Cities and Climate Change

Cities and Climate Change

Cities and Climate Change

328 Pages ·2011·5.88 MB ·English

Cities and Climate Change

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Daniel Hoornweg, Mila Freire, Marcus J. Lee,


d Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Belinda Yuen, editors


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P CITIES


AND CLIMATE


CHANGE Th e Urban Development Series discusses the challenge of urbanization and what it


will mean for developing countries in the decades ahead. Th e series delves substantively


into the core issues framed by the World Bank’s 2009 Urban Strategy, Systems of Cities:


Harnessing Urbanization for Growth and Poverty Alleviation. Across the fi ve domains of


the Urban Strategy, the series provides a focal point for publications that seek to foster


a better understanding of the core elements of the city system, pro-poor policies, city


economies, urban land and housing markets, urban environments, and other issues


germane to the agenda of sustainable urban development.


Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda is the fi rst title in the


Urban Development Series. CITIES


CLIMATE


AND


CHANGE


Responding to an Urgent Agenda


Daniel Hoornweg, Mila Freire, Marcus J. Lee,


Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Belinda Yuen, editors


Washington, D.C. © 2011 Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / Th e World Bank


1818 H Street NW


Washington DC 20433


Telephone: 202-473-1000


Internet: www.worldbank.org


All rights reserved


1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11



Th is volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / Th e World


Bank. Th e fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily refl ect the views


of the Executive Directors of Th e World Bank or the governments they represent.


Th e World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. Th e boundaries, colors,


denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the


part of Th e World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such


boundaries.


Rights and Permissions


Th e material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without


permission may be a violation of applicable law. Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /


Th e World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions


of the work promptly.


For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete informa-


tion to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-


750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com.


All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Offi ce of


the Publisher, Th e World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail:


pubrights@worldbank.org.


ISBN: 978-0-8213-8493-0


eISBN: 978-0-8213-8667-5


DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8493-0


Cover photo: ©Atlantide Phototravel/Corbis


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Cities and climate change : responding to an urgent agenda / edited by Daniel Hoornweg ... [et al.].


p. cm.—(Urban development series)


Collection of papers prepared and presented at the World Bank’s Fift h Urban Research Symposium.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 978-0-8213-8493-0—ISBN 978-0-8213-8667-5 (electronic)


1. Urban ecology (Sociology—Congresses. 2. Greenhouse gases—Congresses. 3. Climatic changes—


Congresses. I. Hoornweg, Daniel A. (Daniel Arthur), 1961- II. Urban Research Symposium (5th Marseille,


France 2009)


HT241.C555 2011


307.76—dc22


2011007569 Contents


Foreword iii


Acknowledgments xi


Contributors xiii


Abbreviations xv


Chapter 1. Introduction: Cities and the Urgent Challenges


of Climate Change 1


Chapter 2. Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines


for Global Cities and Metropolitan Regions 15


Christopher A. Kennedy, Anu Ramaswami, Sebastian Carney,


and Shobhakar Dhakal


Chapter 3. Comparing Mitigation Policies in Five Large


Cities: London, New York City, Milan,


Mexico City, and Bangkok 55


Edoardo Croci, Sabrina Melandri, and Tania Molteni


Chapter 4. GHG emissions, Urban Mobility, and Morphology:


A Hypothesis 87


Alain Bertaud, Benoit Lefèvre, and Belinda Yuen


Chapter 5. The Role of Institutions, Governance, and


Urban Planning for Mitigation and Adaptation 125


Harriet Bulkeley, Heike Schroeder, Katy Janda,


Jimin Zhao, Andrea Armstrong, Shu Yi Chu,


and Shibani Ghosh


■ v vi ■ CONTENTS


Chapter 6. Viral Governance and Mixed Motivations:


How and Why U.S. Cities Engaged


on the Climate Change Issue, 2005–2007 161


Toby Warden


Chapter 7. Urban Heat Islands: Sensitivity of Urban


Temperatures to Climate Change and


Heat Release in Four European Cities 175


Mark P. McCarthy and Michael G. Sanderson


Chapter 8. Adapting Cities to Climate Change:


Opportunities and Constraints 193


Dirk Heinrichs, Rimjhim Aggarwal, Jonathan Barton,


Erach Bharucha, Carsten Butsch, Michail Fragkias,


Peter Johnston, Frauke Kraas, Kerstin Krellenberg,


Andrea Lampis, Ooi Giok Ling, and Johanna Vogel


Chapter 9. A Conceptual and Operational Framework


for Pro-poor Asset Adaptation to Urban


Climate change 225


Caroline Moser


Chapter 10. Epilogue: Perspectives from the


5th Urban Research Symposium 255


Appendix. Titles and Abstracts of Papers Not Included


in Full in This Volume 271


Index. 289 Foreword


Th e 5th Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change—Responding


to an Urgent Agenda, held in Marseille in June 2009, sought to highlight how


climate change and urbanization are converging to create one of the greatest


challenges of our time. Responding to this challenge eff ectively and sustainably


is a key objective for governments, authorities, institutions, and other organi-


zations involved in urban development processes. Th e World Bank, the French


Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing, and


the French Development Agency were therefore particularly committed to the


co-organization of the symposium.


Cities consume much of the world’s energy, and thus produce much of the


world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Yet cities, to varying extents, are also vulner-


able to climate change impacts, with poor populations facing the greatest risk.


Th us, adaptation and increased resilience constitute priorities for every city,


and cities have a key role to play in mitigating climate change. Climate change


mitigation and adaptation in cities has emerged as a new theme on the global


agenda, creating a strong desire among governments, the private sector, and the


academic community worldwide to learn from experiences and good practice


examples.


Th e 5th Urban Research Symposium made an important contribution to


the growing body of knowledge and practice in the area of cities and climate


change. During the three-day symposium, approximately 200 papers were pre-


sented to more than 700 participants representing more than 70 countries. As


co-organizers, we found it very rewarding to have such an audience and to see


the wide range of topics discussed, from indicators and measurement to insti-


tutions and governance.


Th e symposium was made possible through the commitment and contri-


butions of a wide range of partners and cosponsors, as well as through the


■ vii viii ■ FOREWORD


interest and participation of the wider community of urban researchers


and practitioners. We were encouraged by the symposium’s success, which


exceeded many expectations, and therefore wish to further disseminate its


results. Th is publication is comprised of an edited selection of the many


papers submitted to the symposium and gives a fl avor of the questions asked


and possible answers. (Th e entire collection of symposium papers is available


as an online resource for interested readers.) We look forward to the benefi ts


that the knowledge gained and the partnerships forged during the symposium


will have for global eff orts on cities and climate change.


Inger Andersen


Vice President


Sustainable Development Network


Th e World Bank


Michèle Pappalardo


General Commissioner for Sustainable Development


Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing


Rémi Genevey


Executive Director (Strategy)


French Development Agency


d


e


z


ri


o


h


ut


A


e


r


u


s


o


cl


s


Di


c


bli


u


P


CITIES


d


e


riz AND CLIMATE


o


h


ut


A


e


r CHANGE


u


s


o


cl


s


Di


c


bli Responding to an Urgent Agenda


u


P


Daniel Hoornweg, Mila Freire, Marcus J. Lee,


d Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Belinda Yuen, editors


e


z


ri


o


h


ut


A


e


r


u


s


o


cl


s


Di


c


bli


u


P


d


e


z


ri


o


h


ut


A


e


r


u


s


o


cl


s


Di


c


bli


u


P CITIES


AND CLIMATE


CHANGE Th e Urban Development Series discusses the challenge of urbanization and what it


will mean for developing countries in the decades ahead. Th e series delves substantively


into the core issues framed by the World Bank’s 2009 Urban Strategy, Systems of Cities:


Harnessing Urbanization for Growth and Poverty Alleviation. Across the fi ve domains of


the Urban Strategy, the series provides a focal point for publications that seek to foster


a better understanding of the core elements of the city system, pro-poor policies, city


economies, urban land and housing markets, urban environments, and other issues


germane to the agenda of sustainable urban development.


Cities and Climate Change: Responding to an Urgent Agenda is the fi rst title in the


Urban Development Series. CITIES


CLIMATE


AND


CHANGE


Responding to an Urgent Agenda


Daniel Hoornweg, Mila Freire, Marcus J. Lee,


Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Belinda Yuen, editors


Washington, D.C. © 2011 Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / Th e World Bank


1818 H Street NW


Washington DC 20433


Telephone: 202-473-1000


Internet: www.worldbank.org


All rights reserved


1 2 3 4 14 13 12 11



Th is volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / Th e World


Bank. Th e fi ndings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily refl ect the views


of the Executive Directors of Th e World Bank or the governments they represent.


Th e World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. Th e boundaries, colors,


denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on the


part of Th e World Bank concerning the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such


boundaries.


Rights and Permissions


Th e material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without


permission may be a violation of applicable law. Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /


Th e World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions


of the work promptly.


For permission to photocopy or reprint any part of this work, please send a request with complete informa-


tion to the Copyright Clearance Center Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA; telephone: 978-


750-8400; fax: 978-750-4470; Internet: www.copyright.com.


All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Offi ce of


the Publisher, Th e World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail:


pubrights@worldbank.org.


ISBN: 978-0-8213-8493-0


eISBN: 978-0-8213-8667-5


DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-8493-0


Cover photo: ©Atlantide Phototravel/Corbis


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Cities and climate change : responding to an urgent agenda / edited by Daniel Hoornweg ... [et al.].


p. cm.—(Urban development series)


Collection of papers prepared and presented at the World Bank’s Fift h Urban Research Symposium.


Includes bibliographical references and index.


ISBN 978-0-8213-8493-0—ISBN 978-0-8213-8667-5 (electronic)


1. Urban ecology (Sociology—Congresses. 2. Greenhouse gases—Congresses. 3. Climatic changes—


Congresses. I. Hoornweg, Daniel A. (Daniel Arthur), 1961- II. Urban Research Symposium (5th Marseille,


France 2009)


HT241.C555 2011


307.76—dc22


2011007569 Contents


Foreword iii


Acknowledgments xi


Contributors xiii


Abbreviations xv


Chapter 1. Introduction: Cities and the Urgent Challenges


of Climate Change 1


Chapter 2. Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines


for Global Cities and Metropolitan Regions 15


Christopher A. Kennedy, Anu Ramaswami, Sebastian Carney,


and Shobhakar Dhakal


Chapter 3. Comparing Mitigation Policies in Five Large


Cities: London, New York City, Milan,


Mexico City, and Bangkok 55


Edoardo Croci, Sabrina Melandri, and Tania Molteni


Chapter 4. GHG emissions, Urban Mobility, and Morphology:


A Hypothesis 87


Alain Bertaud, Benoit Lefèvre, and Belinda Yuen


Chapter 5. The Role of Institutions, Governance, and


Urban Planning for Mitigation and Adaptation 125


Harriet Bulkeley, Heike Schroeder, Katy Janda,


Jimin Zhao, Andrea Armstrong, Shu Yi Chu,


and Shibani Ghosh


■ v vi ■ CONTENTS


Chapter 6. Viral Governance and Mixed Motivations:


How and Why U.S. Cities Engaged


on the Climate Change Issue, 2005–2007 161


Toby Warden


Chapter 7. Urban Heat Islands: Sensitivity of Urban


Temperatures to Climate Change and


Heat Release in Four European Cities 175


Mark P. McCarthy and Michael G. Sanderson


Chapter 8. Adapting Cities to Climate Change:


Opportunities and Constraints 193


Dirk Heinrichs, Rimjhim Aggarwal, Jonathan Barton,


Erach Bharucha, Carsten Butsch, Michail Fragkias,


Peter Johnston, Frauke Kraas, Kerstin Krellenberg,


Andrea Lampis, Ooi Giok Ling, and Johanna Vogel


Chapter 9. A Conceptual and Operational Framework


for Pro-poor Asset Adaptation to Urban


Climate change 225


Caroline Moser


Chapter 10. Epilogue: Perspectives from the


5th Urban Research Symposium 255


Appendix. Titles and Abstracts of Papers Not Included


in Full in This Volume 271


Index. 289 Foreword


Th e 5th Urban Research Symposium on Cities and Climate Change—Responding


to an Urgent Agenda, held in Marseille in June 2009, sought to highlight how


climate change and urbanization are converging to create one of the greatest


challenges of our time. Responding to this challenge eff ectively and sustainably


is a key objective for governments, authorities, institutions, and other organi-


zations involved in urban development processes. Th e World Bank, the French


Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing, and


the French Development Agency were therefore particularly committed to the


co-organization of the symposium.


Cities consume much of the world’s energy, and thus produce much of the


world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Yet cities, to varying extents, are also vulner-


able to climate change impacts, with poor populations facing the greatest risk.


Th us, adaptation and increased resilience constitute priorities for every city,


and cities have a key role to play in mitigating climate change. Climate change


mitigation and adaptation in cities has emerged as a new theme on the global


agenda, creating a strong desire among governments, the private sector, and the


academic community worldwide to learn from experiences and good practice


examples.


Th e 5th Urban Research Symposium made an important contribution to


the growing body of knowledge and practice in the area of cities and climate


change. During the three-day symposium, approximately 200 papers were pre-


sented to more than 700 participants representing more than 70 countries. As


co-organizers, we found it very rewarding to have such an audience and to see


the wide range of topics discussed, from indicators and measurement to insti-


tutions and governance.


Th e symposium was made possible through the commitment and contri-


butions of a wide range of partners and cosponsors, as well as through the


■ vii viii ■ FOREWORD


interest and participation of the wider community of urban researchers


and practitioners. We were encouraged by the symposium’s success, which


exceeded many expectations, and therefore wish to further disseminate its


results. Th is publication is comprised of an edited selection of the many


papers submitted to the symposium and gives a fl avor of the questions asked


and possible answers. (Th e entire collection of symposium papers is available


as an online resource for interested readers.) We look forward to the benefi ts


that the knowledge gained and the partnerships forged during the symposium


will have for global eff orts on cities and climate change.


Inger Andersen


Vice President


Sustainable Development Network


Th e World Bank


Michèle Pappalardo


General Commissioner for Sustainable Development


Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing


Rémi Genevey


Executive Director (Strategy)


French Development Agency


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