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Cross-Cultural Psychology

611 Pages · 2008 · 6.59 MB · English

  • Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Cross-Cultural Psychology


    ThissecondeditionofthebestsellingtextbookCross-CulturalPsychology


    has been substantially revised to provide the student with the most


    comprehensive overview of cross-cultural psychology available in one


    volume.Theteamofinternationallyacclaimedauthorshaveincludedthe


    most up-to-date research in the field, and written two new chapters on


    language and on emotion. Within a universalist framework the book


    emphasizes not only research on basic processes and theory, but also


    methodology and applications of cross-cultural psychology with respect


    to acculturation, organizational processes, communication, health, and


    national development. The new format of the book is designed to make


    itevenmoreaccessibleandreader-friendly,andincludeschapteroutlines,


    chaptersummaries,furtherreading,andaglossaryofkeyterms. Cross-Cultural Psychology


    Research and Applications


    SECOND EDITION


    JOHNW. BERRY


    Queen’s University


    Kingston,Ontario,Canada


    YPE H. POORTINGA


    TilburgUniversity


    Tilburg,TheNetherlands


    MARSHALL H. SEGALL


    SyracuseUniversity


    Syracuse,NewYork,USA


    PIERRE R. DASEN


    UniversityofGeneva


    Geneva,Switzerland uf763uf761uf76duf762uf772uf769uf764uf767uf765 uf775uf76euf769uf776uf765uf772uf773uf769uf774uf779 uf770uf772uf765uf773uf773


    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo


    Cambridge University Press


    The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge uf763uf762uf732 uf732uf772uf775, United Kingdom


    Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York


    www.cambridge.org


    Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521641524


    © John W. Berry, Ype H. Poortings, Marshall H. Segall, Pierre R. Dasen 2002


    This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of


    relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place


    without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.


    First published in print format 2002


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    Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of


    uf775uf772uf76cs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not


    guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Dedicated to our partners in life Contents


    List of figures page xii


    List of tables xiv


    Foreword by Gustav Jahoda xv


    Preface to the first edition xvii


    Preface to the second edition and acknowledgments xix


    Acknowledgments xxi


    1 Introduction to cross-cultural psychology 1


    What is cross-cultural psychology? 1


    Goals of cross-cultural psychology 3


    Relationships with other disciplines 5


    Ethnocentrism in psychology 8


    A general framework for cross-cultural psychology 10


    Conclusions 14


    Key terms 15


    Further reading 15


    Part I Similarities and differences in behavior across cultures


    2 Cultural transmission and individual development 19


    Cultural and biological transmission 20


    Early development and caretaking 21


    Enculturation and socialization 29


    Adolescence 39


    Moral development 39


    Conceptualizations of development 44


    Conclusions 49


    Key terms 50


    Further reading 50


    3 Social behavior 52


    Sociocultural context 53


    Conformity 57


    Values 59


    Individualism and collectivism 65 viii Contents


    Social cognition 71


    Gender behavior 73


    Conclusions 84


    Key terms 84


    Further reading 84


    4 Personality 86


    Traits across cultures 87


    Self in social context 100


    Conceptions of the person 104


    Altered states of consciousness 109


    Conclusions 113


    Key terms 113


    Further reading 113


    5 Cognition 114


    General intelligence 115


    Genetic epistemology 131


    Cognitive styles 137


    Contextualized cognition 143


    Conclusions 145


    Key terms 146


    Further reading 146


    6 Language 147


    Language development 147


    Linguistic relativity 149


    Universals in language 165


    Bilingualism 168


    Conclusions 170


    Key terms 171


    Further reading 171


    7 Emotion 172


    Understanding “others” 173


    Universality of emotions 176


    Emotions as cultural states 185


    Componential approaches 188


    Conclusions 194


    Key terms 195


    Further reading 195


    8 Perception 196


    Historical roots 197


    Sensory functions 199 Contents ix


    Perception of patterns and pictures 202


    Face recognition 214


    Psychological esthetics 216


    Conclusions 220


    Key terms 221


    Further reading 221


    Part II Pursuing relationships between behavior and culture:


    research strategies


    9 Approaches from cultural anthropology 225


    Conceptions of culture 225


    Ethnography 233


    Psychological anthropology 241


    Cognitive anthropology 249


    Conclusions 253


    Key terms 253


    Further reading 253


    10 Biology and culture 255


    Evolution and adaptation 255


    Behavior genetics 265


    Ethology 271


    Models of cultural transmission 280


    Conclusions 283


    Key terms 284


    Further reading 284


    11 Methodological concerns 286


    Qualitative methodology 287


    Designing culture-comparative studies 294


    Psychological data in cultural context 301


    Analysis of equivalence 304


    Classification of inferences 312


    Conclusions 315


    Key terms 315


    Further reading 315


    12 Theoretical issues in cross-cultural psychology 317


    Inferred antecedents 320


    Absolutism, relativism, and universalism 324


    Conceptualizations of behavior–culture relationships 328


    Beyond current controversies? 336


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