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Cities and Climate Change

328 Pages · 2011 · 5.88 MB · English

  • Cities and Climate Change

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    CITIES


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    riz AND CLIMATE


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    bli Responding to an Urgent Agenda


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    Daniel Hoornweg, Mila Freire, Marcus J. Lee,


    d Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Belinda Yuen, editors


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    P CITIES


    AND CLIMATE


    CHANGE Th e Urban Development Series discusses the challenge of urbanization and what it


    will mean for developing countries in the decades ahead. Th e series delves substantively


    into the core issues framed by the World Bank’s 2009 Urban Strategy, Systems of Cities:


    Harnessing Urbanization for Growth and Poverty Alleviation. Across the fi ve domains of


    the Urban Strategy, the series provides a focal point for publications that seek to foster


    a better understanding of the core elements of the city system, pro-poor policies, city


    economies, urban land and housing markets, urban environments, and other issues


    germane to the agenda of sustainable urban development.


    Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda is the fi rst title in the


    Urban Development Series. CITIES


    CLIMATE


    AND


    CHANGE


    Responding to an Urgent Agenda


    Daniel Hoornweg, Mila Freire, Marcus J. Lee,


    Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Belinda Yuen, editors


    Washington, D.C. © 2011 Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / Th e World Bank


    1818 H Street NW


    Washington DC 20433


    Telephone: 202-473-1000


    Internet: www.worldbank.org


    All rights reserved


    1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11



    Th is volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / Th e World


    Bank. Th e fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily refl ect the views


    of the Executive Directors of Th e World Bank or the governments they represent.


    Th e World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. Th e boundaries, colors,


    denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the


    part of Th e World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such


    boundaries.


    Rights and Permissions


    Th e material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without


    permission may be a violation of applicable law. Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /


    Th e World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions


    of the work promptly.


    For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete informa-


    tion to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-


    750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com.


    All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Offi ce of


    the Publisher, Th e World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail:


    pubrights@worldbank.org.


    ISBN: 978-0-8213-8493-0


    eISBN: 978-0-8213-8667-5


    DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8493-0


    Cover photo: ©Atlantide Phototravel/Corbis


    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


    Cities and climate change : responding to an urgent agenda / edited by Daniel Hoornweg ... [et al.].


    p. cm.—(Urban development series)


    Collection of papers prepared and presented at the World Bank’s Fift h Urban Research Symposium.


    Includes bibliographical references and index.


    ISBN 978-0-8213-8493-0—ISBN 978-0-8213-8667-5 (electronic)


    1. Urban ecology (Sociology—Congresses. 2. Greenhouse gases—Congresses. 3. Climatic changes—


    Congresses. I. Hoornweg, Daniel A. (Daniel Arthur), 1961- II. Urban Research Symposium (5th Marseille,


    France 2009)


    HT241.C555 2011


    307.76—dc22


    2011007569 Contents


    Foreword iii


    Acknowledgments xi


    Contributors xiii


    Abbreviations xv


    Chapter 1. Introduction: Cities and the Urgent Challenges


    of Climate Change 1


    Chapter 2. Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines


    for Global Cities and Metropolitan Regions 15


    Christopher A. Kennedy, Anu Ramaswami, Sebastian Carney,


    and Shobhakar Dhakal


    Chapter 3. Comparing Mitigation Policies in Five Large


    Cities: London, New York City, Milan,


    Mexico City, and Bangkok 55


    Edoardo Croci, Sabrina Melandri, and Tania Molteni


    Chapter 4. GHG emissions, Urban Mobility, and Morphology:


    A Hypothesis 87


    Alain Bertaud, Benoit Lefèvre, and Belinda Yuen


    Chapter 5. The Role of Institutions, Governance, and


    Urban Planning for Mitigation and Adaptation 125


    Harriet Bulkeley, Heike Schroeder, Katy Janda,


    Jimin Zhao, Andrea Armstrong, Shu Yi Chu,


    and Shibani Ghosh


    ■ v vi ■ CONTENTS


    Chapter 6. Viral Governance and Mixed Motivations:


    How and Why U.S. Cities Engaged


    on the Climate Change Issue, 2005–2007 161


    Toby Warden


    Chapter 7. Urban Heat Islands: Sensitivity of Urban


    Temperatures to Climate Change and


    Heat Release in Four European Cities 175


    Mark P. McCarthy and Michael G. Sanderson


    Chapter 8. Adapting Cities to Climate Change:


    Opportunities and Constraints 193


    Dirk Heinrichs, Rimjhim Aggarwal, Jonathan Barton,


    Erach Bharucha, Carsten Butsch, Michail Fragkias,


    Peter Johnston, Frauke Kraas, Kerstin Krellenberg,


    Andrea Lampis, Ooi Giok Ling, and Johanna Vogel


    Chapter 9. A Conceptual and Operational Framework


    for Pro-poor Asset Adaptation to Urban


    Climate change 225


    Caroline Moser


    Chapter 10. Epilogue: Perspectives from the


    5th Urban Research Symposium 255


    Appendix. Titles and Abstracts of Papers Not Included


    in Full in This Volume 271


    Index. 289 Foreword


    Th e 5th Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change—Responding


    to an Urgent Agenda, held in Marseille in June 2009, sought to highlight how


    climate change and urbanization are converging to create one of the greatest


    challenges of our time. Responding to this challenge eff ectively and sustainably


    is a key objective for governments, authorities, institutions, and other organi-


    zations involved in urban development processes. Th e World Bank, the French


    Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing, and


    the French Development Agency were therefore particularly committed to the


    co-organization of the symposium.


    Cities consume much of the world’s energy, and thus produce much of the


    world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Yet cities, to varying extents, are also vulner-


    able to climate change impacts, with poor populations facing the greatest risk.


    Th us, adaptation and increased resilience constitute priorities for every city,


    and cities have a key role to play in mitigating climate change. Climate change


    mitigation and adaptation in cities has emerged as a new theme on the global


    agenda, creating a strong desire among governments, the private sector, and the


    academic community worldwide to learn from experiences and good practice


    examples.


    Th e 5th Urban Research Symposium made an important contribution to


    the growing body of knowledge and practice in the area of cities and climate


    change. During the three-day symposium, approximately 200 papers were pre-


    sented to more than 700 participants representing more than 70 countries. As


    co-organizers, we found it very rewarding to have such an audience and to see


    the wide range of topics discussed, from indicators and measurement to insti-


    tutions and governance.


    Th e symposium was made possible through the commitment and contri-


    butions of a wide range of partners and cosponsors, as well as through the


    ■ vii viii ■ FOREWORD


    interest and participation of the wider community of urban researchers


    and practitioners. We were encouraged by the symposium’s success, which


    exceeded many expectations, and therefore wish to further disseminate its


    results. Th is publication is comprised of an edited selection of the many


    papers submitted to the symposium and gives a fl avor of the questions asked


    and possible answers. (Th e entire collection of symposium papers is available


    as an online resource for interested readers.) We look forward to the benefi ts


    that the knowledge gained and the partnerships forged during the symposium


    will have for global eff orts on cities and climate change.


    Inger Andersen


    Vice President


    Sustainable Development Network


    Th e World Bank


    Michèle Pappalardo


    General Commissioner for Sustainable Development


    Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing


    Rémi Genevey


    Executive Director (Strategy)


    French Development Agency


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