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Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, and other Pathogens, a Threat to World Health

218 Pages · 2016 · 9.25 MB · English

  • Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, and other Pathogens, a Threat to World Health


    Antibiotic Resistance


    Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, and other


    Pathogens, a Threat to World


    Health










    H. G. Brack


    Judy Weeks, Assistant Editor


    Davistown Museum


    Department of Environmental History



    Phenomenology of Biocatastrophe


    Publication Series Volume 4


    ISBN 13: 978-0-9892678-6-1


    Davistown Museum © 2016



    Cover photo credits: Front: Gonorrhea illustration from CDC Report on Antibiotic Resistance


    Threats in the United States, 2013


    Back: “Gaps in knowledge” from CDC Report on Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United


    States, 2013


    Pigs: “Maqi” on Wikimedia Commons (Creative Commons license)


    Cow milker machine: Eugenio Hansen, OFS on Wikimedia Commons (Creative Commons


    license)


    Fish: Marisa Garrido on Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain.







    This publication is sponsored by


    Davistown Museum


    Department of Environmental History


    www.davistownmuseum.org


    and


    Engine Company No. 9


    Radscan-Chemfall


    Est. 1970



    Disclaimer


    Engine Company No. 9 relocated to Maine in 1970. The staff members of Engine Company No. 9 are not members of,



    affiliated with, or in contact with, any municipal or community fire department in the State of Maine.


    Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are welcomed and may be directed to:


    [email protected]



    Pennywheel Press


    P.O. Box 144


    Hulls Cove, ME 04644


    1985-2000 Publications Sponsored by Engine Company No. 9


    Station 4, Hulls Cove, ME


    and


    The Center for Biological Monitoring


    Radscan: Information Sampler on Long-Lived Radionuclides: 1990-1999


    A Review of Radiological Surveillance Reports of Waste Effluents in Marine Pathways at the


    Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company at Wiscasset, Maine--- 1970-1984: An Annotated


    Bibliography


    Legacy for Our Children: The Unfunded Costs of Decommissioning the Maine Yankee Atomic


    Power Station: The Failure to Fund Nuclear Waste Storage and Disposal at the Maine Yankee


    Atomic Power Station: A Commentary on Violations of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the


    General Requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for Decommissioning Nuclear


    Facilities


    Patterns of Noncompliance: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Maine Yankee Atomic


    Power Company: Generic and Site-Specific Deficiencies in Radiological Surveillance Programs


    RADNET: Nuclear Information on the Internet: General Introduction; Definitions and Conversion


    Factors; Biologically Significant Radionuclides; Radiation Protection Guidelines


    RADNET: Anthropogenic Radioactivity: Plume Pulse Pathways, Baseline Data and Dietary Intake


    RADNET: Anthropogenic Radioactivity: Chernobyl Fallout Data: 1986 – 2001


    RADNET: Anthropogenic Radioactivity: Major Plume Source Points


    Integrated Data Base for 1992: U.S. Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections,


    and Characteristics: Reprinted from October 1992 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report


    DOE/RW-0006, Rev 8



    2000-2015 Publications Sponsored by


    Davistown Museum Department of Environmental History


    and Engine Company No. 9, Station 4, Hulls Cove, ME


    Essays on Biocatastrophe and the Collapse of Global Consumer Society. Vol. 1. 2010.


    Biocatastrophe Lexicon: An Epigrammatic Journey Through the Tragedy of our Round-World


    Commons. Vol. 2. 2010.


    Biocatastrophe: The Legacy of Human Ecology: Toxins, Health Effects, Links, Appendices, and


    Bibliographies. Vol. 3. 2010.


    Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria (ARB): A Republication of CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Threats in


    the United States, 2013 and Abstracts from Other Studies of the Health physics Impact of ARB.


    Vol. 4. Work in Progress.


    Where Have All the Plastics Gone? Ménage à Trois in the Sea Surface Microlayer: Nanoparticles


    as Vectors of Environmental Chemicals. Vol. 5. 2015.



    Table of Contents


    PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3


    INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................... 5


    HISTORICAL OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................................... 7


    EMERGING DISEASES ................................................................................................................................................ 9


    PANDEMICS OF THE DISTANT PAST ................................................................................................................... 10


    ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS......................................................................................................... 11


    NEWS BITES ................................................................................................................................................................ 12


    LINKS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 15


    GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................................................................... 16


    WORD LIST .................................................................................................................................................................. 18


    ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................................................. 20


    BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................................... 22


    PPENDIX 1: ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE THREATS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2013................................ 107


    APPENDIX 2: TESTIMONY TO THE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND COMMERCE, SUBCOMMITTEE


    ON HEALTH, UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ON ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND


    THE THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH BY THOMAS FRIEDEN, DIRECTOR OF THE CENTERS FOR


    DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION ........................................................................................................... 199


    APPENDIX 3: GET SMART: KNOW WHEN ANTIBIOTICS WORK ............................................................... 211



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    Preface


    The mission of Volume 4 of the Phenomenology of Biocatastrophe publication series is


    to provide timely commentary and updates on the emergence and growth of antibiotic


    resistant and viral infections, as well as on other important widespread threats to human


    health such as the Zika outbreak, Legionnaire’s disease, norovirus infections, and the


    rapid increase in Lyme disease. There is a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistant


    microbes (ARM) now impacting a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, pathogens, and other


    microbial communities. The venues for their identification are the same hospitals,


    clinics, and research laboratories that lead to the pioneering adaptation of antimicrobial


    organisms to fight infectious diseases in developed and developing nations. In the


    United States, the CDC (Center for Disease Control) is the most important source of


    information on acquired bacterial resistance in human health, including its proliferation


    in the general community. The CDC publication, Antibiotic Resistance: Threats in the


    United States 2013 is reprinted in its entirety in Appendix 1 of this text.


    An annotated selection of some of the most important NGO and international


    governmental (e.g. WHO) research on emerging bacterial infections and their sources


    precede the CDC report. The bibliographies are introduced by an overview of the


    historical context of the growth of antibiotic resistant microbes, including in ancient


    microbiomes of the distant past, and a synopsis of other infections of interest.


    Commentary includes observations about the human biome and the environmental,


    economic, social, and public health sources of resistant bacteria now rapidly spreading


    throughout the health care systems of the world and the communities they serve.


    The United States and other developed nations have sophisticated public health systems


    that can quickly identify and then, at least partially, mitigate the impact of antibiotic


    resistant diseases (ABRD). In other countries, a much smaller percentage of the


    population has access to the sophisticated medical facilities that characterize developed


    nations. In vulnerable BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) nations of the developing


    world, hundreds of millions, if not billions, of citizens do not have access to clean water


    supplies or adequate sewage systems. The reality of health care inequality (synonymous


    with fresh water inequality) also affects many US citizens, as shown by the recent


    outbreak of Legionnaire’s disease in Flint, MI, with its high levels of lead in its


    drinking water. The potential impact of pandemics derived from a wide variety of


    microorganisms pose increasing public health threats as world population and


    frequency of international travel increase, factors supplementing the rising threat of


    antibiotic resistant diseases. The threat of antibiotic resistance is worldwide. The world


    is now, in effect, getting smaller just as its supplies of potable fresh water, including


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    fossil water, are being rapidly depleted, a topic to be further explored in volume 6 of


    this publication series.


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    Introduction


    The fundamental question about antibiotic resistant diseases (ABRD) is where and


    when did they originate? The answer lies in that huge panorama of microbiomes that


    are the basis for life on Earth. This vast landscape, which includes all aquatic and


    terrestrial environments, has its roots in ancient bacterial communities that can be


    traced back billions of years. Many now lost microbes once inhabited ancient bacterial


    microbiomes in all trophic levels of the biosphere. Their descendents continue to live in


    all the microbiomes that characterize the biosphere, one of hundreds of millions of


    which is the human gut. Human intestines are characterized by as many as 100 trillion


    microorganisms belonging to 200 or more microbial species. Thousands of years before


    the development of industrial agriculture and before the evolution of hospital-acquired


    infections, ancient environmental reservoirs of resistance characterized all


    microbiomes, including the microbial communities characterizing the human gut


    (stomach and intestines), skin, the vaginal environment, the lungs and nose and the oral


    environment of the mouth. A number of annotated citations in this text highlight these


    ancient reservoirs of bacteria and the change in the genes that evolved to counteract or


    control other bacterial infections.


    A whole new world of manmade environmental chemicals now characterizes our


    hemispheric water supply, including all biomes whose key constituent is water. Only a


    small percentage of the total volume of these effluents can be biodegraded or


    bioconverted to other metabolites by the creative diversity of our many microbial


    communities. The ecological, as well as the social, political, and economic context of


    our biosphere in crisis can now be summarized by an historical observation: (x) the


    growing impact of “antibiotic winter.” The rapidly changing environments of our


    contemporary _________________________________ highlighted by the CDC report


    on ABRD are part of a much larger worldwide panorama of viral infections such as


    HIV, malaria, cholera, influenza, and rabies. Many pandemics have been halted by the


    vaccines produced by the world medical community. Polio, smallpox, and _____ head


    the list of dangerous plagues that are now medical history. Ebola has recently been


    controlled. The impact of SARS has been curtailed. The Zika outbreak is now the


    object of a mass research effort to find a vaccine. Other emerging viral infections pose a


    future threat of worldwide pandemics. New variations of avian and livestock influenza,


    SARS, the Marburg virus, and other infections are now much more susceptible to


    hemispheric transport, sometimes associated with the increasing frequency of invasive


    species movement. The rapid spread of Lyme disease is an example of a viral infection


    that, unlike bacterial infections, cannot be treated with antibiotics, even though they use


    them a lot. All bacterial and viral infections are occurring in the context of a rapidly


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    growing world population and an expanding global consumer society. Contemporary


    society is now characterized by growing income inequality and a dramatic lack of


    funding for basic infrastructure maintenance. This lack of __________________


    combines with growing political paralysis, at least in the United States, and a lack of


    informed consensus, all of which encourages the growing health care inequality that the


    world population now faces. Despite a dedicated and innovative med-techno-elite, the


    reality of the ecological impact of our beloved petrochemical-industrial-consumer


    product culture is the unfortunate downside of the glowing florescence of humanity in


    the Anthropocene.


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