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Concise History of the Middle East

573 Pages · 2012 · 3.77 MB · English

  • Concise History of the Middle East

    0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page i


    Concise History


    A


    of the


    Middle East


    ninth edition 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page ii 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page iii


    A Concise History


    of the


    M i d d l e E a s t


    n i n t h e d i t i o n


    Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.


    Emeritus, Penn State University


    Lawrence Davidson


    West Chester University


    A MEMBER OF THE PERSEUS BOOKS GROUP 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page iv


    Copyright © 2010 by Westview Press


    Published by Westview Press,


    A Member of the Perseus Books Group


    Every effort has been made to secure required permissions to use all images,


    maps, and other art included in this volume.


    All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this


    book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission


    except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.


    For information, address Westview Press, 2465 Central Avenue, Boulder, CO


    80301.


    Find us on the World Wide Web at www.westviewpress.com.


    Westview Press books are available at special discounts for bulk purchases in the


    United States by corporations, institutions, and other organizations. For more


    information, please contact the Special Markets Department at the Perseus


    Books Group, 2300 Chestnut Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19103, or call


    (800) 810-4145, ext. 5000, or e-mail [email protected]


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Goldschmidt, Arthur, 1938–


    A concise history of the Middle East / Arthur Goldschmidt Jr., Lawrence


    Davidson.—9th ed.


    p. cm.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-0-8133-4388-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Middle East—History. I.


    Davidson, Lawrence, 1945–II. Title.


    DS62.G64 2009


    956—dc22


    2009005664


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page v


    To the memory of


    Agnes Inglis O’Neill


    teacher, counselor, friend.


    She taught every subject with a spirit of fun


    and each pupil in a spirit of love.


    And to the memory of


    Henry Blumenthal


    an inspiring teacher and wise adviser,


    and of Humphry Osmond,


    modern renaissance man and correspondent extraordinaire. 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page vi 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page vii


    Contents


    Illustrations xiii


    Preface to the Ninth Edition xv


    1 Introduction 1


    What Is History? 2


    Then and Now, There and Here, 4


    The Physical Setting, 6


    Some Descriptive Geography, 6


    Conclusion, 12


    2 The Middle East Before Muhammad 13


    Persia and Rome, 14


    The Arabs, 18


    Conclusion, 23


    3 The Prophet of Mecca 25


    Muhammad’s Early Life, 26


    The Emigration (Hijra), 30


    AISHABINTABI-BAKR, 36


    Assessment, 37


    4 What Is Islam? 39


    Basic Beliefs, 39


    The Five Pillars of Islam, 43


    Conclusion, 47


    5 The Early Arab Conquests 49


    The Succession Issue, 49


    The Initial Conquests, 51


    The Beginnings of Islamic Government, 53


    Dissension in the Umma, 55


    vii 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page viii


    viii Contents


    Changes in the Government of Islam, 57


    MU’AWIYAIBN-ABI-SUFYAN, 63


    Conclusion, 64


    6 The High Caliphate 65


    Restoration of the Umayyad Order, 67


    The Downfall of the Umayyads, 70


    The Abbasid Caliphate, 71


    MAMUN, 76


    The Decline of the Abbasids, 77


    Conclusion, 78


    7 Shiites and Turks, Crusaders and Mongols 81


    Shiite Islam in Power, 82


    The Turks, 87


    The Crusades, 91


    The Mongol Invasion, 95


    HULEGUKHAN, 97


    Conclusion, 98


    8 Islamic Civilization 99


    The Rules and Laws of Islam, 100


    Development of Jurisprudence, 100


    Islamic Society, 106


    Intellectual and Cultural Life, 111


    Theology, 115


    Conclusion, 117


    AHMADIBNHANBAL, 118


    9 Firearms, Slaves, and Empires 121


    The Mamluks, 122


    The Mongol Il-Khanids, 126


    Gunpowder Technology, 129


    The Ottoman Empire, 129


    ORHAN, 133


    Persia under the Safavids, 142


    Conclusion, 146


    10 European Interests and Imperialism 147


    Ottoman Weakness, 148


    THEKOPRULUFAMILYOFVIZIERS, 150


    The European Powers and the Eastern Question, 151


    Conclusion, 157 0813343884-Goldschmidt 7:Layout 1 5/20/09 10:42 AM Page ix


    Contents ix


    11 Westernizing Reform in the Nineteenth Century 159


    Egypt’s Transformation, 161


    Westernization of the Ottoman Empire, 165


    MUSTAFARESHIDPASHA, 170


    Persia under the Qajars, 171


    Some Afterthoughts, 173


    12 The Rise of Nationalism 177


    Egyptian Nationalism, 179


    AHMADURABI, 185


    Ottomanism, Pan-Islam, and Turkism, 187


    Nationalism in Persia, 191


    Conclusion, 194


    13 The Roots of Arab Bitterness 197


    Arab Nationalism, 197


    World War I, 203


    FAYSALIBNALHUSAYN, 209


    The Postwar Peace Settlement, 210


    Conclusion and Summary, 213


    14 Modernizing Rulers in the Independent States 215


    Turkey: Phoenix from the Ashes, 216


    MUSTAFAKEMAL(ATATURK), 227


    From Persia to Iran, 228


    The Rise of Saudi Arabia, 235


    Conclusion, 241


    15 Egypt and the Fertile Crescent


    under European Control 243


    Egypt’s Struggle for Independence, 244


    The Creation of New States in the Fertile Crescent, 250


    Phony Democracy and False Independence, 255


    World War II, 261


    KINGFARUQ, 262


    Postwar Egypt, 263


    Egypt’s Era of Political Frustration, 264


    Independence for Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq, 267


    Conclusion, 268


    16 The Contest for Palestine 271


    Origins, 271


    Prefatory Remarks, 273


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