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Building a Better Vocabulary

291 Pages · 2015 · 1.48 MB · English

  • Building a Better Vocabulary

    Subtopic


    Topic Communication


    Professional Skills


    Building a Better


    Vocabulary


    Course Guidebook


    Professor Kevin Flanigan


    West Chester University of Pennsylvania PUBLISHED BY:


    THE GREAT COURSES


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    Chantilly, Virginia 20151-2299


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    www.thegreatcourses.com


    Copyright © The Teaching Company, 2015


    Printed in the United States of America


    This book is in copyright. All rights reserved.


    Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above,


    no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in


    or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted,


    in any form, or by any means


    (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise),


    without the prior written permission of


    The Teaching Company. Kevin Flanigan, Ph.D.


    Professor of Education


    West Chester University of Pennsylvania


    P


    rofessor Kevin Flanigan is a Professor of


    Education in the Literacy Department at


    West Chester University of Pennsylvania,


    where he has taught since 2003. He is a Phi Beta


    Kappa graduate of Mary Washington College (now


    the University of Mary Washington), where he


    received a B.A. in History, summa cum laude. Later, he received an M.Ed.


    from James Madison University and an M.Ed. in Reading Education from


    the University of Virginia. After working as a middle grades classroom


    teacher and reading specialist, he received his Ph.D. in Reading Education


    from the University of Virginia, with a dissertation on emergent readers’


    developing concept of word in text.


    Professor Flanigan’s research, publications, and presentations focus on


    developmental word knowledge, vocabulary development and instruction,


    and interventions for students who struggle with literacy skills. He has


    presented frequently at national and international conferences and works


    with schools and teachers to implement effective literacy instruction.


    In 2011, Professor Flanigan was nominated for the U.S. Professors of the


    Year Award by West Chester University. In 2009, Professor Flanigan and


    his colleagues received an Educator 500 award for innovative teaching in


    the Kennett Experience, a university–public school partnership. Professor


    Flanigan teaches graduate and undergraduate literacy education courses and


    works in the West Chester University Reading Center, where he supervises


    graduate-level teachers as they work with students in kindergarten through


    12th grade who struggle with literacy skills.


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    Way with Struggling Readers: Word Study for Reading, Vocabulary, and


    Spelling Instruction, Grades 4–12. He is also coauthor of Vocabulary Their


    i Way: Word Study with Middle and Secondary Students (2nd edition) and


    Developing Word Recognition. In addition, Professor Flanigan is a member


    of the authorship team for Vocabulary Their Way: Words and Strategies for


    Academic Success, a vocabulary program for middle school students. The


    professor has authored or coauthored articles in a number of professional


    journals, including The Reading Teacher, the Journal of Adolescent and


    Adult Literacy, and the Journal of Literacy Research(cid:17)(cid:3)(cid:374)


    ii Table of Contents


    INTRODUCTION


    Professor Biography ............................................................................i


    Course Scope .....................................................................................1


    LECTURE GUIDES


    LECTURE 1


    Five Principles for Learning Vocabulary .............................................3


    LECTURE 2


    The Spelling-Meaning Connection ...................................................10


    LECTURE 3


    Words for Lying, Swindling, and Conniving ......................................17


    LECTURE 4


    Words That Express Annoyance and Disgust ..................................24


    LECTURE 5


    Fighting Words and Peaceful Words ................................................31


    LECTURE 6


    Going beyond Dictionary Meanings..................................................38


    LECTURE 7


    Wicked Words ..................................................................................46


    LECTURE 8


    Words for Beginnings and Endings ..................................................52


    LECTURE 9


    Words Expressing Fear, Love, and Hatred .......................................58


    LECTURE 10


    Words for the Everyday and the Elite ...............................................63


    iii Table of Contents


    LECTURE 11


    Words from Gods and Heroes ..........................................................69


    LECTURE 12


    Humble Words and Prideful Words ..................................................76


    LECTURE 13


    High-Frequency Greek and Latin Roots ...........................................83


    LECTURE 14


    Words Relating to Belief and Trust ...................................................90


    LECTURE 15


    Words for the Way We Talk ..............................................................97


    LECTURE 16


    Words for Praise, Criticism, and Nonsense ....................................104


    LECTURE 17


    Eponyms from Literature and History .............................................111


    LECTURE 18


    Thinking, Teaching, and Learning Words .......................................119


    LECTURE 19


    Words for the Diligent and the Lazy ...............................................126


    LECTURE 20


    Words That Break and Words That Join .........................................132


    LECTURE 21


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    LECTURE 22


    Cranky Words and Cool Words ......................................................145


    LECTURE 23


    Words for Courage and Cowardice ................................................151


    iv Table of Contents


    LECTURE 24


    Reviewing Vocabulary through Literature .......................................158


    LECTURE 25


    Words for Killing and Cutting ..........................................................165


    LECTURE 26


    A Vocabulary Grab Bag ..................................................................171


    LECTURE 27


    Words for Words .............................................................................176


    LECTURE 28


    Specialty Words for Language .......................................................182


    LECTURE 29


    Nasty Words and Nice Words ........................................................192


    LECTURE 30


    Words for the Really Big and the Very Small ..................................198


    LECTURE 31


    Spelling as a Vocabulary Tool ........................................................205


    LECTURE 32


    A Medley of New Words .................................................................212


    LECTURE 33


    Building Vocabulary through Games ..............................................217


    LECTURE 34


    Words English Borrowed and Never Returned ...............................224


    LECTURE 35


    More Foreign Loan Words ..............................................................232


    LECTURE 36


    Forgotten Words and Neologisms .................................................237


    v Table of Contents


    SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL


    Answers to Review Questions ........................................................245


    Glossary of Target Words ...............................................................263


    Bibliography ....................................................................................279


    vi Building a Better Vocabulary


    Scope:


    I


    n one of the most insightful statements on vocabulary ever penned, Mark


    Twain said, “The difference between the almost right word and the right


    word is really a large matter—’tis the difference between the lightning


    bug and the lightning.” As Mark Twain knew, a powerful vocabulary consists


    of more than simply knowing a lot of words; it’s the ability to grasp the “just


    right” word to communicate precisely what you want to say or write.


    Acquiring the type of deep and nuanced vocabulary knowledge that Twain


    was talking about doesn’t come from simply studying lists of vocabulary


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    time” approach that many of us experienced in school often leads to surface-


    level vocabulary knowledge that lasts only until the Friday quiz.


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    (cid:78)(cid:81)(cid:82)(cid:90)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:71)(cid:74)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:82)(cid:90)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:3)(cid:85)(cid:76)(cid:70)(cid:75)(cid:3)(cid:89)(cid:82)(cid:70)(cid:68)(cid:69)(cid:88)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:68)(cid:87)(cid:182)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:69)(cid:85)(cid:82)(cid:68)(cid:71)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:71)(cid:72)(cid:72)(cid:83)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:192)(cid:72)(cid:91)(cid:76)(cid:69)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:86)(cid:87)(cid:86)(cid:3)


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    toolbox that you can apply as we explore new target words throughout the


    course. You will use these tools to learn word meanings deeply so that you’ll


    remember and be able to use the words years from now.


    As we move through the lectures, we’ll meet and explore a host of vocabulary


    words that are, by turns, snappy, lively, powerful, and beautiful, such as


    (cid:74)(cid:68)(cid:71)(cid:192)(cid:92), Promethean, (cid:74)(cid:72)(cid:80)(cid:460)(cid:87)(cid:79)(cid:76)(cid:70)(cid:75)(cid:78)(cid:72)(cid:76)(cid:87), and hornswoggle. The lectures are


    organized thematically; for example, in a lecture on liars and swindlers, we’ll


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    and sophists, honoring the way our minds organize vocabulary by meaning.


    We’ll also take the time to examine words in rich context to get a better feel


    for how to actually use them in speaking and writing. In addition, you’ll


    learn to make personal connections to word meanings so that these words


    “stick” in your lexicon—the mental library of word meanings we all possess.


    Along the way, we’ll see that there’s no such thing as an exact synonym


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    in the end, you’ll know the difference between such words as specious and


    spurious and when to use each.


    Importantly, we will also delve into the etymology and morphology of


    words—that is, their history and structure. This will enable you to harness


    the power of the “meaning system” that is deeply embedded in the DNA of


    the English language, applying your growing knowledge of high-utility Latin


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    words. To guide your learning, you will also create a vocabulary notebook


    that will serve as a place to collect your growing vocabulary.


    By the end of this course, you’ll know many new, powerful, and beautiful


    vocabulary words. Just as importantly, you’ll know how to learn vocabulary


    for yourself. You’ll have your own toolbox of strategies and resources that


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