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BIRD CONSERVATION

704 Pages · 2013 · 6.88 MB · English

  • BIRD CONSERVATION



    Bat Conservation


    Global evidence for the effects of interventions



    2019 Edition



    Anna Berthinussen, Olivia C. Richardson & John D. Altringham




    Synopses of Conservation Evidence











    Copyright © 2019 William J. Sutherland



    This document should be cited as: Berthinussen, A., Richardson O.C. and Altringham


    J.D. (2019) Bat Conservation: Global Evidence for the Effects of Interventions.


    Synopses of Conservation Evidence Series. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.



    Cover image: Dwarf fruit eating bat Dermanura gnoma, South America, © Adrià


    López-Baucells


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    Contents


    Advisory Board ......................................................................... 9



    About the authors ................................................................... 10



    Acknowledgements ................................................................ 11



    About this book ...................................................................... 12



    1. Threat: Residential and commercial development ........... 20



    1.1. Retain existing bat roosts and access points within developments ................................. 20


    1.2. Relocate access points to bat roosts within developments ............................................. 21


    1.3. Install sound-proofing insulation between bat roosts and areas occupied by humans


    within developments ..................................................................................................................... 23


    1.4. Create alternative bat roosts within developments ........................................................ 23


    1.5. Change timing of building work ....................................................................................... 27


    1.6. Exclude bats from roosts during building work ............................................................... 28


    1.7. Educate homeowners about building and planning laws relating to bats to reduce


    disturbance to bat roosts ............................................................................................................... 29


    1.8. Encourage homeowners to plant gardens with night-scented flowers ........................... 29


    1.9. Encourage homeowners to increase semi-natural habitat within gardens ..................... 30


    1.10. Protect brownfield or ex-industrial sites.......................................................................... 30


    1.11. Protect greenfield sites or undeveloped land in urban areas .......................................... 31


    1.12. Create or restore bat foraging habitat in urban areas ..................................................... 31


    1.13. Legally protect bats during development ........................................................................ 33


    2. Threat: Agriculture .......................................................... 36



    All farming systems ................................................................................................................... 36


    2.1. Use organic farming instead of conventional farming ..................................................... 36


    2.2. Introduce agri-environment schemes .............................................................................. 40


    2.3. Engage farmers and landowners to manage land for bats .............................................. 42


    2.4. Provide or retain set-aside areas in farmland .................................................................. 43


    2.5. Increase the proportion of semi-natural habitat in the farmed landscape ..................... 43


    2.6. Reduce field size (or maintain small fields) ...................................................................... 43


    2.7. Retain unmown field margins .......................................................................................... 44


    2.8. Plant field margins with a diverse mix of plant species ................................................... 45


    2.9. Plant new hedges ............................................................................................................. 45


    2.10. Manage hedges to benefit bats ....................................................................................... 46


    2.11. Manage ditches to benefit bats ....................................................................................... 47


    2.12. Retain existing in-field trees ............................................................................................ 47


    2.13. Plant in-field trees ............................................................................................................ 48


    2.14. Create tree plantations on agricultural land to provide roosting and foraging habitat for


    bats 49


    2.15. Retain remnant forest or woodland on agricultural land ................................................ 51


    2.16. Retain or plant native trees and shrubs amongst crops (agroforestry) ........................... 54


    Livestock farming ...................................................................................................................... 58


    2.17. Avoid the use of antiparasitic drugs for livestock ............................................................ 58


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    2.18. Manage grazing regimes to increase invertebrate prey .................................................. 58


    2.19. Replace culling with non-lethal methods of preventing vampire bats from spreading


    rabies to livestock .......................................................................................................................... 59


    2.20. Remove livestock modifications from water troughs ...................................................... 59


    Perennial, non-timber crops ...................................................................................................... 60


    2.21. Prevent culling of bats around fruit orchards .................................................................. 60


    2.22. Replace netting with non-lethal measures to prevent bats from accessing fruit in


    orchards ......................................................................................................................................... 61


    2.23. Introduce certification for bat-friendly crop harvesting regimes .................................... 61


    3. Threat: Energy production and mining ............................. 63



    Wind turbines ............................................................................................................................ 63


    3.1. Reduce turbine height...................................................................................................... 63


    3.2. Reduce rotor diameter ..................................................................................................... 64


    3.3. Apply textured coating to turbines .................................................................................. 64


    3.4. Deter bats from turbines using radar .............................................................................. 65


    3.5. Deter bats from turbines using ultrasound ...................................................................... 65


    3.6. Deter bats from turbines using low-level ultraviolet light ............................................... 67


    3.7. Remove turbine lighting to reduce bat and insect attraction .......................................... 67


    3.8. Paint turbines to reduce insect attraction ....................................................................... 68


    3.9. Close off potential access points on turbines to prevent roosting bats .......................... 68


    3.10. Modify turbine placement to reduce bat fatalities .......................................................... 68


    3.11. Retain a buffer between turbines and habitat features used by bats ............................. 69


    3.12. Prevent turbine blades from turning at low wind speeds to reduce bat fatalities .......... 70


    3.13. Increase the wind speed at which turbines become operational (‘cut-in speed’) to


    reduce bat fatalities ....................................................................................................................... 72


    3.14. Automatically reduce turbine blade rotation when bat activity is high........................... 74


    Mining ....................................................................................................................................... 75


    3.15. Provide artificial subterranean bat roosts to replace roosts in reclaimed mines ............ 76


    3.16. Exclude bats from roosts prior to mine reclamation ....................................................... 76


    3.17. Relocate bats from reclaimed mines to alternative subterranean roost sites ................ 76


    3.18. Retain access points for bats following mine closures..................................................... 77


    3.19. Install and maintain gates at mine entrances to restrict public access ........................... 77


    3.20. Maintain microclimate in closed/abandoned mines ....................................................... 79


    3.21. Reopen entrances to closed mines and make suitable for roosting bats ........................ 80


    4. Threat: Transportation and service corridors ................... 81



    4.1. Install underpasses or culverts as road crossing structures for bats ............................... 81


    4.2. Install overpasses as road crossing structures for bats .................................................... 84


    4.3. Install bat gantries or bat bridges as road crossing structures for bats ........................... 86


    4.4. Install green bridges as road crossing structures for bats ............................................... 87


    4.5. Install hop-overs as road crossing structures for bats ..................................................... 89


    4.6. Divert bats to safe crossing points with plantings or fencing .......................................... 89


    4.7. Maintain bat roosts in road bridges or culverts ............................................................... 90


    4.8. Create spaces for roosting bats in road bridges and culverts .......................................... 91


    4.9. Deter bats from roads using lighting ................................................................................ 92


    4.10. Deter bats from roads using ultrasound .......................................................................... 92


    4.11. Minimize road lighting to reduce insect attraction .......................................................... 93


    4.12. Avoid planting fruit trees alongside roads in areas with fruit bats .................................. 93


    4.13. Replace or improve habitat for bats around roads .......................................................... 93


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    5. Threat: Biological resource use ........................................ 95



    Hunting ...................................................................................................................................... 95


    5.1. Introduce and enforce legislation to control hunting of bats .......................................... 95


    5.2. Enforce regulations to prevent trafficking and trade of bats .......................................... 96


    5.3. Strengthen cultural traditions that discourage bat harvesting ........................................ 96


    5.4. Inform local communities about the negative impacts of bat hunting to reduce killing of


    bats 96


    5.5. Inform local communities about disease risks from hunting and eating bat meat to


    reduce killing of bats ...................................................................................................................... 97


    5.6. Introduce alternative treatments to reduce the use of bats in traditional medicine ...... 98


    5.7. Introduce other food sources to replace bat meat .......................................................... 98


    5.8. Introduce other income sources to replace bat trade ..................................................... 98


    5.9. Encourage online vendors to remove bat specimens for sale ......................................... 99


    5.10. Replace culling of bats with non-lethal methods of preventing vampire bats from


    spreading rabies to humans .......................................................................................................... 99


    5.11. Restrict the collection of bat specimens for research.................................................... 100


    Guano harvesting .................................................................................................................... 100


    5.12. Introduce and enforce legislation to regulate harvesting of bat guano ........................ 100


    Logging and wood harvesting ................................................................................................. 101


    5.13. Thin trees within forest and woodland .......................................................................... 101


    5.14. Use selective or reduced impact logging instead of conventional logging .................... 104


    5.15. Use shelterwood cutting instead of clearcutting ........................................................... 106


    5.16. Train arborists and forestry operatives to identify potential bat roosts ....................... 107


    5.17. Protect roost trees during forest operations ................................................................. 107


    5.18. Retain buffers around roost trees in logged areas ........................................................ 108


    5.19. Change timing of forestry operations ............................................................................ 108


    5.20. Retain forested corridors in logged areas ...................................................................... 108


    5.21. Retain residual tree patches in logged areas ................................................................. 110


    5.22. Retain riparian buffers in logged areas .......................................................................... 111


    5.23. Maintain forest and woodland edges for foraging bats ................................................. 112


    5.24. Manage forest and woodland to encourage understorey growth ................................ 113


    5.25. Coppice woodland ......................................................................................................... 113


    5.26. Replant native trees in logged areas .............................................................................. 114


    5.27. Encourage natural regeneration in former plantations ................................................. 114


    5.28. Strengthen cultural traditions such as sacred groves that prevent timber harvesting.. 114


    6. Threat: Human intrusions and disturbance ..................... 115



    Caving and tourism ................................................................................................................. 115


    6.1. Retain bat access points to caves .................................................................................. 115


    6.2. Install and maintain cave gates to restrict public access ............................................... 115


    6.3. Install fencing around cave entrances to restrict public access ..................................... 120


    6.4. Impose restrictions on cave visits .................................................................................. 121


    6.5. Inform the public of ways to reduce disturbance to bats in caves ................................ 123


    6.6. Train tourist guides to minimize disturbance and promote bat conservation .............. 124


    6.7. Minimize alterations to caves for tourism ..................................................................... 124


    6.8. Restrict artificial lighting in caves and around cave entrances ...................................... 124


    6.9. Minimize noise levels within caves ................................................................................ 125


    6.10. Introduce guidelines for sustainable cave development and use .................................. 126


    6.11. Provide artificial subterranean bat roosts to replace roosts in disturbed caves ........... 126


    6.12. Restore and maintain microclimate in modified caves .................................................. 127


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    7. Threat: Natural system modifications ............................. 128



    Fire or fire suppression ............................................................................................................ 128


    7.1. Use prescribed burning .................................................................................................. 128


    Dams and water management/use ........................................................................................ 132


    7.2. Create or maintain small dams to provide foraging and drinking habitat for bats ........ 132


    7.3. Relocate bat colonies roosting inside dams ................................................................... 133


    8. Threat: Invasive species and disease ............................... 135



    Invasive species ....................................................................................................................... 135


    8.1. Control invasive plant species ........................................................................................ 135


    8.2. Control invasive predators ............................................................................................. 136


    8.3. Control invasive non-predatory competitors ................................................................. 137


    8.4. Control harmful invasive bat prey species ..................................................................... 137


    8.5. Exclude domestic and feral cats from bat roosts and roost entrances .......................... 137


    8.6. Keep domestic cats indoors at night .............................................................................. 138


    8.7. Use collar-mounted devices on cats to reduce predation of bats ................................. 138


    Disease .................................................................................................................................... 139


    8.8. Carry out surveillance of bats for early treatment/action to reduce disease/viruses ... 139


    White-nose syndrome ............................................................................................................. 139


    8.9. Restrict human access to bat caves to prevent spread of disease................................. 140


    8.10. Decontaminate clothing and equipment after entering caves ...................................... 140


    8.11. Modify bat hibernacula environments to increase bat survival .................................... 141


    8.12. Treat bat hibernacula environments to reduce pathogen reservoir ............................. 142


    8.13. Vaccinate bats against the white-nose syndrome pathogen ......................................... 142


    8.14. Treat bats for infection with white-nose syndrome ...................................................... 143


    8.15. Breed bats in captivity to supplement wild populations affected by white-nose


    syndrome ..................................................................................................................................... 144


    8.16. Cull infected bats ........................................................................................................... 144


    9. Threat: Pollution ............................................................ 146



    Domestic and urban waste water ........................................................................................... 146


    9.1. Change effluent treatments of domestic and urban waste water ................................. 146


    9.2. Prevent pollution from sewage treatment facilities from entering watercourses ........ 147


    9.3. Reduce or prevent the use of septic systems near caves .............................................. 148


    Industrial effluents .................................................................................................................. 148


    9.4. Introduce or enforce legislation to prevent ponds and streams from being contaminated


    by toxins ....................................................................................................................................... 148


    Agricultural and forestry effluents .......................................................................................... 149


    9.5. Introduce legislation to control the use of hazardous substances ................................ 149


    9.6. Reduce pesticide, herbicide or fertiliser use .................................................................. 149


    9.7. Use organic pest control instead of synthetic pesticides ............................................... 151


    9.8. Change effluent treatments used in agriculture and forestry ....................................... 151


    9.9. Prevent pollution from agricultural land or forestry from entering watercourses ........ 151


    9.10. Plant riparian buffer strips ............................................................................................. 152


    Light pollution ......................................................................................................................... 153


    9.11. Leave bat roosts and roost entrances unlit.................................................................... 153


    9.12. Avoid illumination of bat commuting routes ................................................................. 155


    9.13. Avoid illumination of key bat habitats ........................................................................... 156


    9.14. Direct lighting away from bat access points or habitats ................................................ 157


    9.15. Restrict timing of lighting ............................................................................................... 157


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    9.16. Use low intensity lighting ............................................................................................... 158


    9.17. Use ‘warm white’ rather than ‘cool’ LED lights .............................................................. 159


    9.18. Use UV filters on lights ................................................................................................... 160


    9.19. Use red lighting rather than other lighting colours........................................................ 161


    9.20. Use glazing treatments to reduce light spill from inside lit buildings ............................ 162


    Noise pollution ........................................................................................................................ 162


    9.21. Impose noise limits in proximity to bat roosts and habitats .......................................... 163


    9.22. Install sound barriers in proximity to bat roosts and habitats ....................................... 163


    Timber treatments .................................................................................................................. 163


    9.23. Use mammal-safe timber treatments in roof spaces .................................................... 164


    9.24. Restrict timing of timber treatment application ............................................................ 164


    10. Climate change and severe weather ............................... 166



    10.1. Adapt bat roost structures to buffer against temperature extremes ............................ 166


    10.2. Enhance natural habitat features to improve landscape connectivity to allow for range


    shifts of bats ................................................................................................................................ 167


    10.3. Provide suitable bat foraging and roosting habitat at expanding range fronts ............. 167


    10.4. Manage natural water bodies in arid areas to prevent desiccation .............................. 168


    11. Habitat protection .......................................................... 169



    11.1. Legally protect bat habitats ........................................................................................... 169


    11.2. Retain buffer zones around core bat habitat ................................................................. 171


    11.3. Conserve roosting sites for bats in old structures or buildings ...................................... 171


    11.4. Retain veteran and standing dead trees as roosting sites for bats ................................ 173


    11.5. Retain existing bat commuting routes ........................................................................... 173


    11.6. Retain remnant habitat patches .................................................................................... 174


    11.7. Retain connectivity between habitat patches ............................................................... 174


    11.8. Retain wetlands ............................................................................................................. 174


    11.9. Retain native forest and woodland ................................................................................ 175


    12. Habitat restoration and creation .................................... 176



    12.1. Create artificial hollows and cracks in trees for roosting bats ....................................... 176


    12.2. Reinstate bat roosts in felled tree trunks ...................................................................... 177


    12.3. Create artificial caves or hibernacula for bats ............................................................... 178


    12.4. Create new unlit bat commuting routes using planting ................................................ 179


    12.5. Restore or create forest or woodland ............................................................................ 179


    12.6. Restore or create grassland ........................................................................................... 181


    12.7. Restore or create linear habitat features/green corridors ............................................ 182


    12.8. Restore or create wetlands ............................................................................................ 182


    12.9. Create artificial water sources ....................................................................................... 182


    13. Species management ..................................................... 186



    Species management .............................................................................................................. 186


    13.1. Legally protect bat species ............................................................................................. 186


    13.2. Provide bat boxes for roosting bats ............................................................................... 186


    13.3. Regularly clean bat boxes to increase occupancy .......................................................... 201


    13.4. Manage microclimate of artificial bat roosts ................................................................. 201


    Ex-situ conservation ................................................................................................................ 203


    13.5. Breed bats in captivity.................................................................................................... 203


    13.6. Release captive-bred bats .............................................................................................. 205


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    13.7. Rehabilitate injured/orphaned bats to maintain wild bat populations ......................... 206


    Translocation ........................................................................................................................... 208


    13.8. Translocate bats ............................................................................................................. 208


    14. Education and awareness raising .................................... 210



    14.1. Provide training to conservationists, land managers, and the building and development


    sector on bat ecology and conservation to reduce bat roost disturbance .................................. 210


    14.2. Educate the public to improve perception of bats to improve behaviour towards bats


    211


    14.3. Educate farmers, land managers and local communities about the benefits of bats to


    improve management of bat habitats ......................................................................................... 211


    14.4. Engage policymakers to make policy changes beneficial to bats................................... 212


    14.5. Promote careful bat-related eco-tourism to improve behaviour towards bats ............ 212


    14.6. Educate pest controllers and homeowners/tenants to reduce the illegal use of


    pesticides in bat roosts ................................................................................................................ 212


    14.7. Educate farmers, local communities and pest controllers to reduce indiscriminate culling


    of vampire bats ............................................................................................................................ 213


    References ............................................................................. 214



    Appendix 1: Literature searched for the Bat Synopsis ............. 231



    Appendix 2: Literature reviewed for the Bat Synopsis ............. 237



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    Advisory Board



    We thank the following people for advising on the scope and content of this


    synopsis.



    Fabio Bontadina, SWILD – Urban Ecology and Wildlife Research, Switzerland


    Rachel Cooper-Bohannon, Bats Without Borders, Zambia


    Jasja Dekker, Jasja Dekker Dierecologie, Netherlands


    Brock Fenton, University of Western Ontario, Canada


    Winifred Frick & colleagues, Bat Conservation International, USA


    Anita Glover, Vincent Wildlife Trust, UK


    Charlotte Hawkins and colleagues, Bat Conservation Trust, UK


    Alice Hughes, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, UK/China


    David Jacobs, University of Cape Town, South Africa


    Gareth Jones, University of Bristol, UK


    Johnny de Jong, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden


    Javier Juste, Spanish National Research Council, Spain


    Rahul Khanolkar, Indian Bat Research and Conservation Unit, India


    Bradley Law, NSW Primary Industries, Australia


    Adrià López-Baucells, University of Lisbon, Portugal


    Júlia Luz, Brazilian Society of Bat Research, Brazil


    Rodrigo Medellin, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico


    Kirsty Park, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK


    Stuart Parsons, Queensland University of Technology, Australia/New Zealand


    Paul Racey, University of Exeter, UK


    Orly Razgour, University of Southampton, UK


    Guido Reiter, Austrian Coordination Centre for Bat Conservation and Research,


    Austria


    Ricardo Rocha, University of Cambridge, UK


    Luísa Rodrigues, Institute for Nature Conservation and Forests, Portugal


    Danilo Russo, University of Naples Frederico II, Italy


    Henry Schofield, Vincent Wildlife Trust, UK


    Emma Stone, African Bat Conservation, UK/Malawi


    Paul Webala, Maasai Mara University, Kenya







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    About the authors



    Dr Anna Berthinussen is an ecological consultant and bat specialist at Conservation


    First, UK.



    Olivia C. Richardson is a PhD student at the University of Sheffield, UK.



    Professor John D. Altringham is Emeritus Professor of Animal Ecology and


    Conservation in the School of Biology, University of Leeds, UK.





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