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Computer Aided Engineering Design

410 Pages · 2007 · 3.8 MB · English

  • Computer Aided Engineering Design

    Computer Aided Engineering Design Computer Aided


    Engineering Design


    Anupam Saxena (cid:2) Birendra Sahay


    Department of Mechanical Engineering


    Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India


    Springer


    Anamaya A C.I.P. catalogue record for the book is available from the Library of Congress


    ISBN 1-4020-2555-6 (HB)


    Copublished by Springer


    233 Spring Street, New York 10013, USA


    with Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, India


    Sold and distributed in North, Central and South America by Springer


    233 Spring Street, New York, USA


    In all the countries, except India, sold and distributed by Springer


    P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands


    In India, sold and distributed by Anamaya Publishers


    F-230, Lado Sarai, New Delhi-110 030, India


    All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without


    the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., 233


    Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with


    reviews or scholarly adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology


    now known or hereafter developed is forbidden.


    The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks and similar terms,


    even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as


    to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.


    Copyright © 2005, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, India


    9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


    springeronline.com


    Printed in India. To my parents, all my teachers and for my son Suved when he grows up


    Anupam Saxena


    To my mother, Charushila Devi, an icon of patience


    To my eldest brother, Dhanendra Sahay who never let me feel the absence of my father


    To my brother, Dr. Barindra Sahay for initiating me into the realm of mathematics


    To my teachers at McMaster University and University of Waterloo


    To my wife, Kusum, children Urvashi, Menaka, Pawan and the little fairy


    Radhika (granddaughter)


    Birendra Sahay Foreword


    A new discipline is said to attain maturity when the subject matter takes the shape of a textbook.


    Several textbooks later, the discipline tends to acquire a firm place in the curriculum for teaching


    and learning. Computer Aided Engineering Design (CAED), barely three decades old, is


    interdisciplinary in nature whose boundaries are still expanding. However, it draws its core strength


    from several acknowledged and diverse areas such as computer graphics, differential geometry,


    Boolean algebra, computational geometry, topological spaces, numerical analysis, mechanics of


    solids, engineering design and a few others. CAED also needs to show its strong linkages with


    Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). As is true with any growing discipline, the literature is


    widespread in research journals, edited books, and conference proceedings. Various textbooks have


    appeared with different biases, like geometric modeling, computer graphics, and CAD/CAM over


    the last decade.


    This book goes into mathematical foundations and the core subjects of CAED without allowing


    itself to be overshadowed by computer graphics. It is written in a logical and thorough manner for


    use mainly by senior and graduate level students as well as users and developers of CAD software.


    The book covers


    (a) The fundamental concepts of geometric modeling so that a real understanding of designing


    synthetic surfaces and solid modeling can be achieved.


    (b) A wide spectrum of CAED topics such as CAD of linkages and machine elements, finite


    element analysis, optimization.


    (c) Application of these methods to real world problems.


    In a new discipline, it is also a major contribution creating example problems and their


    solutions whereby these exercises can be worked out in a reasonable time by students and


    simultaneously encouraging them to tackle more challenging problems. Some well tried out projects


    are also listed which may enthuse both teachers and students to develop new projects. The writing


    style of the book is clear and thorough and as the student progresses through the text, a great


    satisfaction can be achieved by creating a software library of curve, surface, and solid modeling


    modules.


    Dr. Anupam Saxena earned his MSME degree in 1997 at the University of Toledo, Ohio, USA.


    I am familiar with his work on a particularly challenging CAED problem for his thesis. He


    earned his Ph.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania, USA and became a faculty member


    at IIT Kanpur in 2000. Dr. Sahay was Professor at IIT Kanpur where he performed research and viii FOREWORD


    teaching in design related fields for over the past 32 years after having earned his Ph.D. from the


    University of Waterloo, Canada. This textbook is a result of over ten years of teaching CAED by


    both authors.


    The topics covered in detail in this book will, I am sure, be immensely helpful to teachers, students,


    practitioners and researchers.


    Steven N. Kramer, PhD, PE


    Professor of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering


    The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio Preface


    The development of computer aided engineering design has gained momentum over the last three


    decades. Computer graphics, geometric modeling of curves, surfaces and solids, finite element method,


    optimization, computational fluid flow and heat transfer—all have now taken roots into the academic


    curricula as individual disciplines. Several professional softwares are now available for the design of


    surfaces and solids. These are very user-friendly and do not require a user to possess the intricate


    details of the mathematical basis that goes behind.


    This book is an outcome of over a decade of teaching computer aided design to graduate and


    senior undergraduate students. It emphasizes the mathematical background behind geometric modeling,


    analysis and optimization tools incorporated within the existing software.


    • Much of the material on CAD related topics is widely scattered in literature. This book is


    conceived with a view to arrange the source material in a logical and comprehensive sequence,


    to be used as a semester course text for CAD.


    • The focus is on computer aided design. Treatment essential for geometric transformations,


    projective geometry, differential geometry of curves and surfaces have been dealt with in


    detail using examples. Only a background in elementary linear algebra, matrices and vector


    geometry is required to understand the material presented.


    • The concepts of homogeneous transformations and affine spaces (barycentric coordinate


    system) have been explained with examples. This is essential to understand how a solid or


    surface model of an object can escape coordinate system dependence. This enables a distortion-


    free handling of a computer model under rigid-body transformations.


    • A viewpoint that free-form solids may be regarded as composed of surface patches which


    instead are composed of curve segments is maintained in this book, like most other texts on


    CAD. Thus, geometric modeling of curve segments is discussed in detail. The basis of curve


    design is parametric, piecewise fitting of individual segments of low degree into a composite


    curve such that the desired continuity (position, slope and/or curvature) is maintained between


    adjacent segments. This reduces undue oscillations and provides freedom to a designer to alter


    the curve shape. A generic model of a curve segment is the weighted linear combination of


    user-specified data points where the weights are functions of a normalized, non-negative


    parameter. Further, barycentricity of weights* makes a curve segment independent of the


    coordinate system and provides an insight into the curve’s shape. That is, the curve lies within


    * Weights are all non-negative and for any value of the parameter, they sum to unity. x PREFACE


    the convex hull of the data points specified. The associated variation diminishing property


    suggests that the curve’s shape is no more complex than the polyline of the control points


    itself. In other words, a control polyline primitively approximates the shape of the curve. For


    Bézier segments, barycentricity is global in that altering any data point results in overall shape


    change of the segment. For B-spline curves, however, weights are locally barycentric allowing


    shape change only within some local region. Expressions for weights, that is, Bernstein


    polynomials for Bézier segments and B-spline basis functions for B-spline curves are derived


    and discussed in detail in this book and many examples are presented to illustrate curve


    design.


    • With the design of free-form curve segments accomplished, surface patches can be obtained


    in numerous ways. With two curves, one can sweep one over the other to get a sweep surface


    patch. One of the curves can be rectilinear in shape and represent an axis about which the


    second curve can be revolved to get a patch of revolution. One can join corresponding points


    on the two curves using straight lines to generate a ruled surface. Or, if cross boundary slope


    information is available, one can join the corresponding points using a cubic segment to get


    alofted patch. More involved models of surface patches are the bilinear and bicubic Coon’s


    patches wherein four boundary curves are involved. Eventually, a direct extension of Bézier


    and B-spline curves is their tensor product into respective free-form Bézier and B-spline


    surface patches. These surface patches inherit the properties from the respective curves. That


    is, the surface patch lies within the control polyhedron defined by the data points, and that the


    polyhedron loosely represents the patch shape. The aforementioned patches are derived and


    discussed in detail with examples in this book. Later, methods to model composite surfaces


    are discussed.


    • The basis for solid modeling is the extension of Jordon’s curve theorem which states that a


    closed, simply connected** (planar) curve divides a plane into two regions; its interior and its


    exterior. Likewise, a closed, simply connected and orientable surface divides a three-dimensional


    space into regions interior and exterior to the surface. With this established, a simple, closed


    and connected surface constituted of various surface patches knit or glued together at their


    respective common boundaries encloses a finite volume within itself. The union of this


    interior region with the surface boundary represents a free form solid. Any solid modeler


    should be generic and capable of modeling unambiguous solids such that any set operation


    (union, intersection or difference) performed on two valid solids should yield another valid


    solid. With this viewpoint, the concept of geometry is relaxed to study the topological attributes


    of valid solids. Such properties disregard size (lengths and angles) and study only the connectivity


    in a solid. With these properties as basis, the three solid modeling techniques, i.e., wireframe


    modeling, boundary representation method and constructive solid geometry are discussed in


    detail with examples. Advantages and drawbacks of each method are discussed and it is


    emphasized that professional solid modelers utilize all three representations depending on the


    application. For instance, wireframe modeling is usually employed for animation as quick


    rendering is not possible with the boundary representation scheme.


    • Determination of intersection between various curves, surfaces and solids is routinely performed


    by the solid modelers for curve and surface trimming and blending. Intersection determination


    is primarily used in computing Boolean relations between two solids in constructive solid


    ** A closed curve with no self intersection. PREFACE xi


    geometry. Computational geometry that encompasses a set of algorithms to compute various


    relations like proximity, intersection, decomposition and relational search (e.g., point membership


    classification) between geometric entities is discussed in brief in this book. The working of


    these algorithms is described for polygonal entities with examples for easy understanding of


    the subject matter.


    • Reverse engineering alludes to the process of creating CAD models from existing real life


    components or their prototypes. Applications are prolific; some being the generation of customized


    fit to human surfaces, designing prostheses, and reconstruction of archaeological collections


    and artifacts. For an engineering component whose original data is not available, a conceptual


    clay or wood model is employed. A point cloud data is acquired from an existing component


    or its prototype using available non-contact or tactile scanning methods. Surface patches are


    then locally modeled over a subset of the point cloud to interpolate or best approximate the


    data. Reverse engineering is an important emerging application in Computer Aided Design,


    and various methods for surface patch fitting, depending on the scanning procedure used, are


    briefed in this book.


    • Having discussed in detail the geometric modeling aspects in free-form design, this book


    provides an introductory treatment to the finite element analysis (FEM) and optimization, the


    other two widely employed tools in computer aided design. Using these, one can analyze and


    alter a design form such that the latter becomes optimal in some sense of the user specified


    objective. The book discusses linear elastic finite element method using some basic elements


    like trusses, frames, triangular and four-node elements. Discussion on optimization is restricted


    to some numerical methods in determining single variable extrema and classical Karush-


    Kuhn-Tucker necessary conditions for multi-variable unconstrained and constrained problems.


    Sequential Linear and Quadratic Programming, and stochastic methods like genetic algorithms


    and simulated annealing are given a brief mention. The intent is to introduce a student to


    follow-up formal courses on finite element analysis and optimization in the curricula.


    This book should be used by the educators as follows:


    Students from a variety of majors, e.g., mechanical engineering, computer science and engineering,


    aeronautical and civil engineering and mathematics are likely to credit this course. Also, students


    may study CAD at primarily graduate and senior undergraduate levels. Geometric modeling of


    curves, surfaces and solids may be relevant to all while finite element analysis and optimization may


    be of interest of mechanical, aeronautical and civil engineering. Discretion of the instructor may be


    required to cover the combination of topics for a group of students. Considering a semester course of


    40 contact hours, a broad breakup of topics is suggested as follows:


    • 1st hour: Introduction to computer aided design


    • 3 hours: Transformations and projections


    • 15 hours: Free-form curve design


    • 9 hours: Surface patch modeling


    • 6 hours: Solid modeling


    The remaining 6 hours may be assigned as follows: for students belonging to mechanical, aeronautical


    and civil engineering, reverse engineering, finite element method and optimization may be introduced


    and for those in computer science and engineering and mathematics, computational geometry and


    optimization may be emphasized.


    For a group of graduate students taking this course, differential geometry of curves and surfaces


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