Climate Change and Health

Climate Change and Health

Climate Change and Health

800 Pages ·2015·47.52 MB ·English

Climate Change and Health

Climate Change


and Health


Training Modules SEA/EH/585


Climate Change


and Health


Training Modules © World Health Organization 2015


All rights reserved.


Requests for publications, or for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether


for sale or for noncommercial distribution – can be obtained from SEARO Library, World Health


Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, Indraprastha Estate, Mahatma Gandhi Marg,


New Delhi 110 002, India (fax: +91 11 23370197; e-mail: searolibrary@who.int).


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the


expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the


legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation


of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which


there may not yet be full agreement.


The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they


are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a


similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary


products are distinguished by initial capital letters.


All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the


information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed


without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation


and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be


liable for damages arising from its use.


This publication does not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health


Organization.


Printed in India Contents


Acronyms ............................................................................................................................v


Bibliography .......................................................................................................................ix


Action planning activity: Country action planning ..............................................................xxi


Glossary ...........................................................................................................................xxv


Revision activity: Graffiti wall .........................................................................................xxxix


Introductory activity: Human Map ...................................................................................xliii


Action planning activity: Individual action planning ...........................................................xlv


Reflection activity: Key learnings from yesterday ..............................................................xlix


Overview of the WHO Training Course for Public Health Professionals ................................li


Evaluation activity: Post it wall............................................................................................lxi


Post-training questions .....................................................................................................lxiii


Pre- and post-training testing question and answers


(for WHO marking and evaluation only) ...........................................................................lxv


Pre-training testing ...........................................................................................................lxix


Introductory activity: Reasons for attending the training ...................................................lxxi


Climate Change and Health Training Package: Training Equipment Guide ......................lxxiii


Climate Change and Health Training Package: Venue Guide ...........................................lxxv


Module 1: Introduction to weather, climate, climate change and variability .........................1


Module 2: Population health and climate change ..............................................................45


Module 3: Policies & practice of mitigation & adaptation - Relevance to health .................89


Module 4: Assessment and prediction of the health impacts of climate change ...............127


Module 5: Thermal extremes ..........................................................................................181


Module 6: Extreme weather............................................................................................227


Module 7: Vector-borne diseases and climate change .....................................................277


Module 8: Water-borne diseases and climate change ......................................................323


Contents iii Module 9: Food security and malnutrition ......................................................................379


Module 10: Air quality ....................................................................................................431


Module 11: Assessing health vulnerability .......................................................................475


Module 12: Adaptation to climate change ......................................................................507


Module 13: Mitigation and co-benefits ...........................................................................551


Module 14: Health and the UNFCCC .............................................................................579


Module 15: Disaster risk management ............................................................................641


Module 16: Communicating climate change and health ..................................................689


iv Climate Change and Health – Training Modules Acronyms


The following is a list of acronyms from the health and climate change field:


ACS American Cancer Society


AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


APF Adaptation Policy Framework


AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer


AWG-LCA Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action


BoD Burden of disease


BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


BTV Bluetongue virus


CBD Convention on Biological Diversity


CC Climate change


CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


CDM Clean Development Mechanism


CER Certified emission reduction


CH4 Methane


CIESIN Center for International Earth Science Information Network


CO Carbon monoxide


CO2 Carbon dioxide


COP Conference of Parties


COSMIC Country Specific Model for Intertemporal Climate - Computer Software


CVD Cardiovascular disease


DALY Disability adjusted life year


DHF Dengue hemorrhagic fever


ENSO El Nino-Southern Oscillation


ESM Earth System Model


FAO Food and Agricultural Organization


GBD Global burden of disease


GCM General Circulation Model


GDP Gross domestic product


GEF Global Environment Facility


GHG Greenhouse gas


GIS Geographic Information System


GLOF Glacial lake outburst flood


HIA Health Impact Assessment


HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus


HPAI Highly pathogenic avian influenza


ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases − 10th Edition


Acronyms v ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights


ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development


IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute


IFRC International Federation of the Red Cross


IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction


JE Japanese encephalitis


LAP Length of growing period


MARA/ARMA Mapping malarial risk in Africa


MDGs Millennium Development Goals


MEA Multilateral environmental agreement


MIASMA Modeling Framework for the Health Impact Assessment of Man-Induced


Atmospheric Changes


MPH Miles per hour


NAO North Atlantic Oscillation


NAPA National Adaptation Program of Action


NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research


NCD Noncommunicable disease


NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetative Index


NO2 Nitrogen dioxide


NOx Nitrous oxides


NWP Nairobi Work Program


NYC New York City


O2 Oxygen


O3 Ozone


OCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs


OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


PAR Population at risk


Pb Lead


PDSI Palmer Drought Severity Index


PM Particulate matter


ppb Parts-per-billion


ppm Parts-per-million


PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder


RVF Rift Valley Fever


SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation


SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice


SEA South-East Asia


SEARO South-East Asia Regional Office


SIDS Small island developing states


SO2 Sulfur dioxide


vi Climate Change and Health – Training Modules SOI Southern Oscillation Index


SRES Standardized Reference Emission Scenarios


SST Sea surface temperature


UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office


UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification


UNDP United Nations Development Programme


UNEP United Nations Environment Programme


UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


UN-OHCHR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights


UVR Ultraviolet radiation


VBD Vector-borne disease


VBZ Vector-borne zoonose


VOC Volatile organic compound


WHA World Health Assembly


WHD World Health Day


WHO World Health Organization


WMO World Meteorological Organization


WNV West Nile Virus


YLL Years of life lost


Acronyms vii


Climate Change


and Health


Training Modules SEA/EH/585


Climate Change


and Health


Training Modules © World Health Organization 2015


All rights reserved.


Requests for publications, or for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether


for sale or for noncommercial distribution – can be obtained from SEARO Library, World Health


Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, Indraprastha Estate, Mahatma Gandhi Marg,


New Delhi 110 002, India (fax: +91 11 23370197; e-mail: searolibrary@who.int).


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the


expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the


legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation


of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which


there may not yet be full agreement.


The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they


are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a


similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary


products are distinguished by initial capital letters.


All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the


information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed


without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation


and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be


liable for damages arising from its use.


This publication does not necessarily represent the decisions or policies of the World Health


Organization.


Printed in India Contents


Acronyms ............................................................................................................................v


Bibliography .......................................................................................................................ix


Action planning activity: Country action planning ..............................................................xxi


Glossary ...........................................................................................................................xxv


Revision activity: Graffiti wall .........................................................................................xxxix


Introductory activity: Human Map ...................................................................................xliii


Action planning activity: Individual action planning ...........................................................xlv


Reflection activity: Key learnings from yesterday ..............................................................xlix


Overview of the WHO Training Course for Public Health Professionals ................................li


Evaluation activity: Post it wall............................................................................................lxi


Post-training questions .....................................................................................................lxiii


Pre- and post-training testing question and answers


(for WHO marking and evaluation only) ...........................................................................lxv


Pre-training testing ...........................................................................................................lxix


Introductory activity: Reasons for attending the training ...................................................lxxi


Climate Change and Health Training Package: Training Equipment Guide ......................lxxiii


Climate Change and Health Training Package: Venue Guide ...........................................lxxv


Module 1: Introduction to weather, climate, climate change and variability .........................1


Module 2: Population health and climate change ..............................................................45


Module 3: Policies & practice of mitigation & adaptation - Relevance to health .................89


Module 4: Assessment and prediction of the health impacts of climate change ...............127


Module 5: Thermal extremes ..........................................................................................181


Module 6: Extreme weather............................................................................................227


Module 7: Vector-borne diseases and climate change .....................................................277


Module 8: Water-borne diseases and climate change ......................................................323


Contents iii Module 9: Food security and malnutrition ......................................................................379


Module 10: Air quality ....................................................................................................431


Module 11: Assessing health vulnerability .......................................................................475


Module 12: Adaptation to climate change ......................................................................507


Module 13: Mitigation and co-benefits ...........................................................................551


Module 14: Health and the UNFCCC .............................................................................579


Module 15: Disaster risk management ............................................................................641


Module 16: Communicating climate change and health ..................................................689


iv Climate Change and Health – Training Modules Acronyms


The following is a list of acronyms from the health and climate change field:


ACS American Cancer Society


AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


APF Adaptation Policy Framework


AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer


AWG-LCA Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action


BoD Burden of disease


BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


BTV Bluetongue virus


CBD Convention on Biological Diversity


CC Climate change


CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


CDM Clean Development Mechanism


CER Certified emission reduction


CH4 Methane


CIESIN Center for International Earth Science Information Network


CO Carbon monoxide


CO2 Carbon dioxide


COP Conference of Parties


COSMIC Country Specific Model for Intertemporal Climate - Computer Software


CVD Cardiovascular disease


DALY Disability adjusted life year


DHF Dengue hemorrhagic fever


ENSO El Nino-Southern Oscillation


ESM Earth System Model


FAO Food and Agricultural Organization


GBD Global burden of disease


GCM General Circulation Model


GDP Gross domestic product


GEF Global Environment Facility


GHG Greenhouse gas


GIS Geographic Information System


GLOF Glacial lake outburst flood


HIA Health Impact Assessment


HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus


HPAI Highly pathogenic avian influenza


ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases − 10th Edition


Acronyms v ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights


ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development


IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute


IFRC International Federation of the Red Cross


IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change


ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction


JE Japanese encephalitis


LAP Length of growing period


MARA/ARMA Mapping malarial risk in Africa


MDGs Millennium Development Goals


MEA Multilateral environmental agreement


MIASMA Modeling Framework for the Health Impact Assessment of Man-Induced


Atmospheric Changes


MPH Miles per hour


NAO North Atlantic Oscillation


NAPA National Adaptation Program of Action


NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research


NCD Noncommunicable disease


NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetative Index


NO2 Nitrogen dioxide


NOx Nitrous oxides


NWP Nairobi Work Program


NYC New York City


O2 Oxygen


O3 Ozone


OCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs


OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


PAR Population at risk


Pb Lead


PDSI Palmer Drought Severity Index


PM Particulate matter


ppb Parts-per-billion


ppm Parts-per-million


PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder


RVF Rift Valley Fever


SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation


SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice


SEA South-East Asia


SEARO South-East Asia Regional Office


SIDS Small island developing states


SO2 Sulfur dioxide


vi Climate Change and Health – Training Modules SOI Southern Oscillation Index


SRES Standardized Reference Emission Scenarios


SST Sea surface temperature


UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office


UNCCD United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification


UNDP United Nations Development Programme


UNEP United Nations Environment Programme


UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


UN-OHCHR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights


UVR Ultraviolet radiation


VBD Vector-borne disease


VBZ Vector-borne zoonose


VOC Volatile organic compound


WHA World Health Assembly


WHD World Health Day


WHO World Health Organization


WMO World Meteorological Organization


WNV West Nile Virus


YLL Years of life lost


Acronyms vii


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