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Concise Dictionary of Psychology

149 Pages · 2007 · 4.23 MB · English

  • Concise Dictionary of Psychology

    THE CONCISE DICTIONARY OF


    PSYCHOLOGY


    Withmorethan1,300entries,thisneweditionofTheConciseDictionary


    ofPsychologyiscomprehensive,clearanduser-friendly.Withextensive


    cross-referencingtorelated entries,itincludes manyadditional entries


    and entries from peripheral fields, such as Babinski reflex, Doppler


    effect, Little Albert and Murphy's Law. Updated to take account of


    recent developmentsinpsychology, itisalean andefficient source of


    information,written inastraightforward andreadable manner.


    From atavistic tofolie adeux, from engram to Weltschmerz and


    Seashore test, this book will be an indispensable reference tool for


    students ofpsychology, for professionals and forpeople inthehealth


    andcaring professions.


    David A.Statt is Director of Studies at the Graduate School of


    International Business at the University of Bristol. His other books


    include Psychology: Making Sense (1977), Concise Dictionary of


    Management (Routledge, 1990), Psychology and the WorldofWork


    (1994) and Understanding the Consumer:A PsychologicalApproach


    (1997). THE CONCISE DICTIONARY OF


    PSYCHOLOGY


    Third Edition


    David A.Statt


    London and New York Firstpublished1981byHarper& Row


    ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylor& Francis e-Library,2003.


    Secondeditionpublished1990


    byRoutledge


    II NewFetterLane,London EC4P4EE


    SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanada


    byRoutledge


    29West35thStreet,NewYork,NY 10001


    Thirdedition 1998


    © 1981,1990,1998DavidA.Statt


    Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereprinted


    orreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,


    mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafter


    invented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinany


    informationstorage orretrievalsystem,without permission


    inwriting fromthepublishers.


    BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationData


    Acataloguerecordforthisbookisavailable fromtheBritish


    Library


    LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData


    Acatalog recordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibrary


    ofCongress


    ISBN0-203-45052-3Mastere-bookISBN


    ISBN0-203-75876-5(AdobeeReaderFormat)


    ISBN0-415-17939-4(hbk)


    ISBN0-415-17940-8(pbk) Inmemory ofToffs,


    who taught me a thing or two about


    psychology PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION


    IamgratefultomyeditoratRoutledge,VivienWard,forencouraging


    metoproducethisnewedition.Whileitisinevitablyalittle fuller than


    the previous edition, each entry, in keeping with the original aim of


    thebook, remains asconciseasIcan make it.


    My grateful thanks also go to my wife Judith for producing the


    typescriptwith good-humoureddespatch.


    DavidA.Statt


    VI ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


    Theauthorandpublisherareverygrateful toMacmillanPressLimited


    for their kind permissionto reproduce Figure 2,Attitude,and Figure


    13,Memory,from Understandingthe Consumer.


    VII A


    ablationSurgical operationtoremove partoftheBRAIN.


    abnormalCanonlybedefinedinrelationtothetermNORMAL, about


    which there is probablymore disagreement than anything else in


    PSYCHOLOGY. In whatever sense it is used abnormal implies


    divergence from what is normal. It is generally used to describe


    someone's behaviour when it disturbs the regular course of his


    everyday life, orthatofother people. People whobelievethey are


    Jesus Christ orwholieinatrance fordaysonendwould becalled


    abnormal bymost mental health professionals.


    However,thereisanimportantschoolofthoughtwhichbelieves


    that much, if not all, of the behaviourdescribed as abnormal can


    befoundinnormalpeoplefromtimetotime,thatmentalinstitutions


    maybeaconvenientwayforasociety togetridofpeople who are


    socially troublesome, that a society can itself in some sense be


    psychologically abnormal (the clearest example being Nazi


    Germany), and that 'going crazy' may be a way of escaping


    intolerablesocialconditions.SeeFLIGHTINTOILLNESS.


    abnormal psychology The fieldof PSYCHOLOGY that investigates


    anddeals with BEHAVIOURregarded asABNORMAL. See also


    CLINICALPSYCHOLOGY,PSYCHIATRY,PSYCHOANALYSIS


    andPSYCHOPATHOLOGY.


    abreaction The relief of tension that patients experience in


    PSYCHOANALYSIS when they relive a conflict or TRAUMA


    which theyhadREPRESSED. See alsoCATHARSIS.


    absolute thresholdThe point atwhich astimulus canjustbe picked


    upbythesense organs.


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