    b) Decree on Suppression of Hostile Newspapers (October 27 [November 9],


    1917) 65


    c) Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia (November 2 [15], 1917) 66


    Coalition or One-Party Government 67


    a) Resolution of the Central Committee on the Opposition (November 2 [15],


    1917) 67


    b) Bolshevik Statements of Resignation (November 4 [ 17], 1917) 68


    Industrial Democracy: Decree on Workers' Control (November 14 [27], 1917) 69


    The Secret Police: Decree on Establishment of the Extraordinary Commission to


    Fight Counter-Revolution (December 7 [20], 1917) 70


    The Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly: Lenin, Draft Decree on the


    Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly (January 6 [ 19], 1918) 71


    Trotsky on the Red Army: Labor, Discipline, Order (March 27, 1918) 72


    Lenin on Economic Expediency: The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government


    (April, 1918) 74


    The Left Communists on a Proletarian Economic Policy: Theses on the Present


    Moment (April, 1918) 77


    One-Party Dictatorship: Decree on the Expulsion of the Right Socialist Parties from


    the Soviets (June 14, 1918) 80 Contents vii


    Red Terror: Lenin on the Kulaks (August 11,1918) 81


    War Communism: Decree on Nationalization of Large-Scale Industry (June 28,


    1918) 81


    Western Radicals on the Communists: Rosa Luxemburg, The Russian Revolution


    (1918) 82


    The Party Program of 1919 85


    Centralization of the Communist Party: Resolution of the Eighth Party Congress,


    On the Organizational Question (March, 1919) 89


    The Civil War: Lenin, All Out for the Fight Against Denikin (July, 1919) 91


    Bukharin's Apology for War Communism: The Economics of the Transformation


    Period (1920) 92


    Trotsky on Terror and Militarization: Terrorism and Communism (1920) 95


    The "Democratic Centralists" in Opposition to Centralization: Osinsky, Minority


    Report on Building the Economy, Ninth Party Congress (March, 1920) 97


    Lenin on Revolutionary Purism: "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder


    (April, 1920) 99


    The Reaction against Bureaucracy: Resolution of the Ninth Party Conference, On


    the Coming Tasks of Building the Party (September, 1920) I o 1


    The Communist Ideal in Family Life: Alexandra Kollontai, Communism and the


    Family (1920) 102


    The Trade Union Controversy and the Workers' Opposition: Kollontai, The


    Workers' Opposition (1921) 104


    The Kronstadt Revolt: What We Are Fighting For (March 8, 1921) 107


    Institution of the Monolithic Party 109


    a) Resolution of the Tenth Party Congress, On Party Unity (March, 1921) 109


    b) Resolution of the Tenth Party Congress, On the Syndicalist and Anarchist


    Deviation in Our Party (March, 1921) 110


    The New Economic Policy: Lenin, The Tax in Kind (April, 1921) 112


    CHAPTER THREE: Soviet Communism: The Era of Controversy,


    1922-1929 114


    Protests against the New Economic Policy 114


    a) The Declaration of the Twenty-Two (February, 1922) 114


    b) Appeal of the "Workers' Truth" Group (1922) 115


    Lenin's "Testament": Continuation of Notes (December 24, 1922) 117


    Lenin on Nationality Policy: On the Question of the Nationalities or of


    "Autonomization" (December 30-31, 1922) 118


    Lenin on the Prerequisites for Socialism: Our Revolution (January, 1923) 120


    Lenin on Administrative Reform: Better Fewer, But Better (March, 1923) 121


    Trotsky on Industrialization: Theses on Industry (March, 1923) 124


    Formation of the Trotskyist Opposition 125


    a) Trotsky Protests Bureaucratization (October 8, 1923) 125


    b) Declaration of the Forty-Six (October 15, 1923) 127 viii Contents


    The "New Course" Controversy of December, 1923: Trotsky, The New Course


    (December 8, 1923) 129


    The Condemnation of the Trotskyist Opposition: Resolution of the Thirteenth Party


    Conference, On the Results of the Controversy and on the Petty-Bourgeois


    Deviation in the Party ( January, 1924) 130


    The Formation of the USSR Constitution of the USSR (January, 1924) 131


    Stalin on Leninism and the Party: The Foundations of Leninism (April, 1924) 133


    Stalin on Socialism in One Country: The October Revolution and the Tactics of the


    Russian Communists (December, 1924) 136


    Preobrazhensky on the Economics of Industrialization: The New Economy (1926) 139


    Soviet Cultural Policy—The Liberal Period: Resolution of the Central Committee,


    On the Policy of the Party in the Field of Literature (July 1,1925) 141


    Soviet Educational Policy—The Revolutionary Period: Pinkevich, Outlines of


    Pedagogy(1927) 142


    The Zinoviev-Kamenev Opposition 144


    a) Zinoviev on State Capitalism (December, 1925) 144


    b) Kamenev on Stalin (December, 1925) 145


    The United Opposition: Declaration of the Thirteen (July, 1926) 147


    Bukharin on the Opposition: The Party and the Opposition Bloc (July, 1926) 151


    The Theoretical Debate on Socialism in One Country 153


    a) Kamenev's Criticism of Stalin (November, 1926) 153


    b) Stalin's Reply to Kamenev (November, 1926) 156


    Stalin on the Expulsion of the Left Opposition: Report of the Central Committee to


    the Fifteenth Party Congress (December, 1927) 158


    Stalin on the Grain Crisis: On the Grain Front (May, 1928) 159


    The Right Opposition 162


    a) Bukharin on Peasant Policy ( July 10, 1928) 162


    b) Bukharin on the Menace of Stalin (July 11, 1928) 163


    Kuibyshev on Industrialization: The Economic Situation of the Soviet Union


    (September 19, 1928) 164


    Bukharin on Equilibrium: Notes of an Economist (September 30, 1928) 166


    CHAPTER FOUR: The Transformation Under Stalin, 1929-1953 170


    Stalin's Revolution: Stalin, The Right Deviation in the CPSU(B) (April, 1929) 170


    Disciplining the Intellectuals: Resolution of the Second Ail-Union Conference of


    Marxist-Leninist Scientific Research Institutions, On Contemporary Problems of


    the Philosophy of Marxism-Leninism (April, 1929) 173


    Rakovsky on Bureaucracy 175


    a) Letter on the Causes of the Degeneration of the Party and Governmental


    Apparatus (August 2, 1928) 175


    b) Circular of the Bolshevik-Leninist Opposition (April, 1930) 176


    Stalin on the Liquidation of the Kulaks: Problems of Agrarian Policy in the USSR


    (December, 1929) 177


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