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Child Poverty and Inequality

299 Pages · 2012 · 3.31 MB · English

  • Child Poverty and Inequality

    C


    The 21st century starts with Child Poverty


    h


    vast asymmetries for children


    in terms of income, access to i


    l


    food, water, health, educa- d


    tion, housing, or employment and Inequality


    P


    for their families. Half of the


    world’s children are below o


    the poverty line of $2 a day v


    and suffer from multiple de-


    e New Perspectives


    privations and violations to


    r


    basic human rights. More t


    y


    than 22,000 children die each


    day, and most of their deaths


    a


    are preventable.


    n


    d


    The consequences of poverty and inequality are very significant for children. Children



    experience poverty differently from adults; they have specific and different needs. While I


    an adult may fall into poverty temporarily, falling into poverty in childhood can last a n


    lifetime – rarely does a child get a second chance at an education or a healthy start in e


    life. Even short periods of food deprivation can impact children’s long-term development. q


    If children do not receive adequate nutrition, they grow smaller in size and intellectual


    u


    capacity, are more vulnerable to life-threatening diseases, perform worse in school, and


    a


    ultimately, are less likely to be productive adults. Child poverty threatens not only the


    l


    individual child, but is likely to be passed on to future generations, entrenching and even i


    t


    exacerbating inequality in society. y



    This volume presents some of the critical acknowledged voices to move a necessary


    equitable agenda forward. They argue for multidimensional poverty measurements,


    explain current trends on global poverty and inequality, and policies to redress them


    such as socially-responsive macroeconomic and sector policies, including social pro-


    tection, good governance and human rights, as well as addressing systemic issues such EO


    as inequalities among and within countries. nr


    gt


    i


    iz


    Contributors in this volume: Paul Collier Nora Lustig lb,


    eM


    Sarah Cook Bruno Martorano


    Hanna Alder r


    Giovanni A. Cornia Alberto Minujin to


    Sabina Alkire Matthew Cummins Deepa Narayan sdre


    Armando Barrientos Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir Isabel Ortiz ói


    Sheridan Bartlett tr


    Gaspar Fajth Paola Pereznieto ta


    Laurence Chandy Geoffrey Gertz Kate E. Pickett ir D


    Alex Cobham


    Caroline Harper Amjad Rabi (


    ISBN 978-1-105-53175-0 Ea Isabel Ortiz, Louise Moreira Daniels and


    90000 Sir Richard Jolly José Manuel Roche n


    d


    Jomo Kwame Sundaram Andy Sumner i


    ie Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir (Editors)


    Nicola Jones Timo Voipio tols


    Naila Kabeer Richard Wilkinson r


    sa


    Bill Kerry Jennifer Yablonski


    )n


    9 781105 531750


    Sharmila Kurukulasuriya d



    Division of Policy and Practice






    CHILD POVERTY AND


    INEQUALITY


    NEW PERSPECTIVES








    Isabel Ortiz


    Louise Moreira Daniels


    Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir


    Editors






    Division of Policy and Practice

























    Cover design: Upasana Young


    Cover and back photos:


    © UNICEF/NYHQ1996-0909/LeMoyne


    © UNICEF/INDIA-00073/Shankar


    © UNICEF/PHIA2009-0011/Lovell


    © UNICEF/NYHQ2007-2671/Giacomo Pirozzi




    Child Poverty and Inequality: New Perspectives


    Isabel Ortiz, Louise Moreira Daniels, Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir (Eds)


    © United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Division of Policy and


    Practice, New York 2012


    ISBN: 978-1-105-53175-0



    DISCLAIMER: The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed


    in this book are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the


    policies or views of UNICEF or of the United Nations. The text has not


    been edited to official publication standards, and UNICEF accepts no


    responsibility for errors. The designations in this publication do not imply


    an opinion on legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities,


    or the delimitation of frontiers.


    Contents



    Acknowledgments i



    Introduction 1


    Isabel Ortiz, Louise Moreira Daniels and Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir



    Making the Case for Child Poverty 14


    Alberto Minujin



    Beyond Headcount: The Alkire-Foster Approach to


    Multidimensional Child Poverty Measurement 18


    Sabina Alkire and José Manuel Roche



    A Multidimensional Approach to Measuring Child Poverty 23


    Sharmila Kurukulasuriya and Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir



    The Dynamics of Poverty 35


    Deepa Narayan



    The Changing State of Global Poverty 42


    Laurence Chandy and Geoffrey Gertz



    Escaping Poverty Traps – Children and Chronic Poverty 48


    Caroline Harper, Hanna Alder and Paola Pereznieto



    Can the MDG’s Provide a Pathway to Social Justice?


    The Challenge of Intersecting Inequalities 57


    Naila Kabeer



    Rethinking Poverty 63


    Jomo Kwame Sundaram



    Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change,


    Social Policy and Politics 69


    Sarah Cook



    UNICEF, Economists and Economic Policy:


    Bringing Children into Development Strategies 79


    Sir Richard Jolly




    Child Poverty, Policy and Evidence: Mainstreaming


    Children in International Development 89


    Nicola Jones and Andy Sumner



    Just Give Money to the Poor 97


    Armando Barrientos



    Social Protection: Accelerating the MDGs with Equity 103


    Isabel Ortiz, Gaspar Fajth, Jennifer Yablonski and Amjad Rabi



    Social Protection for All – An Agenda for Pro-Child


    Growth and Child Rights 118


    Timo Voipio



    Rising Food Prices and Children’s Welfare 125


    Nora Lustig



    The Plundered Planet and The Bottom Billion: Why the


    Mismanagement of Nature Matters for the World’s Most


    Vulnerable 133


    Paul Collier



    Children in Urban Poverty: Can They Get More than Small


    Change? 139


    Sheridan Bartlett



    Global Inequality: Beyond the Bottom Billion - A Rapid


    Review of Income Distribution in 141 Countries 149


    Isabel Ortiz and Matthew Cummins



    The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies


    Stronger 205


    Bill Kerry, Kate E. Pickett and Richard Wilkinson



    We’re All in This Together: Why Fighting Inequality is


    Central to Development 211


    Alex Cobham



    Policies for Reducing Income Inequality:


    Latin America during the Last Decade 215


    Giovanni Andrea Cornia and Bruno Martorano



    Annexes 270



    Contributors



    Hanna Alder is Programme/Research Officer at the Overseas


    Development Institute (ODI).


    Sabina Alkire is Director at the Oxford Poverty and Human


    Development Initiative (OPHI), Oxford University.


    Armando Barrientos is Research Director of the Brooks World


    Poverty Institute, University of Manchester.


    Sheridan Bartlett is Senior Research Associate in the Human


    Settlements Program at the International Institute for Environment


    and Development (IIED) and Managing Editor of IIED’s journal,


    Environments and Urbanization.


    Laurence Chandy is a Fellow at the Brookings Institution.


    Alex Cobham is Chief Policy Advisor for Christian Aid.


    Paul Collier is Professor of Economics, Director for the Centre


    for the Study of African Economies at the University of Oxford


    and fellow of St. Antony’s College.


    Sarah Cook is Director of the United Nations Research Institute


    for Social Development (UNRISD).


    Giovanni Andrea Cornia is Professor of Development


    Economics, University of Florence, and former Chief Economist at


    UNICEF.


    Matthew Cummins is Social and Economic Policy Specialist,


    Division of Policy and Practice, UNICEF.


    Sólrún Engilbertsdóttir is Policy Analyst at the Social Policy and


    Economic Analysis Unit, Division of Policy and Practice, UNICEF.


    Gaspar Fajth is Regional Social Policy Advisor at UNICEF’s


    Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office. Geoffrey Gertz is Research Analyst at the Brookings Institution.


    Caroline Harper is Associate Director of the Chronic Poverty


    Research Centre and a Research Fellow at Overseas Development


    Institute.


    Sir Richard Jolly is Research Associate at the Institute of


    Development Studies (IDS) and former Assistant Secretary


    General, UNICEF.


    Jomo Kwame Sundaram is United Nations Assistant Secretary-


    General for Economic Development in the United Nations


    Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA).


    Nicola Jones is Research Fellow at the Overseas Development


    Institute (ODI).


    Naila Kabeer is Professor of Gender and Development at the


    School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of


    London.


    Bill Kerry is Co-founder and Director of The Equality Trust.


    Sharmila Kurukulasuriya is a Poverty Specialist formerly at the


    Social Policy and Economic Analysis Unit, Division of Policy and


    Practice, UNICEF.


    Nora Lustig is Samuel Z. Stone Professor of Latin American


    Economics at Tulane University and non-resident fellow at the


    Center for Global Development (CGD).


    Bruno Martorano is Staff Consultant at UNICEF’s Innocenti


    Research Center.


    Alberto Minujin is Professor at The New School and at Columbia


    University.



    Louise Moreira Daniels is Policy Analyst, Division of Policy and


    Practice, UNICEF. Deepa Narayan is former Senior Advisor in the Poverty


    Reduction and Economic Management Network of the World


    Bank.


    Isabel Ortiz is Associate Director, Policy and Practice, UNICEF.


    Paola Pereznieto is Research Fellow in the Social Development


    Programme at Overseas Development Institute (ODI).


    Kate Pickett is Professor of Epidemiology at the University of


    York and a National Institute for Health Research Career Scientist.


    Amjad Rabi is Social Policy Specialist, UNICEF Zimbabwe.


    José Manuel Roche is Research Officer at Oxford Poverty and


    Human Development Initiative (OPHI).


    Andy Sumner is Research Fellow at the Institute of Development


    Studies (IDS) and Visiting Fellow at the Centre for Global


    Development (CGD).


    Timo Voipio is Chair of the Poverty Reduction Network


    (POVNET), OECD-DAC Paris, and Senior Adviser for Global


    Social Policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs for Finland.


    Richard Wilkinson is Professor Emeritus of Social Epidemiology


    at the University of Nottingham.


    Jennifer Yablonski is Social Protection Specialist at the Social


    Policy and Economic Analysis Unit, Division of Policy and


    Practice, UNICEF.




    Acknowledgements



    This volume is the result of over two years of UNICEF’s work on


    multidimensional child poverty and inequality. The editors of this


    book would like to thank all the contributors, not only for their


    papers but also for the support provided to other efforts crucial to


    child wellbeing. Special thanks to Gaspar Fajth, Sharmila


    Kurukulasuriya, Alberto Minujin and Giovanni Andrea Cornia for


    their pioneering work in UNICEF in this area, as well as to Richard


    Morgan, Director of Policy and Practice, UNICEF, for his guidance


    and comments during these past years. 1



    Introduction




    Wh ile poverty reduction has become a central feature of the


    international development agenda, the 21st century starts


    with vast asymmetries in terms of income, access to food,


    water, health, education, housing, or employment for families. Half


    of the world’s children are below the international poverty line of


    $2 a day and suffer from multiple deprivations and violations to


    basic human rights. More than eight million children die each year


    (some 22,000 per day), and most of their deaths are preventable.


    Hunger, malnutrition and lack of safe drinking water contribute to


    at least half of child mortality. The urgency to address these


    inequalities cannot be more stressed.



    The consequences of poverty and inequality are very significant for


    children. Children experience poverty differently from adults; they


    have specific and different needs. While an adult may fall into


    poverty temporarily, falling into poverty in childhood can last a


    lifetime – rarely does a child get a second chance at an education or


    a healthy start in life. Even short periods of food deprivation can


    impact children’s long-term development. If children do not receive


    adequate nutrition, they grow smaller in size and intellectual


    capacity, are more vulnerable to life-threatening diseases, perform


    worse in school, and ultimately, are less likely to be productive


    adults. Child poverty threatens not only the individual child, but is


    likely to be passed on to future generations, entrenching and even


    exacerbating inequality in society.


    This volume is a compilation of recent thinking on the issue of


    child poverty and inequalities. It draws on over two years of


    UNICEF’s collaboration with innovative and leading thinkers on


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