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Atlas of World History

312 Pages · 2008 · 59.02 MB · English

  • Atlas of World History

    PHI LIP'S I


    ATLAS OF


    WORLD


    HISTORY PHILIP'S


    ATLAS OF


    WORLD


    HISTORY


    GENERAL EDITOR, PATRICK K. O'BRIEN


    INSTITUTE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON Philip's Atlas of World History


    First published in 2002 by Philip's


    an imprint of Octopus Publishing Group


    2-4 Heron Quays


    London


    E144JP


    Second edition 2005


    Reprinted with revisions 2007


    ISBN-13 978 0540 08867 6


    ISBN-10 0540 08867 6


    Copyright © 2002-2007 Philip's


    A catalogue record for this book is available from


    the British Library


    All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for


    the purpose of private study, research, criticism or


    review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs


    and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication


    may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,


    or transmitted in any form or by any means,


    electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical,


    optical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,


    without prior written permission. All enquiries


    should be addressed to the Publisher.


    COMMISSIONING EDITOR Jane Edmonds


    EDITORS Christian Humphries


    Jannet King


    Petra Kopp


    Martha Leyton


    Richard Widdows


    EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Louise Jennett


    PICTURE RESEARCH Sarah Moule


    PRODUCTION Katherine Knowler


    Sally Banner


    CARTOGRAPHY BY Philip's Map Studio


    ADDITIONAL CARTOGRAPHY BY Cosmographies, Watford


    DESIGNED BY Design Revolution, Brighton


    ADDITIONAL ARTWORK BY Full Circle Design


    Printed and bound in Hong Kong


    Details of other Philip's titles and services can be


    found on our website at


    www.philips-maps.co.uk CONTRIBUTORS


    GENERAL CONSULTANT EDITOR Peter Carey Jean Morrin


    Patrick K. O'Brien FBA Laithwaite Fellow and Tutor in Lecturer in History


    Centennial Professor of Economic History Modern History University of North London


    London School of Economics Trinity College


    R. C. Nash


    Convenor of the Programme in Global History University of Oxford


    Lecturer in Economic and Social History


    Institute of Historical Research


    Evguenia Davidova University of Manchester


    University of London


    Research Associate


    CONSULTANT EDITOR: THE ANCIENT Institute of History Colin Nicolson


    WORLD Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Senior Lecturer in History


    Jane Mclntosh University of North London


    Kent G. Deng


    University of Cambridge


    Lecturer in Economic History Phillips O'Brien


    CONSULTANT EDITOR: THE MEDIEVAL London School of Economics Lecturer in Modern History


    WORLD University of London University of Glasgow


    Peter Heather


    Saul Dubow David Potter


    Reader in Early Medieval History


    Reader in History Senior Lecturer in History


    University College London


    University of Sussex University of Kent at Canterbury


    University of London


    Ben Fowkes Max-Stephan Schulze


    CONSULTANT EDITOR: THE EARLY


    Senior Lecturer in History Lecturer in Economic History


    MODERN WORLD


    University of North London London School of Economics


    David Ormrod


    University of London


    Senior Lecturer in Economic and Ulrike Freitag


    Social History Lecturer in History Ian Selby


    University of Kent at Canterbury School of Oriental and African Studies Research Fellow


    University of London St Edmund's College


    CONSULTANT EDITOR: THE AGE


    University of Cambridge


    OF REVOLUTIONS Stephen Houston


    Roland Quinault University Professor of Anthropology Caroline Steele


    Reader in History Brigham Young University Lecturer in Iliad Program, Dartmouth College


    University of North London Research Associate


    Janet E. Hunter


    State University of New York at Binghamton


    CONSULTANT EDITOR: THE TWENTIETH Saji Senior Lecturer in Japanese


    CENTURY Economic and Social History Diura Thoden van Velzen


    Pat Thane London School of Economics English Heritage


    Professor of Contemporary History University of London


    Jessica B. Thurlow


    University of Sussex


    Robert Iliffe University of Sussex


    Lecturer in the History of Science


    Reuven Amitai Luke Treadwell


    Imperial College of Science, Technology


    Senior Lecturer and Department Head University Lecturer in Islamic Numismatics


    and Medicine


    Department of Islamic and Middle Oriental Institute


    University of London


    Eastern Studies University of Oxford


    Hebrew University of Jerusalem Timothy Insoll


    Nick von Tunzelmann


    Lecturer in Archaeology


    Lito Apostolakou Professor of the Economics of Science


    University of Manchester


    Visiting Research Fellow and Technology


    Centre for Hellenic Studies Liz James Science and Technology Policy Research Unit


    King's College Lecturer in Art History University of Sussex


    University of London University of Sussex


    Emily Umberger


    Dudley Baines Simon Kaner Associate Professor of Art History


    Reader in Economic History Senior Archaeologist Arizona State University


    London School of Economics Cambridge County Council


    Gabrielle Ward-Smith


    University of London


    Zdenek Kavan University of Toronto


    Ray Barrell Lecturer in International Relations


    David Washbrook


    Senior Research Fellow University of Sussex


    Reader in Modern South Asian History


    National Institute of Economic and


    Thomas Lorman Professorial Fellow of St Antonys College


    Social Research (NIESR), London


    School of Slavonic and European Studies University of Oxford


    Antony Best University of London


    Mark Whittow


    Lecturer in International History


    Rachel MacLean Lecturer in Modern History


    London School of Economics


    British Academy Post-Doctoral Fellow of St Peter's College


    University of London


    Research Fellow in Archaeology University of Oxford


    David Birmingham University of Cambridge


    Beryl J. Williams


    Professor of Modern History


    Patricia Mercer Reader in History


    University of Kent at Canterbury


    Senior Lecturer in History University of Sussex


    Ian Brown University of North London


    Richard Wiltshire


    Professor of the Economic History


    Nicola Miller Senior Lecturer in Geography


    of South East Asia


    Lecturer in Latin American History School of Oriental and African Studies


    School of Oriental and African Studies


    University College London University of London


    University of London


    University of London


    Neville Wylie


    Larry Butler


    David Morgan Lecturer in Modern History


    Lecturer in Modern History


    Senior Lecturer in History Acting Director of the Scottish Centre


    University ofLuton


    University College London for War Studies


    University of London University of Glasgow CONTENTS


    10 FOREWORD 30 THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: 3 Spread of Indo-European languages


    EGYPT 3500-2180 BG AND CHINA 1700-1050 BG 4 Nomad confederacies 800 BC-AD 100


    12 1 Old Kingdom Egypt 5 Nomads in the 4th and 5th centuries AD


    THE 2 Bronze-working in China


    1 3 Shang China c. 1700-1050 BG 52 EURASIAN TRADE 150 BC-AD 500


    ANCIENT 1 Trading networks 150 BC-AD 500


    32 CIVILIZATIONS IN MESOAMERICA 2 Southeast Asia 150 BC-AD 500


    WORLD 1200 BG-AD 700


    1 The Olmec c. 1200-300 BG 54 THE ROMAN EMPIRE 500 BC-AD 400


    2 Classic highland civilizations c. AD 1-700 1 The Roman Empire AD 106


    1 Colonization of the world 1.8 million


    3 Patterns of urbanization 2 The defence of the empire AD 100-300


    years ago to 10,000 BC


    4 Early Classic Maya c. AD 200-550 3 Trade in the Roman Empire


    2 The spread of farming c. 10,000-3000 BG


    34 CULTURES IN SOUTH AMERICA 56 BARBARIAN INVASIONS OF THE


    3 Civilizations c. 3000-1700 BC


    1400 BC-AD 1000 ROMAN EMPIRE 100-500


    4 Civilizations c. 500-200 BC 1 Pre-Chavin and Chavin 1400-200 BG 1 Germanic tribes in the 1st century AD


    2 Nazca and Moche 375 BC-AD 650 2 Barbarians beyond the frontier 100-350


    5 The world AD 200-500


    3 Tiwanaku and Huari AD 400-1000 3 Invasions and migrations 375-450


    4 Irrigation systems in the 4 Successor kingdoms c. 500


    16 THE HUMAN REVOLUTION:


    Andean region


    5 MILLION YEARS AGO TO 10,000 BC


    58


    1 Early hominids


    2 The spread of hominids 36 THE MEDITERRANEAN AND 2THE


    THE GULF REGION 2000-1000 BG


    3 Colonization of the globe


    1 Empires and trade in the 2nd millennium BC MEDIEVAL


    2 Middle and New Kingdom Egypt


    18 FROM HUNTING TO FARMING:


    2055-1069 WORLD


    ASIA 12,000 BC-AD 500


    3 Invasions and migrations in the


    1 Hunter-gatherers in Asia


    Mediterranean c. 1200 BG


    2 The birth of farming in the 1 Food production in the 15th century


    Fertile Crescent


    38 EMPIRES AND TRADERS 1200-600 BC 2 States, empires and cultural regions


    3 Farmers of West and South Asia


    1 The Assyrian Empire 911-824 BG c. 1200


    4 The spread of farming in East Asia


    2 Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel and Judah


    3 The Phoenicians c. 800 BG 62 RELIGIONS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD


    20 FROM HUNTING TO FARMING:


    4 Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian and 600-1500


    EUROPE 8000-200 BC


    Median Empires 750-550 BC 1 World religions 750-1450


    1 The spread of farming in Europe


    2 The Christian world c. 700-1050


    7000-3500 BG


    40 CLASSICAL GREECE 750-400 BG 3 Religions in Asia c. 1500


    2 The age of copper 3500-2000 BG


    1 Vegetation and agriculture


    3 Bronze Age Europe 2500-800 BC


    2 Colonization and trade 750-550 BC 64 KINGDOMS OF SOUTHEAST ASIA 500-1500


    4 Celtic Europe 800-200 BG


    3 The Persian Wars 492-479 BC 1 Kingdoms in mainland Southeast


    4 The Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Asia 500-800


    22 FROM HUNTING TO FARMING:


    2 Kingdoms and empires 800-1200


    AFRICA 10,000 BC-AD 500


    42 THE ACHAEMENID AND HELLENISTIC 3 Kingdoms, sultanates and trade 1200-1450


    1 Postglacial hunter-gathers in the


    WORLD 600-30 BC


    10th-6th millennia BC


    1 The expansion of the Achaemenid Empire 66 THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE 527-1025


    2 Farming in the 7th-lst millennia BC


    2 The growth of Macedonia 1 Boundaries and campaigns


    3 Trade and industry in the


    3 The Hellenistic world of conquest 527-1025


    1st millennium BC


    4 The successor kingdoms 2 The themes c. 1025


    4 The spread of Bantu speakers


    3 Religion and trade


    44 THE BIRTH OF WORLD RELIGIONS 4 Constantinople c. 1025


    24 FROM HUNTING TO FARMING:


    1500 BG-AD 600


    THE AMERICAS 12,000-1000 BC


    1 World religions to AD 600 68 THE SPREAD OF ISLAM 630-1000


    1 Colonization of the Americas


    2 The spread of Buddhism to AD 600 1 The Islamic conquests to 750


    2 Hunter-gatherers and early farmers in


    3 The Holy Land 2 Territories controlled by Abbasid


    North America from 8000 BC


    4 The origins and spread of Christianity caliph in the 9th century


    3 Farming in Mesoamerica 7000-1200 BC


    to AD 600 3 The early Abbasid city of Baghdad


    4 Farming in South America from 6500 BC


    4 Central Islamic lands in the 10th century


    46 FIRST EMPIRES IN INDIA 600 BC-AD 500


    26 FROM HUNTING TO FARMING:


    1 Kingdoms and empires 400 BC-AD 500 70 THE FIRST SLAVIC STATES 400-1000


    AUSTRALIA AND THE PACIFIC


    2 Invaders and settlers 1 The spread of Slavic culture 300-660


    10,000 BC-AD 1000


    3 Town and country 2 State formation c. 800-1000


    1 Colonization of the Pacific


    4 Trade and religion 3 Trade c. 700-1000


    2 Adapting to Australia


    4 Slavic states c. 1000


    3 Easter Island


    48 FIRST EMPIRES IN CHINA 1100 BC-AD 220


    4 New Zealand


    1 The emergence of unified China 72 EAST ASIA IN THE TANG PERIOD 618-907


    350-221 BC 1 East and Central Asia 618-907


    28 THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS:


    2 The Han Empire 206 BG-AD 220 2 Tang China 618-907


    MESOPOTAMIA AND THE INDUS REGION


    3 The city of Chang'an 3 Korea c. 600


    4000-1800 BC


    4 Agriculture and commerce 4 Korea and Japan 750-900


    1 Mesopotamia in the Early Dynastic


    1st century BG


    Period c. 2900 BG


    74 PRANKISH KINGDOMS 200-900


    2ThecityofWarka


    50 PEOPLES OF CENTRAL ASIA 1 The growth of Frankish kingdoms


    The city of Mohenjo-Daro


    6000 BC-AD 500 2 The empire of Charlemagne and his


    3 International trade in the 4th and


    1 Southwestern Central Asia successors


    3rd millennia BG


    c. 6000-2000 BG 3 The Carolingian Renaissance


    4 The Indus civilization


    2 Central Asia c. 2000-1000 BC 4 The 9th-century Frankish economy ATLAS OF WORLD HISTORY: CONTENTS


    76 PEOPLES OF THE EUROPEAN STEPPE 3 The Byzantine Empire: restoration 2 Central and southern North America


    350-1000 and decline 1340-60 1519-1550


    1 Hunnic campaigns in the 5th century 4 The growth of the Ottoman Empire 3 Cortes' expedition to Tenochtitlan


    2 The Avars in the 6th century 1307-1481 4 South America 1526-50


    3 The western steppe c. 895


    4 The Magyars 896-955 98 THE MONGOL EMPIRE 1206-1405 122 THE COLONIZATION OF CENTRAL AND


    1 The Mongol conquests 1207-79 SOUTH AMERICA 1500-1780


    78 THE VIKINGS 800-1100 2 Mongol campaigns in eastern Europe 1 Mexico, Central America and


    1 Voyages of exploration 3 The successor khanates eastern Caribbean 1520-1750


    2 Viking trade and raids 4 Area subjugated by Timur-leng 2 Spanish and Portuguese South


    3 Conquest and settlement 865-92 1360-1405 America 1525-1750


    4 Conquest and settlement 892-911 3 Administrative divisions of Spanish


    5 The kingdom of Denmark in the 100 THE ECONOMY OF EUROPE 950-1300 and Portuguese America 1780


    llth century 1 The rise of specialist production in


    western Europe from 950 124 THE COLONIZATION OF NORTH AMERICA


    80 STATES AND TRADE IN 2 Rural growth: the Chartres region of France AND THE CARIBBEAN 1600-1763


    WEST AFRICA 500-1500 3 Urban growth across Europe 1 Colonization of the North American


    1 States in West Africa 500-1500 4 Mediterranean trade in the 12th and mainland to 1750


    2 Vegetation zones in West Africa 13th centuries 2 Colonization of the Caribbean 1625-1763


    3 Principal trade commodities 3 The Seven Years' War 1756-63


    and trade routes 800-1500 102 URBAN COMMUNITIES IN WESTERN


    EUROPE 1000-1500 126 SLAVE ECONOMIES OF THE WESTERN


    82 STATES AND TRADE IN EAST AFRICA 1 The urban population of Europe c. 1300 HEMISPHERE 1500-1880


    500-1500 2 Northern and central Italy c. 1500 1 The transatlantic slave trade


    1 States and trading communities 3 The Low Countries c. 1500 2 Slave economies of the western


    2 Trade routes and commodities hemisphere


    3 Great Zimbabwe 104 CRISIS IN EUROPE AND ASIA 1330-52


    1 Eurasian trade routes in the 14th century 128 THE GROWTH OF THE ATLANTIC ECONOMIES


    84 CIVILIZATIONS IN MESOAMERICA AND 2 The spread of the Black Death in Europe 1620-1775


    SOUTH AMERICA 500-1500 1 The distribution of population in


    1 Sican and Chimu cultures 850-1475 106 EUROPE 1350-1500 Europe c. 1650


    2 Late Classic Maya 550-900 1 Europe c. 1400 2 The Atlantic economies 1650-1750


    3 Post-Classic Yucatan and highland 2 The Hundred Years' War 1337-1453


    Mexico c. 900-1500 3 The Church during the Great Schism 130 THE RISE OF EUROPEAN COMMERCIAL


    4 Western Mesoamerica 500-1475 1378-1417 EMPIRES 1600-1800


    4 The economy after the Black Death 1 European empires and trade


    86 EAST ASIA 907-1600 2 World silver flows 1650-1750


    1 China under the Northern Song c. 1000 108 CULTURES IN NORTH AMERICA 500-1500


    2 East Asia in 1150 1 The Pueblo Peoples 132 EUROPEAN URBANIZATION 1500-1800


    3 Korea under the Koryo dynasty 936-1392 2 Chaco Canyon 1 European urbanization 1500


    4 Korea and Japan 1400-1600 3 Moundbuilders of the Mississippi 2 European urbanization 1600


    4 Native American peoples c.1500 3 European urbanization 1700


    88 THE MUSLIM WORLD 1000-1400 5 Movements of Native American peoples 4 European urbanization 1800


    1 The Muslim world 1022 14th to 18th centuries 5 The growth of London 1600-1700


    2 The Seljuk Empire 1092


    3 The Muslim world 1200 110 THE INCA AND AZTEC EMPIRES 1400-1540 134 THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND


    4 India under the Sultanate of Delhi 1 The Inca Empire TECHNOLOGY IN EUROPE 1500-1770


    1211-1398 2 Plan of Inca Cuzco 1 Centres of learning c. 1770


    5 The Muslim world 1308 3 The provinces of the Aztec Empire c.1520 2 Scientific and technological


    innovations 1650-1735


    90 THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 962-1356 112


    1 The Holy Roman Empire c. 950-1360 THE EARLY 136 AFRICA 1500-1800


    3


    2 Switzerland 1291-1529 1 Peoples, kingdoms and economic activity


    3 German expansion to c. 1360 MODERN 1500-1800


    2 Towns and trade centres of the Gold and


    92 FRANCE, SPAIN AND ENGLAND 900-1300 WORLD Slave Coasts 1500-1800


    1 The kingdoms of France and Burgundy


    c. 1050 138 MING AND MANCHU QJNG CHINA 1368-1800


    1 Eurasian land empires c. 1700


    2 Spain 1157 1 Trade and production centres in the


    3 Spain and the western Mediterranean 1300 2 European world trade 1500 Ming period


    4 English lands 1295 2 Voyages of Zheng He 1405-33


    3 World trading empires 1770


    5 The kingdoms of France and Aries 1265 3 Ming and Manchu Qjng imperial borders


    116 THE EUROPEAN DISCOVERY OF THE WORLD


    94 THE WORLD OF THE CRUSADERS 140 TOKUGAWA JAPAN 1603-1867


    1450-1600


    1095-1291 1 Major domains and regions in the late


    1 Voyages of exploration 1485-1600


    1 The First Crusade 1095-99 Tokugawa period


    2 Routes across the Pacific


    2 The Crusader States 1140 2 Major transport routes in the late


    3 The Crusader States 1186 Tokugawa period


    118 EUROPEANS IN ASIA 1500-1790


    4 The Third Crusade 1189-92 3 Urbanization in the late Tokugawa period


    1 The Portuguese in Asia c.1580


    5 The Fifth Crusade 1217-21


    2 European activity in Asia c.1650


    142 THE OTTOMAN AND SAFAVID EMPIRES


    3 Principal commodities in Asian trade


    96 THE DECLINE OF THE BYZANTINE AND 1500-1683


    1600-1750


    RISE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRES 1025-1500 1 The growth of the Ottoman Empire to 1683


    1 The Byzantine Empire 1025-1096 2 The making of the Ottoman-Safavid


    120 SPAIN AND THE AMERICAS 1492-1550


    2 The Balkans and Anatolia after the frontier 1514-1639


    1 The Caribbean 1492-1550


    fall of Constantinople 1204 3 Trade routes in the 16th and 17th centuries CONTENTS


    CONTINUED


    144 INDIA UNDER THE MUGHALS 1526-1765 2 The cotton textile industry in Lancashire 192 LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN


    1 Mughal conquests 1506-1605 1850 POST-INDEPENDENCE 1830-1914


    2 Trade and manufacturing 3 Industry in Britain 1850 1 South America 1830-1914


    3 Expansion and encroachments 1605-1707 2 Mexico 1824-67


    4 An empire in decline 170 THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF EUROPE 1830-1914 3 Central America and the Caribbean


    1 The growth of industry and railways 1830-1910


    146 EUROPEAN STATES 1500-1600 2 The level of industrialization 1860


    1 Europe c. 1560 3 The level of industrialization 1913 194 THE BRITISH IN INDIA 1608-1920


    2 France in the 16th century 1 The growth of British dominion 1756-1805


    3 Italy 1500-59 172 REVOLUTION AND REACTION IN EUROPE 2 Expansion of the empire 1805-58


    1815-49 3 The empire 1858-1914


    148 THE EXPANSION OF RUSSIA 1462-1795 1 Treaty settlements in Europe 1814-15 4 Agriculture and railways 1850-1925


    1 The expansion of Muscovy 2 Civil unrest in Europe 1819-1831


    2 The growth of the Russian Empire 3 Centres of revolution 1848-49 196 SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE AGE OF


    3 Russian development in the west 1598-1795 IMPERIALISM 1790-1914


    174 THE HABSBURG EMPIRE: EXPANSION AND 1 Autonomous states and colonies 1792-1860


    150 SWEDEN, POLAND AND THE BALTIC 1500-1795 DECLINE 1700-1918 2 The High Colonial Age 1870-1914


    1 Swedish expansion in the 16th and 1 Territorial expansion and contraction


    17th centuries 1700-1814 198 LATE MANCHU QING CHINA 1800-1911


    2 Swedish military ativity c. 1620-1710 2 Habsburg territories 1814-1914 1 Wars against China 1840-95


    3 Sweden in 1721 3 Nationalities in Austria-Hungary 1900 2 Foreign spheres of influence and treaty ports


    4 The Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania 4 Revolution in the Austrian Empire 1848-49 3 The Taiping Rebellion


    1462-1672 4 The 1911 Revolution


    5 Partitions of Poland 1772-95 176 THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY AND OF


    GERMANY 1815-71 200 THE MODERNIZATION OF JAPAN 1867-1937


    152 THE HABSBURG EMPIRE 1490-1700 1 Italy after the Congress of Vienna 1815 1 Urbanization, industrialization and


    1 The Habsburg Empire 1556-1618 2 The unification of Italy modern prefectures


    2 The Burgundian inheritance 3 The German Confederation, Austrian 2 Growth of the railway network


    3 The Habsburgs in central Europe 1618-1700 Empire, Prussia and Denmark 1815 3 Acquisitions overseas 1870-1933


    4 Germany from confederation to empire


    154 THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER 202 THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRALIA AND


    REFORMATION IN EUROPE 1517-1648 178 THE DECLINE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE NEW ZEALAND SINCE 1790


    1 The Protestant and Catholic Reformation 1683-1923 1 Exploration of Australia and New Zealand


    2 The Reformation in Switzerland 1 The decline of the Ottoman Empire 1606-1874


    3 The Reformation and religious 1683-1923 2 Economic development of Australia


    conflict in France 2 Retreat in the Balkans 1699-1739 3 Economic development of New Zealand


    3 Retreat in the Caucasus 1826-78


    156 REVOLUTION AND STABILITY IN EUROPE 4 The birth of the Republic of Turkey 1920-23 204 AFRICA 1800-80


    1600-1785 1 Principal African and European trading


    1 Wars and revolts in Europe 1618-1680 180 RUSSIAN TERRITORIAL AND ECONOMIC routes c. 1840


    2 The acquisitions of Louis XIV 1643-1715 EXPANSION 1795-1914 2 The spread of Islam and Christianity


    3 The expansion of Prussia 1618-1795 1 The territorial expansion of the 1860-1900


    Russian Empire 1795-1914 3 European exploration


    158 THE DEVELOPMENT OF WARFARE IN EUROPE 2 The economic development of European


    1450-1750 Russia 1800-1914 206 THE PARTITION OF AFRICA 1880-1939


    1 Major fortifications and battles 1450-1750 3 The years of revolution 1905-7 1 Africa on the eve of the First World War


    2 The Thirty Years War 1618-48 2 The South African (Boer) War 1899-1902


    182 THE WESTWARD EXPANSION OF THE 3 Colonial economic development


    160 UNITED STATES 1783-1910


    THE 1 Territorial expansion from 1783 208 WORLD TRADE AND EMPIRES 1870-1914


    4 2 Stages of settlement 1 Empires and patterns of world trade


    AGE OF 3 Routes of exploration and settlement 2 International investment 1914


    4 Treatment of the Native Americans


    REVOLUTIONS 210 WORLD POPULATION GROWTH AND


    184 THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR 1861-65 URBANIZATION 1800-1914


    1 The slave population and cotton production 1 World population growth and urbanization


    1 Political systems 1914


    2 The legal position of slavery 1861 1700-1900


    2 Major European conflicts 1770-1913 3 The Civil War 2 Major population movements 1500-1914


    3 Major military conflicts outside Europe


    186 THE INDUSTRIAL GROWTH OF THE 212


    1770-1913


    UNITED STATES 1790-1900 THE


    1 Railroads and canals 1860 5


    164 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1775-83


    2 Industrial development 1890 TWENTIETH


    1 The colonial economy c. 1770


    3 Population and urbanization 1900


    2 British North America 1763-75


    CENTURY


    3 The American War of Independence 1775-83


    188 THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANADA 1763-1914


    166 REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE AND NAPOLEONIC 1 Settlement in eastern Canada before 1825 1 Wars 1914-45


    2 Westward expansion to 1911


    EUROPE 1789-1815 2 Wars since 1945


    3 Political development since 1867


    1 Revolutionary France 1789-94 3 Major trading blocs 1998


    2 Napoleonic Europe 1796-1815


    190 INDEPENDENCE IN LATIN AMERICA


    3 European coalitions 1793-1815


    AND THE CARIBBEAN 1780-1830 216 THE BUILD-UP TO THE FIRST WORLD WAR


    1 Latin America and the Caribbean 1800 1871-1914


    168 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN


    2 Liberation campaigns of Bolivar and 1 European Alliances 1882


    1750-1850


    San Martin 2 European Alliances 1914


    1 Resources and development in England 1750


    3 Latin America and the Caribbean 1830 3 The Balkan Wars 1912-13 ATLAS OF WORLD HISTORY: CONTENTS


    218 THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-18 240 THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1900 264 EASTERN EUROPE SINCE 1989


    1 The First World War in Europe and the 1 Population changes 1900-96 1 The transition from communism to


    Middle East 2 Distribution of non-white population 1900 democracy 1989-96


    2 The Western Front 3 Distribution of non-white population and 2 Economic development 1990-97


    3 Trench warfare: Battle of the Somme civil rights demonstrations from 1955 3 Former Yugoslavia 1991-99


    220 OUTCOMES OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR 242 THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE 266 UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING SINCE 1945


    1918-29 WORLD SINCE 1945 1 UN membership and peacekeeping


    1 Europe in 1914 1 US security commitments post-1945 operations


    2 Treaty settlements in Europe 1919-23 2 US overseas trading commitments 2 The division of Cyprus 1974


    3 The division of the Ottoman Empire 1930s-1990s 3 The UN in Bosnia 1994


    4 Post-war alliances


    244 THE COLD WAR 1947-91 268 HUMAN RIGHTS SINCE 1914


    222 THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION 1917-39 1 Cold War conflicts 1 The spread of democracy


    1 Revolution and civil war in Russia 2 The Korean War 1950-53 2 Religious and ethnic conflicts 1917-98


    2 Revolutionary activity in Europe 3 The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 3 The division of Ireland 1922


    1919-23


    3 The Soviet Union 1928-39 246 THE BREAKDOWN OF EMPIRES SINCE 1945 270 THE POSITION OF WOMEN SINCE 1914


    1 Colonies and mandates 1939 1 Women and the right to vote


    224 THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA 1911-49 2 Decolonization 1945-98 2 Women in employment 1990s


    1 Communist retrenchment 1934-36 3 Commonwealth of Nations 3 Girls in secondary education 1998


    2 Civil war 1945-49 4 Decolonization in the Caribbean 4 Women elected to the US Congress


    3 Industrial development 1895-1949


    248 SOUTH ASIA SINCE 1920 272 THE WORLD ECONOMY SINCE 1945


    226 LATIN AMERICA 1914-45 1 Administrative structure of India 1 The richest 20 countries 1950/1970/1990


    1 Increasing urban population 1920-50 in the 1930s 2 The oil crisis 1973-74


    2 US influence in Mexico, Central 2 The partition of India 1947 3 Openness to trade 1980


    America and the Caribbean 3 Disputed territory and separatist


    3 Latin America in the First World War movements 274 CHANGES IN POPULATION SINCE 1945


    4 Latin America in the Second World War 1 Population increase 1950-97


    250 SOUTHEAST ASIA SINCE 1920 2 Urbanization of the world


    228 THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1929-33 1 The end of Western rule 3 Human migration 1918-98


    1 The effect of the Depression in North 2 The Vietnam War 1959-75


    America 3 Trade and urbanization 276 PATTERNS OF HEALTH AND ILL-HEALTH


    2 The effect of the Depression in Europe SINCE 1945


    3 Decline in exports from countries trading 252 JAPAN SINCE 1945 1 Expenditure on health as percentage of


    mainly in primary products 1928-29 to 1 Changes in distribution of population GNP 1960-65


    1932-33 since 1960 2 Expenditure on health as percentage of


    4 Countries on the gold standard 1929-34 2 Distribution of manufacturing output GNP 1990-95


    since 1960 3 Infant mortality rates 1990-95


    230 THE RISE OF FASCISM 1921-39 3 Japanese investment and trade in East Asia 4 Food consumption and major famines


    1 Expansion of the Italian Empire 1922-39 since the 1940s


    2 Expansion of Nazi Germany 1933-39 254 THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA SINCE


    3 The Spanish Civil War 1936-39 1949 278 STANDARDS OF LIVING SINCE 1945


    4 Right-wing dictatorships 1919-39 1 Population distribution in 1976 1 Distribution of wealth


    2 Land productivity and major industrial 2 Human Development Index


    232 THE SECOND WORLD WAR IN EUROPE centres in the 1980s 3 Literacy and education 1995


    1939_45 3 Open cities and Special Economic Zones


    1 Military campaigns in Europe 1939-45 280 THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT


    2 Germany's "New Order" in Europe 256 AFRICA SINCE 1939 SINCE 1945


    November 1942 1 Independent Africa 1 Carbon dioxide emissions and threatened


    3 Central Europe 1945 2 Multiparty democracy coastlines


    3 South Africa under apartheid 2 Threat to the Ganges delta


    234 THE WAR IN ASIA 1931-45 4 South Africa after apartheid 3 Deforestation in the 20th century


    1 The Japanese in China 1931-45 4 Acid deposition and urban pollution


    2 The Japanese offensive 1941-42 258 LATIN AMERICA SINCE 1945 1990s


    3 The Allied offensive 1942-45 1 Main exports in the 1990s 5 Water pollution since the 1960s


    2 US intervention in Latin America


    236 THE SOVIET UNION AND EASTERN since 1945 282 TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION


    EUROPE 1945-89 3 Ethnic composition SINCE 1945


    1 Communist Eastern Europe 1945-89 1 Car ownership and production


    2 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 260 THE MIDDLE EAST SINCE 1945 2 Passenger kilometres (miles) flown 1994


    in the 1970s 1 The Middle East and surrounding region 3 Computer ownership


    3 The economy of the Soviet Union since 1945


    and Eastern Europe 1948-89 2 The Palestine conflict 284 INDEX


    3 The Arab-Israeli Wars 1967 and 1973


    238 WESTERN EUROPE SINCE 1945 4 Wars in the Gulf 1980-88 and 1990-91 308 BIBLIOGRAPHY


    1 The economic effect of the Second


    World War 262 THE FORMER REPUBLICS OF THE 312 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


    2 The economic integration of Western SOVIET UNION SINCE 1989


    Europe 1 The break-up of the Soviet Union since 1991


    3 Employment in industry and services 2 Caucasus region 1988-98


    1950 and 1991 3 The August rebellion 1991 FOREWORD


    There could be no more opportune time than the uneasily aware that their powers to control economies


    start of the third millennium AD to produce an and societies nominally under their jurisdiction are


    entirely new atlas of world history. Not only does being eroded, both by radical improvements in the tech-


    this symbolic (if arbitrary) moment provoke a mood of nologies for the transportation of goods and people


    public retrospection, but the pace of global change itself around the world and by the vastly more efficient com-


    demands a greater awareness of "whole world" history. munications systems that diffuse commercial


    More than 20 years have passed since a major new atlas intelligence, political messages and cultural information


    of this kind was published in the English language. In between widely separated populations.


    that period there has been an explosion of new research


    into the histories of regions outside Europe and North A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON WORLD HISTORY


    America, and a growing awareness of how parochial our As the world changes at an accelerated pace, for problem


    traditional approach to history has been. In this changed after problem and subject after subject, national frame-


    environment, the demand for an un-biased overview of works for political action and academic enquiry are


    world history has steadily grown in schools and colleges, recognized as unsatisfactory. Historians are being asked


    and among the general reading public. for a deeper perspective on the technological, political


    and economic forces that are now transforming tradi-


    Several developments within the study of academic tional frameworks for human behaviour, and reshaping


    history promote the seriousness with which histories of personal identities around the world. Philip's Atlas of


    the world are now taken. First the accumulation of World History has been designed, constructed and


    knowledge about the past of different nations has engen- written by a team of professional historians not only for


    dered excessive specialization. The sheer volume of the general reader but to help teachers of history in


    publications and data about details of the past stimulates schools and universities to communicate that perspec-


    demand from students, scholars and a wider public for tive to their pupils and students.


    guidelines, meaning and "big pictures" that world


    history, with its unconfined time frame and wider geo- World histories cannot be taught or read without a clear


    graphical focus, is positioned to meet. comprehension of the chronologies and regional para-


    meters within which different empires, states and


    Secondly the broadening of traditional history's central peoples have evolved through time. A modern historical


    concerns (with states, warfare and diplomacy) in order atlas is the ideal mode of presentation for ready refer-


    to take account of modern concerns with, for example, ence and for the easy acquisition of basic facts upon


    ecology, evolutionary biology, botany, the health and which courses in world history can be built, delivered


    wealth of populations, human rights, gender, family and studied. Such atlases unify history with geography.


    systems and private life, points the study of history They "encapsulate" knowledge by illuminating the sig-


    towards comparisons between Western and non-Western nificance of locations for seminal events in world history.


    cultures and histories. For example a glance at maps on pages 78 and 116-7 will


    immediately reveal why explorers and ships from


    Thirdly young people now arrive at universities with western Europe were more likely (before the advent of


    portfolios of know-ledge and aroused curiosities about a steam-powered ships) to reach the Americas than sailors


    variety of cultures. They are less likely than their prede- from China or India. More than any other factor it was


    cessors to study national let alone regional and parochial probably a matter of distance and the prevailing winds


    histories. Schools and universities need to provide access on the Atlantic that precluded Asian voyages to the


    to the kind of historical understanding that will satisfy Americas.


    their interests. To nourish the cosmopolitan sensibility


    required for the next millennium, history needs to be Historical atlases should be accurate, accessible and


    widened and repositioned to bring the subject into fruit- display the unfurling chronology of world history in


    ful exchange with geography and the social sciences. memorable maps and captions. The team of historians,


    Barriers between archaeology, ancient, classical, cartographers and editors who collaborated in the con-


    medieval, early modern, contemporary and other "pack- struction of Philip's Atlas of World History set out to


    ages" of traditional but now anachronistic histories are produce a popular work of reference that could be


    being dismantled. adopted for university and school courses in world


    history. In the United States and Canada such courses


    Unsurprisingly, the implications of "globalization" for are already commonplace and the subject is now spread-


    hitherto separ-ated communities, disconnected ing in Britain, Europe, Japan and China. New textbooks


    economies and distinctive cultures have been analysed appear regularly. American journals dealing with world


    by social scientists. They serve governments who are history publish debates of how histories designed to


    10


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