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ANSYS Mechanical APDL Basic Analysis Guide.pdf

364 Pages · 2013 · 4.29 MB · English

  • ANSYS Mechanical APDL Basic Analysis Guide.pdf

    ANSYS Mechanical APDL Basic Analysis Guide


    ANSYS, Inc. Release 15.0


    Southpointe November 2013


    275 Technology Drive


    Canonsburg, PA 15317 ANSYS, Inc. is


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    Published in the U.S.A. Table of Contents


    1. Getting Started....................................................................................................................................... 1


    1.1. Building the Model........................................................................................................................... 1


    1.1.1. Specifying a Jobname and Analysis Title................................................................................... 1


    1.1.1.1. Defining the Jobname..................................................................................................... 1


    1.1.1.2. Defining an Analysis Title................................................................................................. 2


    1.1.1.3. Defining Units................................................................................................................. 2


    1.1.2. Defining Element Types............................................................................................................ 2


    1.1.3. Defining Element Real Constants.............................................................................................. 3


    1.1.3.1. Creating Cross Sections................................................................................................... 4


    1.1.4. Defining Material Properties..................................................................................................... 4


    1.1.4.1. Linear Material Properties................................................................................................ 4


    1.1.4.2. Nonlinear Material Properties.......................................................................................... 7


    1.1.4.3. Anisotropic Elastic Material Properties............................................................................. 7


    1.1.4.4. Material Model Interface.................................................................................................. 8


    1.1.4.4.1. Accessing the Interface........................................................................................... 8


    1.1.4.4.2. Choosing Material Behavior.................................................................................... 8


    1.1.4.4.3. Entering Material Data............................................................................................ 9


    1.1.4.4.4. Logging/Editing Material Data.............................................................................. 12


    1.1.4.4.5. Example: Defining a Single Material Model............................................................ 12


    1.1.4.4.6. Example: Editing Data in a Material Model............................................................. 13


    1.1.4.4.7. Example: Defining a Material Model Combination.................................................. 14


    1.1.4.4.8. Material Model Interface - Miscellaneous Items...................................................... 15


    1.1.4.5. Using Material Library Files............................................................................................ 15


    1.1.4.6. Format of Material Library Files...................................................................................... 16


    1.1.4.7. Specifying a Default Read/Write Path for Material Library Files........................................ 16


    1.1.4.8. Creating (Writing) a Material Library File......................................................................... 16


    1.1.4.9. Reading a Material Library File....................................................................................... 17


    1.1.5. Creating the Model Geometry................................................................................................ 17


    1.2. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution.................................................................................... 18


    1.2.1. Specifying the Analysis Type and Analysis Options.................................................................. 18


    1.2.2. Applying Loads...................................................................................................................... 19


    1.2.3. Specifying Load Step Options................................................................................................. 20


    1.2.4. Initiating the Solution............................................................................................................. 20


    1.3. Reviewing the Results..................................................................................................................... 20


    2. Loading ................................................................................................................................................. 21


    2.1. Understanding Loads...................................................................................................................... 21


    2.2. Load Steps, Substeps, and Equilibrium Iterations.............................................................................. 22


    2.3.The Role of Time in Tracking............................................................................................................ 24


    2.4. Stepped Versus Ramped Loads........................................................................................................ 25


    2.5. Applying Loads............................................................................................................................... 26


    2.5.1. Solid-Model Loads: Advantages and Disadvantages................................................................ 26


    2.5.2. Finite-Element Loads: Advantages and Disadvantages............................................................. 27


    2.5.3. DOF Constraints..................................................................................................................... 27


    2.5.4. Applying Symmetry or Antisymmetry Boundary Conditions.................................................... 28


    2.5.5.Transferring Constraints.......................................................................................................... 29


    2.5.5.1. Resetting Constraints..................................................................................................... 30


    2.5.5.2. Scaling Constraint Values............................................................................................... 30


    2.5.5.3. Resolution of Conflicting Constraint Specifications......................................................... 31


    2.5.6. Forces (Concentrated Loads)................................................................................................... 32


    2.5.6.1. Repeating a Force.......................................................................................................... 33


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    2.5.6.2. Scaling Force Values....................................................................................................... 33


    2.5.6.3.Transferring Forces ........................................................................................................ 33


    2.5.7. Surface Loads......................................................................................................................... 34


    2.5.7.1. Applying Pressure Loads on Beams................................................................................ 35


    2.5.7.2. Specifying Node Number Versus Surface Load................................................................ 35


    2.5.7.3. Specifying a Gradient Slope........................................................................................... 36


    2.5.7.4. Repeating a Surface Load.............................................................................................. 39


    2.5.7.5.Transferring Surface Loads............................................................................................. 39


    2.5.7.6. Using Surface Effect Elements to Apply Loads................................................................ 39


    2.5.8. Applying Body Loads............................................................................................................. 40


    2.5.8.1. Specifying Body Loads for Elements............................................................................... 41


    2.5.8.2. Specifying Body Loads for Keypoints.............................................................................. 42


    2.5.8.3. Specifying Body Loads on Lines, Areas and Volumes....................................................... 43


    2.5.8.4. Specifying a Uniform Body Load.................................................................................... 43


    2.5.8.5. Repeating a Body Load Specification.............................................................................. 43


    2.5.8.6.Transferring Body Loads................................................................................................. 44


    2.5.8.7. Scaling Body Load Values............................................................................................... 44


    2.5.8.8. Resolving Conflicting Body Load Specifications.............................................................. 44


    2.5.9. Applying Inertia Loads........................................................................................................... 46


    2.5.10. Applying Ocean Loads.......................................................................................................... 47


    2.5.11. Applying Coupled-Field Loads.............................................................................................. 48


    2.5.12. Axisymmetric Loads and Reactions....................................................................................... 49


    2.5.12.1. Hints and Restrictions.................................................................................................. 49


    2.5.13. Loads to Which the Degree of Freedom Offers No Resistance................................................ 50


    2.5.14. Initial State Loading.............................................................................................................. 50


    2.5.15. Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters.............................................................. 50


    2.5.15.1. Defining Primary Variables........................................................................................... 51


    2.5.15.2. Defining Independent Variables................................................................................... 53


    2.5.15.3. Operating on Table Parameters.................................................................................... 54


    2.5.15.4.Verifying Boundary Conditions..................................................................................... 54


    2.5.15.5. Example Analysis Using 1-D Table Array........................................................................ 54


    2.5.15.6. Example Analysis Using 5-D Table Array........................................................................ 54


    2.5.16. Applying Loads Using Components and Assemblies.............................................................. 56


    2.6. Specifying Load Step Options......................................................................................................... 57


    2.6.1. Setting General Options......................................................................................................... 57


    2.6.1.1. Solution Controls Dialog Box......................................................................................... 57


    2.6.1.2.The Time Option............................................................................................................ 57


    2.6.1.3. Number of Substeps and Time Step Size......................................................................... 58


    2.6.1.4. Automatic Time Stepping.............................................................................................. 58


    2.6.1.5. Stepping or Ramping Loads........................................................................................... 58


    2.6.1.6. Other General Options................................................................................................... 60


    2.6.2. Setting Dynamics Options...................................................................................................... 61


    2.6.3. Setting Nonlinear Options...................................................................................................... 62


    2.6.4. Setting Output Controls......................................................................................................... 63


    2.6.5. Setting Biot-Savart Options.................................................................................................... 64


    2.6.6. Setting Spectrum Options...................................................................................................... 65


    2.7. Creating Multiple Load Step Files.................................................................................................... 65


    2.8. Defining Pretension in a Joint Fastener............................................................................................ 66


    2.8.1. Applying Pretension to a Fastener Meshed as a Single Piece.................................................... 66


    2.8.2. Applying Pretension to a Fastener Meshed as Two Pieces........................................................ 67


    2.8.3. Example Pretension Analysis.................................................................................................. 67


    2.8.4. Example Pretension Analysis (GUI Method)............................................................................. 71


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    2.8.4.1. Set the Analysis Title...................................................................................................... 71


    2.8.4.2. Define the Element Type................................................................................................ 71


    2.8.4.3. Define Material Properties............................................................................................. 72


    2.8.4.4. Set Viewing Options...................................................................................................... 72


    2.8.4.5. Create Geometry........................................................................................................... 73


    2.8.4.6. Mesh Geometry............................................................................................................. 74


    2.8.4.7. Solution: Apply Pretension............................................................................................. 75


    2.8.4.8. Postprocessing: Pretension Results................................................................................. 76


    2.8.4.9. Solution: Apply Thermal Gradient................................................................................... 76


    2.8.4.10. Postprocessing: Pretension and Thermal Results........................................................... 77


    2.8.4.11. Exit ANSYS................................................................................................................... 77


    3. Using the Function Tool........................................................................................................................ 79


    3.1. Function Tool Terminology.............................................................................................................. 79


    3.2. Using the Function Editor................................................................................................................ 80


    3.2.1. How the Function Editor Works............................................................................................... 80


    3.2.1.1. Selecting Primary Variables in the Function Editor.......................................................... 81


    3.2.2. Creating a Function with the Function Editor.......................................................................... 82


    3.2.3. Using Your Function............................................................................................................... 83


    3.3. Using the Function Loader.............................................................................................................. 83


    3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions Using the Function Tool................................................................... 84


    3.5. Function Tool Example.................................................................................................................... 84


    3.6. Graphing or Listing a Function ....................................................................................................... 89


    3.6.1. Graphing a Function............................................................................................................... 90


    3.6.2. Listing a Function .................................................................................................................. 90


    4. Initial State............................................................................................................................................ 93


    4.1. Specifying and Editing Initial State Values........................................................................................ 93


    4.1.1. Node-Based Initial State......................................................................................................... 94


    4.2. Initial State Application................................................................................................................... 94


    4.2.1. Initial Stress Application......................................................................................................... 94


    4.2.2. Initial Strain Application......................................................................................................... 95


    4.2.3. Initial Plastic Strain Application............................................................................................... 96


    4.2.4. Initial Creep Strain Application............................................................................................... 96


    4.2.5. Initial State with State Variables Application............................................................................ 97


    4.2.6. Node-Based Initial Strain Application...................................................................................... 97


    4.3. Initial State File Format.................................................................................................................... 97


    4.4. Using Coordinate Systems with Initial State..................................................................................... 98


    4.5. Initial State Limitations.................................................................................................................... 98


    4.6. Example Problems Using Initial State............................................................................................... 99


    4.6.1. Example: Initial Stress Problem Using the IST File..................................................................... 99


    4.6.2. Example: Initial Stress Problem Using the INISTATE Command............................................... 100


    4.6.3. Example: Initial Strain Problem Using the INISTATE Command................................................ 101


    4.6.4. Example: Initial Plastic Strain Problem Using the INISTATE Command..................................... 101


    4.6.5. Example: Initial Creep Strain Problem Using the INISTATE Command...................................... 103


    4.6.6. Example: Initial Plastic Strain Problem Using the INISTATE with State Variables ....................... 105


    4.6.7. Example: Node-Based Initial Strain Problem Using the INISTATE Command............................ 107


    4.7.Writing Initial State Values............................................................................................................. 109


    4.7.1. Example: Output From the INISTATE Command's WRITE Option............................................. 109


    5. Solution............................................................................................................................................... 111


    5.1. Selecting a Solver.......................................................................................................................... 111


    5.2.Types of Solvers............................................................................................................................ 113


    5.2.1.The Sparse Direct Solver....................................................................................................... 113


    5.2.1.1. Distributed Sparse Direct Solver................................................................................... 114


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    5.2.2.The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) Solver............................................................ 115


    5.2.3.The Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) Solver.......................................................................... 117


    5.2.4.The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) Solver.................................................. 117


    5.2.5.The Quasi-Minimal Residual (QMR) Solver............................................................................. 117


    5.3. Solver Memory and Performance.................................................................................................. 118


    5.3.1. Running Solvers Under Shared Memory................................................................................ 118


    5.3.2. Using Large Memory Capabilities with the Sparse Solver....................................................... 118


    5.3.3. Disk Space (I/O) and Postprocessing Performance for Large Memory Problems...................... 119


    5.3.4. Memory Usage on Windows 32-bit Systems.......................................................................... 119


    5.4. Using Special Solution Controls for Certain Types of Structural Analyses......................................... 120


    5.4.1. Using Abridged Solution Menus........................................................................................... 120


    5.4.2. Using the Solution Controls Dialog Box................................................................................. 121


    5.4.3. Accessing More Information................................................................................................. 123


    5.5. Obtaining the Solution.................................................................................................................. 124


    5.6. Solving Multiple Load Steps.......................................................................................................... 124


    5.6.1. Using the Multiple SOLVE Method........................................................................................ 124


    5.6.2. Using the Load Step File Method.......................................................................................... 125


    5.6.3. Using the Array Parameter Method....................................................................................... 125


    5.7.Terminating a Running Job............................................................................................................ 127


    5.8. Restarting an Analysis................................................................................................................... 127


    5.8.1. Multiframe Restart................................................................................................................ 128


    5.8.1.1. Multiframe File Restart Requirements........................................................................... 132


    5.8.1.1.1. Multiframe Restart Limitations............................................................................ 133


    5.8.1.2. Multiframe Restart Procedure...................................................................................... 133


    5.8.2. Modal Analysis Restart.......................................................................................................... 135


    5.8.3.VT Accelerator Re-run........................................................................................................... 138


    5.8.3.1.VT Accelerator Re-run Requirements............................................................................ 138


    5.8.3.2.VT Accelerator Re-run Procedure.................................................................................. 138


    5.9. Singular Matrices.......................................................................................................................... 139


    5.10. Stopping Solution After Matrix Assembly..................................................................................... 140


    6. An Overview of Postprocessing.......................................................................................................... 141


    6.1. Postprocessors Available............................................................................................................... 141


    6.2.The Results Files............................................................................................................................ 142


    6.3.Types of Data Available for Postprocessing..................................................................................... 142


    7.The General Postprocessor (POST1).................................................................................................... 145


    7.1. Reading Results Data into the Database......................................................................................... 145


    7.1.1. Reading in Results Data........................................................................................................ 145


    7.1.2. Other Options for Retrieving Results Data............................................................................. 146


    7.1.2.1. Defining Data to be Retrieved...................................................................................... 147


    7.1.2.2. Reading Selected Results Information.......................................................................... 147


    7.1.2.3. Appending Data to the Database................................................................................. 147


    7.1.3. Creating an Element Table.................................................................................................... 148


    7.1.3.1. Filling the Element Table for Variables Identified By Name............................................. 149


    7.1.3.2. Filling the Element Table for Variables Identified By Sequence Number......................... 149


    7.1.3.3. Considerations for Defining Element Tables.................................................................. 149


    7.1.4. Special Considerations for Principal Stresses......................................................................... 150


    7.1.5. Resetting the Database........................................................................................................ 150


    7.2. Reviewing Results in POST1........................................................................................................... 150


    7.2.1. Displaying Results Graphically.............................................................................................. 151


    7.2.1.1. Contour Displays......................................................................................................... 151


    7.2.1.2. Deformed Shape Displays............................................................................................ 155


    7.2.1.3.Vector Displays............................................................................................................ 156


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    7.2.1.4. Path Plots.................................................................................................................... 156


    7.2.1.5. Reaction Force Displays............................................................................................... 157


    7.2.1.6. Particle Flow and Charged Particle Traces..................................................................... 157


    7.2.1.7. Cracking and Crushing Plots........................................................................................ 160


    7.2.2. Surface Operations............................................................................................................... 160


    7.2.2.1. Defining the Surface.................................................................................................... 161


    7.2.2.2. Mapping Results Data Onto a Surface........................................................................... 162


    7.2.2.3. Reviewing Surface Results ........................................................................................... 163


    7.2.2.4. Performing Operations on Mapped Surface Result Sets................................................ 163


    7.2.2.5. Archiving and Retrieving Surface Data to a File............................................................. 163


    7.2.2.6. Archiving and Retrieving Surface Data to an Array Parameter....................................... 164


    7.2.2.7. Deleting a Surface....................................................................................................... 164


    7.2.3. Integrating Surface Results................................................................................................... 164


    7.2.4. Listing Results in Tabular Form.............................................................................................. 165


    7.2.4.1. Listing Nodal and Element Solution Data...................................................................... 165


    7.2.4.2. Listing Reaction Loads and Applied Loads.................................................................... 166


    7.2.4.3. Listing Element Table Data........................................................................................... 167


    7.2.4.4. Other Listings.............................................................................................................. 168


    7.2.4.5. Sorting Nodes and Elements........................................................................................ 169


    7.2.4.6. Customizing Your Tabular Listings................................................................................ 169


    7.2.5. Mapping Results onto a Path................................................................................................ 170


    7.2.5.1. Defining the Path......................................................................................................... 170


    7.2.5.2. Using Multiple Paths.................................................................................................... 171


    7.2.5.3. Interpolating Data Along the Path................................................................................ 172


    7.2.5.4. Mapping Path Data...................................................................................................... 172


    7.2.5.5. Reviewing Path Items.................................................................................................. 173


    7.2.5.6. Performing Mathematical Operations among Path Items.............................................. 173


    7.2.5.7. Archiving and Retrieving Path Data to a File................................................................. 173


    7.2.5.8. Archiving and Retrieving Path Data to an Array Parameter............................................ 174


    7.2.5.9. Deleting a Path............................................................................................................ 175


    7.2.6. Estimating Solution Error...................................................................................................... 176


    7.2.7. Using the Results Viewer to Access Results File Data.............................................................. 176


    7.2.7.1.The Results Viewer Layout............................................................................................ 177


    7.2.7.1.1. Main Menu......................................................................................................... 177


    7.2.7.1.2.Toolbar ............................................................................................................... 178


    7.2.7.1.3. Step/Sequence Data Access Controls................................................................... 179


    7.2.7.2.The Results Viewer Context-Sensitive Menus................................................................ 180


    7.3. Additional POST1 Postprocessing.................................................................................................. 182


    7.3.1. Rotating Results to a Different Coordinate System................................................................. 182


    7.3.2. Performing Arithmetic Operations Among Results Data........................................................ 184


    7.3.3. Creating and Combining Load Cases..................................................................................... 187


    7.3.3.1. Saving a Combined Load Case..................................................................................... 188


    7.3.3.2. Combining Load Cases in Harmonic Element Models.................................................... 190


    7.3.3.3. Summable, Non-Summable, and Constant Data............................................................ 191


    7.3.4. Mapping Results onto a Different Mesh or to a Cut Boundary................................................ 192


    7.3.5. Creating or Modifying Results Data in the Database.............................................................. 193


    7.3.6. Splitting Large Results Files................................................................................................... 193


    7.3.7. Magnetics Command Macros............................................................................................... 194


    7.3.8. Comparing Nodal Solutions From Two Models or From One Model and Experimental Data


    (RSTMAC) ..................................................................................................................................... 196


    7.3.8.1. Matching the Nodes.................................................................................................... 196


    7.3.8.2. Mapping the Nodes..................................................................................................... 197


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    7.3.8.3. Evaluate MAC Between Solutions at Matched/Mapped Nodes...................................... 198


    7.3.8.4. Match the Solutions..................................................................................................... 199


    7.3.8.5. Universal Format File Records...................................................................................... 199


    8.The Time-History Postprocessor (POST26)......................................................................................... 201


    8.1.The Time-History Variable Viewer................................................................................................... 201


    8.2. Entering the Time-History Postprocessor....................................................................................... 204


    8.2.1. Interactive............................................................................................................................ 204


    8.2.2. Batch ................................................................................................................................... 204


    8.3. Defining Variables......................................................................................................................... 204


    8.3.1. Interactive............................................................................................................................ 205


    8.3.2. Batch ................................................................................................................................... 206


    8.4. Processing Your Variables to Develop Calculated Data ................................................................... 208


    8.4.1. Interactive............................................................................................................................ 208


    8.4.2. Batch ................................................................................................................................... 209


    8.5. Importing Data............................................................................................................................. 210


    8.5.1. Interactive ........................................................................................................................... 210


    8.5.2. Batch Mode.......................................................................................................................... 211


    8.6. Exporting Data.............................................................................................................................. 212


    8.6.1. Interactive Mode.................................................................................................................. 212


    8.6.2. Batch Mode.......................................................................................................................... 212


    8.7. Reviewing the Variables................................................................................................................ 213


    8.7.1. Plotting Result Graphs.......................................................................................................... 213


    8.7.1.1. Interactive................................................................................................................... 213


    8.7.1.2. Batch........................................................................................................................... 213


    8.7.2. Listing Your Results in Tabular Form...................................................................................... 214


    8.7.2.1. Interactive................................................................................................................... 214


    8.7.2.2. Batch........................................................................................................................... 215


    8.8. Additional Time-History Postprocessing........................................................................................ 215


    8.8.1. Random Vibration (PSD) Results Postprocessing.................................................................... 216


    8.8.1.1. Interactive................................................................................................................... 216


    8.8.1.1.1. Covariance.......................................................................................................... 216


    8.8.1.1.2. Response PSD..................................................................................................... 217


    8.8.1.2. Batch........................................................................................................................... 218


    8.8.2. Generating a Response Spectrum......................................................................................... 218


    8.8.2.1. Interactive................................................................................................................... 218


    8.8.2.2. Batch........................................................................................................................... 220


    8.8.3. Data Smoothing................................................................................................................... 220


    8.8.3.1. Interactive................................................................................................................... 220


    8.8.3.2. Batch........................................................................................................................... 220


    9. Selecting and Components................................................................................................................. 223


    9.1. Selecting Entities.......................................................................................................................... 223


    9.1.1. Selecting Entities Using Commands...................................................................................... 225


    9.1.2. Selecting Entities Using the GUI............................................................................................ 225


    9.1.3. Selecting Lines to Repair CAD Geometry............................................................................... 226


    9.1.4. Other Commands for Selecting............................................................................................. 226


    9.2. Selecting for Meaningful Postprocessing....................................................................................... 227


    9.3. Grouping Geometry Items into Components and Assemblies......................................................... 228


    9.3.1. Creating Components.......................................................................................................... 229


    9.3.2. Nesting Assemblies.............................................................................................................. 229


    9.3.3. Selecting Entities by Component or Assembly...................................................................... 230


    9.3.4. Adding or Removing Components........................................................................................ 231


    9.3.5. Modifying Components or Assemblies.................................................................................. 231


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    10. Getting Started with Graphics.......................................................................................................... 233


    10.1. Interactive Versus External Graphics............................................................................................. 233


    10.2. Identifying the Graphics Device Name (for UNIX)......................................................................... 233


    10.2.1. Graphics Device Names Available........................................................................................ 233


    10.2.1.1. X11 and X11C............................................................................................................ 234


    10.2.1.2. 3D............................................................................................................................. 234


    10.2.2. Graphics Drivers and Capabilities Supported on UNIX Systems............................................ 234


    10.2.3. Graphics Device Types Supported on UNIX Systems............................................................ 235


    10.2.4. Graphics Environment Variables.......................................................................................... 235


    10.3. Specifying the Graphics Display Device Type (for Windows).......................................................... 236


    10.4. System-Dependent Graphics Information.................................................................................... 237


    10.4.1. Adjusting Input Focus......................................................................................................... 237


    10.4.2. Deactivating Backing Store................................................................................................. 237


    10.4.3. Setting Up IBM RS/6000 3-D OpenGL Supported Graphics Adapters.................................... 237


    10.4.4. Displaying X11 Graphics over Networks.............................................................................. 237


    10.4.5. HP Graphics Drivers............................................................................................................ 238


    10.4.6. Producing GraphicDisplays on an HP PaintJet Printer........................................................... 238


    10.4.7. PostScript Hard-Copy Option.............................................................................................. 239


    10.4.8. IBM RS/6000 Graphics Drivers............................................................................................. 239


    10.4.9. Silicon Graphics Drivers...................................................................................................... 239


    10.4.10. Sun UltraSPARC Graphics Drivers (32 and 64 bit versions)................................................... 239


    10.5. Creating Graphics Displays.......................................................................................................... 240


    10.5.1. GUI-Driven Graphics Functions........................................................................................... 240


    10.5.2. Command-Driven Graphics Functions................................................................................. 240


    10.5.3. Immediate Mode Graphics.................................................................................................. 240


    10.5.4. Replotting the Current Display............................................................................................ 241


    10.5.5. Erasing the Current Display................................................................................................. 241


    10.5.6. Aborting a Display in Progress............................................................................................ 241


    10.6. Multi-Plotting Techniques ........................................................................................................... 241


    10.6.1. Defining the Window Layout.............................................................................................. 241


    10.6.2. Choosing What Entities Each Window Displays.................................................................... 242


    10.6.3. Choosing the Display Used for Plots.................................................................................... 243


    10.6.4. Displaying Selected Entities................................................................................................ 243


    11. General Graphics Specifications....................................................................................................... 245


    11.1. Using the GUI to Control Displays................................................................................................ 245


    11.2. Multiple ANSYS Windows, Superimposed Displays....................................................................... 245


    11.2.1. Defining ANSYS Windows................................................................................................... 245


    11.2.2. Activating and Deactivating ANSYS Windows...................................................................... 245


    11.2.3. Deleting ANSYS Windows................................................................................................... 246


    11.2.4. Copying Display Specifications Between Windows.............................................................. 246


    11.2.5. Superimposing (Overlaying) Multiple Displays.................................................................... 246


    11.2.6. Removing Frame Borders.................................................................................................... 246


    11.3. Changing the Viewing Angle, Zooming, and Panning................................................................... 246


    11.3.1. Changing the Viewing Direction......................................................................................... 247


    11.3.2. Rotating the Display About a Specified Axis........................................................................ 248


    11.3.3. Determining the Model Coordinate System Reference Orientation...................................... 248


    11.3.4.Translating (or Panning) the Display.................................................................................... 248


    11.3.5. Magnifying (Zooming in on) the Image............................................................................... 248


    11.3.6. Using the Control Key to Pan, Zoom, and Rotate - Dynamic Manipulation Mode................... 248


    11.3.7. Resetting Automatic Scaling and Focus............................................................................... 249


    11.3.8. Freezing Scale (Distance) and Focus.................................................................................... 249


    11.4. Controlling Miscellaneous Text and Symbols................................................................................ 249


    Release 15.0 - © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information


    of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ix Basic Analysis Guide


    11.4.1. Using Legends in Your Displays .......................................................................................... 249


    11.4.1.1. Controlling the Content of Your Legends.................................................................... 250


    11.4.1.2. Controlling the Placement of Your Contour Legend.................................................... 250


    11.4.2. Controlling Entity Fonts...................................................................................................... 251


    11.4.3. Controlling the Location of the Global XYZ Triad................................................................. 251


    11.4.4.Turning Triad Symbols On and Off....................................................................................... 251


    11.4.5. Changing the Style of the Working Plane Grid..................................................................... 251


    11.4.6.Turning the ANSYS Logo On and Off................................................................................... 252


    11.5. Miscellaneous Graphics Specifications......................................................................................... 252


    11.5.1. Reviewing Graphics Control Specifications.......................................................................... 252


    11.5.2. Restoring Defaults for Graphics Slash Commands................................................................ 252


    11.5.3. Saving the Display Specifications on a File........................................................................... 252


    11.5.4. Recalling Display Specifications from a File.......................................................................... 252


    11.5.5. Pausing the ANSYS Program............................................................................................... 252


    11.6. 3-D Input Device Support............................................................................................................ 252


    12. PowerGraphics .................................................................................................................................. 255


    12.1. Characteristics of PowerGraphics................................................................................................. 255


    12.2.When to Use PowerGraphics........................................................................................................ 256


    12.3. Activating and Deactivating PowerGraphics................................................................................ 256


    12.4. How to Use PowerGraphics......................................................................................................... 256


    12.5.What to Expect from a PowerGraphics Plot.................................................................................. 256


    12.5.1.Viewing Your Element Model.............................................................................................. 256


    12.5.2. Printing and Plotting Node and Element Results................................................................. 257


    13. Creating Geometry Displays............................................................................................................. 259


    13.1. Creating Displays of Solid-Model Entities..................................................................................... 259


    13.2. Changing the Specifications for Your Geometry Displays.............................................................. 260


    13.2.1. Changing the Style of Your Display...................................................................................... 260


    13.2.1.1. Displaying Line and Shell Elements as Solids.............................................................. 260


    13.2.1.2. Displaying Only the Edges of an Object...................................................................... 261


    13.2.1.3. Displaying the Interior Element Edges of an Object..................................................... 261


    13.2.1.4. Using Dashed Element Outlines................................................................................. 261


    13.2.1.5. Shrinking Entities for Clarity....................................................................................... 261


    13.2.1.6. Changing the Display Aspect Ratio............................................................................. 261


    13.2.1.7. Changing the Number of Facets................................................................................. 262


    13.2.1.8. Changing Facets for PowerGraphics Displays.............................................................. 262


    13.2.1.9. Changing Hidden-Line Options.................................................................................. 262


    13.2.1.10. Section, Slice, or Capped Displays............................................................................. 262


    13.2.1.11. Specifying the Cutting Plane.................................................................................... 262


    13.2.1.12.Vector Versus Raster Mode....................................................................................... 263


    13.2.1.13. Perspective Displays................................................................................................. 263


    13.2.2. Applying Styles to Enhance the Model Appearance............................................................. 263


    13.2.2.1. Applying Textures to Selected Items........................................................................... 263


    13.2.2.2. Creating Translucent Displays..................................................................................... 263


    13.2.2.3. Changing Light-Source Shading................................................................................. 264


    13.2.2.4. Adding Background Shading and Textures................................................................. 264


    13.2.2.5. Using the Create Best Quality Image Capability.......................................................... 264


    13.2.3. Controlling Numbers and Colors ........................................................................................ 266


    13.2.3.1.Turning Item Numbers On and Off.............................................................................. 266


    13.2.3.2. Choosing a Format for the Graphical Display of Numbers............................................ 267


    13.2.3.3. Controlling Number and Color Options...................................................................... 267


    13.2.3.4. Controlling Color Values............................................................................................. 267


    13.2.4. Displaying Loads and Other Special Symbols...................................................................... 267


    Release 15.0 - © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. - Contains proprietary and confidential information


    x of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.


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