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Control Engineering

807 Pages · 2008 · 7.16 MB · English

  • Control Engineering

    Control Engineering


    Series Editor


    William S. Levine


    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering


    University of Maryland


    College Park, MD 20742-3285


    USA


    Editorial Advisory Board


    Okko Bosgra William Powers


    Delft University Ford Motor Company (retired)


    The Netherlands USA


    Graham Goodwin Mark Spong


    University of Newcastle University of Illinois


    Australia Urbana-Champaign


    USA


    Petar Kokotovic´


    University of California Iori Hashimoto


    Santa Barbara Kyoto University


    USA Kyoto


    Japan


    Manfred Morari


    ETH


    Zürich


    Switzerland Handbook of Networked


    and Embedded


    Control Systems


    Dimitrios Hristu-Varsakelis


    William S. Levine


    Editors


    EditorialBoard


    RajeevAlur


    Karl-ErikA˚rze´n


    JohnBaillieul


    TomHenzinger


    Birkha¨user


    Boston • Basel • Berlin WilliamS.Levine


    DimitriosHristu-Varsakelis


    DepartmentofElectricaland


    DepartmentofAppliedInformatics


    ComputerEngineering


    UniversityofMacedonia


    UniversityofMaryland


    Thessaloniki,54006


    CollegePark,MD20742


    Greece


    USA


    LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


    Handbookofnetworkedandembeddedcontrolsystems/DimitriosHristu-Varsakelis,


    WilliamS.Levine,editors.


    p.cm.–(Controlengineering)


    Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.


    ISBN0-8176-3239-5(alk.paper)


    1.Embeddedcomputersystems.I.Hristu-Varsakelis,Dimitrios.II.Levine,W.S.III.


    Controlengineering(Birkha¨user)


    TK7895.E42H292005


    629.8’9–dc22 2005041046


    ISBN-100-8176-3239-5 e-BSN0-8176-4404-0 Printedonacid-freepaper.


    ISBN-13978-0-8176-3239-7


    (cid:1)c2005Birkha¨userBoston


    Allrightsreserved.Thisworkmaynotbetranslatedorcopiedinwholeorinpartwithoutthewrit-


    tenpermissionofthepublisher(Birkha¨userBoston,c/oSpringerScience+BusinessMediaInc.,233


    Spring Street, New York, NY, 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews


    or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, elec-


    tronicadaptation,computersoftware,orbysimilarordissimilarmethodologynowknownorhereafter


    developedisforbidden.


    Theuseinthispublicationoftradenames,trademarks,servicemarksandsimilarterms,evenifthey


    arenotidentifiedassuch,isnottobetakenasanexpressionofopinionastowhetherornottheyare


    subjecttoproprietaryrights.


    PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica. (JLS/MP)


    987654321 SPIN10925324


    www.birkhauser.com Contents


    Preface ........................................................ ix


    Part I Fundamentals


    Fundamentals of Dynamical Systems


    William S. Levine................................................ 3


    Control of Single-Input Single-Output Systems


    Dimitrios Hristu-Varsakelis, William S. Levine ...................... 21


    Basics of Sampling and Quantization


    Mohammed S. Santina, Allen R. Stubberud.......................... 45


    Discrete-Event Systems


    Christos G. Cassandras........................................... 71


    Introduction to Hybrid Systems


    Michael S. Branicky.............................................. 91


    Finite Automata


    M. V. Lawson ...................................................117


    Basics of Computer Architecture


    Charles B. Silio, Jr...............................................145


    Real-Time Scheduling for Embedded Systems


    Marco Caccamo, Theodore Baker, Alan Burns, Giorgio Buttazzo,


    Lui Sha.........................................................173


    Network Fundamentals


    David M. Auslander, Jean-Dominique Decotignie.....................197 vi Contents


    Part II Hardware


    Basics of Data Acquisition and Control


    M. Chidambaram ................................................227


    Programmable Logic Controllers


    Gustaf Olsson ...................................................259


    Digital Signal Processors


    Rainer Leupers, Gerd Ascheid .....................................279


    Microcontrollers


    Steven F. Barrett, Daniel J. Pack..................................295


    SOPCs: Systems on Programmable Chips


    William M. Hawkins .............................................323


    Part III Software


    Fundamentals of RTOS-Based Digital Controller


    Implementation


    Qing Li.........................................................353


    Implementation-Aware Embedded Control Systems


    Karl-Erik ˚Arz´en, Anton Cervin, Dan Henriksson.....................377


    From Control Loops to Real-Time Programs


    Paul Caspi, Oded Maler ..........................................395


    Embedded Real-Time Control via MATLAB, Simulink, and


    xPC Target


    Pieter J. Mosterman, Sameer Prabhu, Andrew Dowd, John Glass, Tom


    Erkkinen, John Kluza, Rohit Shenoy................................419


    LabVIEW Real-Time for Networked/Embedded Control


    John Limroth, Jeanne Sullivan Falcon, Dafna Leonard, Jenifer Loy ....447


    Control Loops in RTLinux


    Victor Yodaiken, Matt Sherer, Edgar Hilton .........................471


    Part IV Theory


    An Introduction to Hybrid Automata


    Jean-Franc¸ois Raskin.............................................491 Contents vii


    An Overview of Hybrid Systems Control


    John Lygeros ....................................................519


    Temporal Logic Model Checking


    Edmund Clarke, Ansgar Fehnker, Sumit Kumar Jha, Helmut Veith.....539


    Switched Systems


    Daniel Liberzon..................................................559


    Feedback Control with Communication Constraints


    Dimitrios Hristu-Varsakelis .......................................575


    Networked Control Systems: A Model-Based Approach


    Luis A. Montestruque and Panos J. Antsaklis .......................601


    Control Issues in Systems with Loop Delays


    Leonid Mirkin, Zalman J. Palmor..................................627


    Part V Networking


    Network Protocols for Networked Control Systems


    F.-L. Lian, J. R. Moyne, D. M. Tilbury ............................651


    ControlUsingFeedbackoverWirelessEthernetandBluetooth


    A. Suri, J. Baillieul, D. V. Raghunathan............................677


    Bluetooth in Control


    Bo Bernhardsson, Johan Eker, Joakim Persson ......................699


    Embedded Sensor Networks


    John Heidemann, Ramesh Govindan ...............................721


    Part VI Applications


    Vehicle Applications of Controller Area Network


    Karl Henrik Johansson, Martin To¨rngren, Lars Nielsen...............741


    Control of Autonomous Mobile Robots


    Magnus Egerstedt ................................................767


    Wireless Control with Bluetooth


    Vladimeros Vladimerou, Geir Dullerud .............................779


    The Cornell RoboCup Robot Soccer Team: 1999–2003


    Raffaello D’Andrea ..............................................793


    Index..........................................................805 Preface


    Thishandbookwasmotivatedinpartbyourexperience(andthatofothers)in


    performing research and in teaching about networked and embedded control


    systems (NECS) as well as in implementing such systems. Although NECS—


    alongwiththetechnologiesthatenablethem—havebecomeubiquitous,there


    are few, if any, sources where a student, researcher, or developer can gain a


    sufficiently broad view of the subject. Oftentimes, the needed information is


    scattered in articles, websites, and specification sheets. Such difficulties are


    perhaps to be expected, given the relative newness of the subject and the


    diversity of its constitutive disciplines. From control theory and communica-


    tions, to computer science and electronics, the variety of approaches, tools,


    and language used by experts in each field often acts as a barrier to under-


    standinghowideasfitwithinthebroadercontextofnetworkedandembedded


    control.


    With the above in mind, we have gathered a collection of articles that


    provide at least an introduction to the important results, tools, software, and


    technologies that shape the area of NECS. Our goal was to present the most


    important knowledge about NECS in a book that would be useful to anyone


    who wants to learn about any aspect of the subject. We hope that we have


    succeeded and that every reader will find valuable information in the book.


    Wethanktheauthorsofeachofthechapters.Theyareallbusypeopleand


    we are extremely grateful to them for their outstanding work. We also thank


    Tom Grasso, Editor, Computational Sciences and Engineering at Birkha¨user


    Boston,forallhishelpindevelopingthehandbook,andReginaGorenshteyn,


    Assistant Editor, for guiding the editorial and production aspects of the vol-


    ume.Lastly,wethankTorreyAdamswhosecopyeditinggreatlyimprovedthe


    book.


    We gratefully acknowledge the support of our wives, Maria K. Hristu and


    Shirley Johannesen Levine, and our families.


    College Park, MD Dimitrios Hristu-Varsakelis


    April 2005 William S. Levine Part I


    Fundamentals Fundamentals of Dynamical Systems


    William S. Levine


    Department of ECE, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, U.S.A.


    wsl@eng.umd.edu


    1 Introduction


    Forthepurposesofcontrolsystemdesign,analysis,test,andrepair,themost


    importantpartoftheverybroadsubjectknownassystemtheoryisthetheory


    of dynamical systems. It is difficult to give a precise and sufficiently general


    definition of a dynamical system for reasons that will become evident from


    the detailed discussion to follow. All systems that can be described by or-


    dinary differential or difference equations with real coefficients (ODEs) are


    indubitably dynamical systems. A very important example of a dynamical


    system that cannot be described by a continuous-time ODE is a pure delay.


    Most of this chapter will deal with different ways to describe and analyze


    dynamical systems. We will precisely specify the subclass of such systems for


    which each description is valid.


    The idea of a system involves an approximation to reality. Specifically, a


    systemisadevicethatacceptsaninputsignalandproducesanoutputsignal.


    It is assumed to do this regardless of the energy or power in the input signal


    and independent of any other system connected to it. Physical devices do not


    normally behave this way. The response of a real system, as opposed to that


    of its mathematical approximation, depends on both the input power and


    whatever load the output is expected to drive.


    Fortunately, the engineers who design real systems generally design them


    to behave as closely to an abstract system as possible. For electronic devices


    this amounts to creating subsystems with high input impedance and low out-


    put impedance. Such devices require minimal power in their inputs and will


    deliver the needed power to a broad range of loads without changing their


    outputs. Where this is not the case it is usually possible to purchase buffer


    circuitswhichwilldrivetheloadwithoutalteringthesignaloutoftheoriginal


    device. Good examples of this are the circuits used to connect the transistor-


    transistor logic (TTL) output of a typical microprocessor to a servomotor.


    This means that, in both theory and practice, systems can be intercon-


    nectedwithoutworryingabouteithertheinputoroutputpower.Italsomeans


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