2

Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics

395 Pages · 2016 · 11.83 MB · English

  • Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics

    Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation


    Roselix00Pellens


    Philippex00Grandcolas E ditors


    Biodiversity


    Conservation


    and Phylogenetic


    Systematics


    Preserving our evolutionary heritage


    in an extinction crisis Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation


    Volume 14 More information about this series at h ttp://www.springer.com/series/7488 Roseli Pellens (cid:129) Philippe Grandcolas



    Editors


    Biodiversity Conservation


    and Phylogenetic Systematics


    Preserving our evolutionary heritage in an


    extinction crisis



    With the support of Labex BCDIV and ANR BIONEOCAL Editors


    Roseli Pellens Philippe Grandcolas


    Institut de Systématique, Evolution, Institut de Systématique, Evolution,


    Biodiversité, ISYEB – UMR 7205 Biodiversité, ISYEB – UMR 7205


    CNRS MNHN UPMC EPHE, CNRS MNHN UPMC EPHE,


    Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle


    Sorbonne Universités Sorbonne Universités


    Paris , France Paris , France


    ISSN 1875-1288 ISSN 1875-1296 (electronic)


    Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation


    ISBN 978-3-319-22460-2 ISBN 978-3-319-22461-9 (eBook)


    DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-22461-9


    Library of Congress Control Number: 2015960738


    Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London


    © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016 . The book is published with open access at


    SpringerLink.com.


    Chapter 15 was created within the capacity of an US governmental employment. US copyright protection


    does not apply.


    Open Access This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution


    Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any


    medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


    All commercial rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is


    concerned, specifi cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting,


    reproduction on microfi lms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and


    retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known


    or hereafter developed.


    The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication


    does not imply, even in the absence of a specifi c statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant


    protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.


    The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book


    are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the


    editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors


    or omissions that may have been made.


    Printed on acid-free paper


    Springer International Publishing AG Switzerland is part of Springer Science+Business Media


    (www.springer.com) Foreword


    The desperate, and seemingly inexorably worsening, state of biodiversity on Earth


    is arguably not a consequence of conscious choices. That is much of the problem.


    There are undoubtedly cases, and many of them, in which people made explicit


    decisions to forgo the variety of life naturally present in a given area in favour of


    some alternative benefi t (e.g. agricultural activity, energy production, housing).


    However, by and large, the global losses of species, and the reductions in the abun-


    dances and distributions of increasingly the majority of others, are the outcome of


    outright ignorance of the impacts of anthropogenic activities, of underestimation or


    misunderstanding of the impacts of those activities, and, perhaps most signifi cantly,


    a host of individual decisions which whilst independently perhaps quite rational


    have led to a combined pressure on biodiversity that is far from what it can sustain.


    The fi eld of conservation biology has done much to highlight the status and


    trends in biodiversity, but especially the need for active and explicit choices as to its


    future. Frustrating as is their failure to date to be realized, the establishment of base-


    lines and targets for biodiversity at regional, national and global scales is the logical


    framework within which decisions can properly be made as to what environmental


    changes and management actions are and are not carried forward, and with what


    consequences. The ‘agony of choice’ needs to be a real choice, albeit the agony may


    not always be avoided.


    Key to determining baselines and targets, and what choices to make, is deciding


    which metric to use to discriminate between different outcomes, and particularly to


    compare those of current actions with alternatives. This book provides a cogent


    argument for the use of phylogenetic diversity as a key metric – that is, measures of


    biodiversity that capture evolutionary history – and phylogenetic systematics as a


    core organizing principle. It highlights the benefi ts and constraints of such an


    approach, explores the ways in which it can be implemented, and describes a rich


    diversity of applications. This is the most comprehensive compilation of cutting-


    edge contributions on this topic to date, provides many valuable insights, and a ‘go


    to’ source of understanding. The intention to help improve the global condition of


    biodiversity is apparent throughout.


    v vi Foreword


    Biological conservation has oft been hampered by those who have maintained


    that priorities for action should only be established using approaches that are easily


    understood by the general public. The same demand has not been made in many


    other arenas of human endeavor (e.g. medicine, nuclear power), and neither should


    it constrain biological conservation. That said, there does remain a substantial chal-


    lenge of encouraging an informed citizenry around the justifi cation and goals of


    using a phylogenetic diversity approach, and gaining their support. Only by so


    doing will there be a genuine chance of aligning the multitude of biodiversity-criti-


    cal decisions being made each and every day across the continents and oceans.


    Environment and Sustainability Institute Kevin J. Gaston


    University of Exeter , Exeter , UK Acknowledgements


    This book could not exist without the participation of 38 research scientists who


    took part in the elaboration of these chapters. We thank each of them for their


    generosity in sharing their experience to make this common work. We are particularly


    indebted to Dan Faith, for his always prompt and insightful suggestions. Without his


    help this book would have been quite different. Every chapter was peer reviewed,


    and reviewers’ suggestions and critical thinking helped to improve all manuscripts


    and greatly contributed to our present understanding of phylogenetic diversity and


    its importance for biodiversity conservation. So, we thank Anni Arponen, Lisa


    Ballance, Sven Buerki, Maram Caesar, Marcel Cardillo, Pedro Cardoso, Ben Collen,


    Rob Cowie, Jorge Crisci, Mike Crisp, Jonathan Davies, Dan Faith, Jon Fjeldså,


    Felix Forest, Carlos Gonzalez-Orozco, Shan Huang, Jussi Laitila, Romain Julliard,


    James Justus, Matjaz Kuntner, Frédéric Legendre, Rafael Loyola, Laura J. May-


    Collado, Daniel Rafael Miranda-Esquivel, Claudia Moreno, Annemarie Ohler,


    Fabio Pardi, Stéphane Prigent, Carlo Ricotta, Samuel Scheiner, Mike Steel, Andreas


    Spiller, Géraldine Veron, and Kristen Williams, who kindly acted as referees (often


    anonymously) for the chapters. The idea of making this book was born during the


    preparation of a symposium entitled “Phylogenetic Tools for Conservation” that


    Roseli Pellens organized for the 30th meeting of the Willi Hennig Society at São


    José do Rio Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. We thank Fernando Barbosa Noll and


    Dalton de Souza Amorim, the meeting organizers, for including this subject in their


    agenda. We thank the Labex “Diversités biologiques et culturelles: origines,


    évolution, interactions, devenir” (BCDIV, Jean-Denis Vigne) and the ANR


    BIONEOCAL (PG) for the fi nancial support that permitted to make this publication


    open access. We are also very grateful to David Hawksworth, the series editor, and


    the people at Springer, for their kind help along the preparation of this volume.


    vii Contents


    Phylogenetics and Conservation Biology:


    Drawing a Path into the Diversity of Life ..................................................... 1


    Roseli Pellens and Philippe Grandcolas


    Part I Questions


    The Value of Phylogenetic Diversity .............................................................. 19


    Christopher Lean and James Maclaurin


    The PD Phylogenetic Diversity Framework: Linking


    Evolutionary History to Feature Diversity


    for Biodiversity Conservation ........................................................................ 39


    Daniel P. Faith


    Reconsidering the Loss of Evolutionary History: How Does


    Non-random Extinction Prune the Tree-of-Life? ......................................... 57


    Kowiyou Yessoufou and T. Jonathan Davies


    Phylogenetics and Conservation in New Zealand:


    The Long and the Short of It ......................................................................... 81


    Steven A. Trewick and Mary Morgan-Richards


    What Is the Meaning of Extreme Phylogenetic


    Diversity? The Case of Phylogenetic Relict Species ..................................... 99


    Philippe Grandcolas and Steven A. Trewick


    Part II Methods


    Using Phylogenetic Dissimilarities Among Sites for Biodiversity


    Assessments and Conservation ...................................................................... 119


    Daniel P. Faith


    ix


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.