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Chemistry for Pharmacy Students

398 Pages · 2007 · 16.42 MB · English

  • Chemistry for Pharmacy Students

    Chemistry for Pharmacy Students


    General, Organic and Natural Product Chemistry


    Satyajit D. Sarker


    University ofUlster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland,UK


    Lutfun Nahar


    University ofUlster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland,UK Chemistry for Pharmacy Students Chemistry for Pharmacy Students


    General, Organic and Natural Product Chemistry


    Satyajit D. Sarker


    University ofUlster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland,UK


    Lutfun Nahar


    University ofUlster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland,UK Copyright#2007 JohnWiley&SonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,


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    LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData


    Sarker,SatyajitD.


    Chemistryforpharmacystudents:general,organic,andnaturalproductchemistry/SatyajitD.Sarker,


    LutfunNahar.


    p.;cm.


    Includesbibliographicalreferences.


    ISBN978-0-470-01780-7(cloth:alk.paper)


    1. Chemistry–Textbooks.I.Nahar,Lutfun,Ph.D.II.Title.


    [DNLM:1. Chemistry,Pharmaceutical.2. Chemistry.QV744S517c2007]


    QD31.3.S3772007


    540–dc22 2007017895


    BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationData


    AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary


    ISBN978-0-470-01780-7(HB) 978-0-470-01781-4(PB)


    Typesetin11/14ptTimesbyThomsonDigital


    PrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd.,Chippenham,Wilts


    Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaperresponsiblymanufacturedfromsustainableforestry


    inwhichatleasttwotreesareplantedforeachoneusedforpaperproduction. This book is dedicated to


    pharmacy students


    from all over the world Contents


    Preface ix


    1 Introduction 1


    1.1 Role ofchemistryinmodernlife 1


    1.2 Physicalpropertiesofdrugmolecules 3


    2 Atomic structure and bonding 17


    2.1 Atoms, elementsandcompounds 17


    2.2 Atomic structure:orbitalsandelectronicconfigurations 18


    2.3 Chemicalbondingtheories:formationofchemicalbonds 21


    2.4 Electronegativity andchemicalbonding 27


    2.5 Bondpolarityandintermolecularforces 28


    2.6 Significanceofchemicalbondingindrug–receptorinteractions 31


    3 Stereochemistry 35


    3.1 Stereochemistry: definition 36


    3.2 Isomerism 36


    3.3 Significanceofstereoisomerism indeterminingdrugactionandtoxicity 53


    3.4 Synthesisofchiralmolecules 55


    3.5 Separation ofstereoisomers:resolutionofracemicmixtures 56


    3.6 Compoundswithstereocentres otherthan carbon 57


    3.7 Chiral compoundsthatdonothaveatetrahedralatom withfour


    different groups 57


    4 Organic functional groups 59


    4.1 Organicfunctionalgroups:definitionandstructural features 60


    4.2 Hydrocarbons 61


    4.3 Alkanes,cycloalkanesandtheirderivatives 61


    4.4 Alkenesandtheirderivatives 103


    4.5 Alkynesand theirderivatives 108


    4.6 Aromaticcompoundsand theirderivatives 112


    4.7 Heterocycliccompoundsandtheirderivatives 143


    4.8 Nucleicacids 170


    4.9 Aminoacidsandpeptides 179


    4.10 Importanceoffunctionalgroupsindeterminingdrugactionsandtoxicity 184


    4.11 Importance offunctionalgroupsindeterminingstabilityofdrugs 188


    5 Organic reactions 191


    5.1 Types oforganicreaction 191


    5.2 Radicalreactions:freeradicalchainreactions 192


    5.3 Additionreactions 197


    5.4 Elimination reactions:1,2-eliminationorb-elimination 223


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