2

Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

230 Pages · 2012 · 1.25 MB · English

  • Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet

    Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    The Ancient Hebrew


    Language and Alphabet



    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



    Understanding the Ancient


    Hebrew language of the


    Bible based on Ancient


    Hebrew Culture and


    Thought





    Jeff A. Benner


    i Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    The Ancient Hebrew Language


    and Alphabet


















    Unless otherwise noted, the Scriptures are taken from the HOLY


    BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION. Copyright uf0e3uf0201973,


    1978, 1984 International Bible Society. Used by permission of


    Zondervan Bible Publishers.



    About the cover: Photo taken at the University of Pennsylvania,


    Museum of Archeology and Anthropology by the author. The


    inscription reads "Sh'ma" meaning hear (see Duet 6.4) and is


    inscribed on a piece of broken pottery dated 586 to 450 BCE.



    Cover and Illustrations by the author



    Copyright uf0e3uf0202002 Jeff A. Benner


    Ancient Hebrew Research Center



    Any part of this book may be copied for non-profit educational


    purposes only, without prior permission.


    ii Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


















    To my wife Denise, who has taught


    me more about Hebrew thought


    through her actions then all the


    books I have read.



    iii Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    Table of Contents





    Introduction ..................................................................................... 1


    One - The Hebrews .......................................................................... 3


    Who were the Hebrews?............................................................... 3


    The Origin of the Hebrew Language and Alphabet ....................... 4


    The evolution of the Hebrew alphabet ........................................ 10


    Why study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? ................ 17


    How do we study the Ancient Hebrew language and culture? ...... 19


    Two - Hebrew Thought .................................................................. 21


    Abstract vs. concrete thought...................................................... 22


    Appearance vs. Functional Description ....................................... 23


    Passive vs. Active Nouns ........................................................... 25


    Three - Reconstructing the Original Hebrew Alphabet .................... 26


    Letter Characteristics ................................................................. 26


    Reconstruction of the Alphabet .................................................. 27


    Four - Hebrew Prefixes .................................................................. 32


    Five - The Root System of Hebrew................................................. 34


    Parent Roots .............................................................................. 35


    Child Roots ................................................................................ 36


    Adopted Roots ........................................................................... 37


    Words ........................................................................................ 38


    Benefit of studying words from a common root .......................... 38


    Reconstructing the Parent Roots ................................................. 39


    Methods for reconstructing the original Parent Root ................... 40


    Six - Word Studies ......................................................................... 43


    God ........................................................................................... 43


    Creator....................................................................................... 44


    Voice ......................................................................................... 45


    Ancient Hebrew Words .............................................................. 46


    Seven - Hebrew origins of English ................................................. 48


    Conclusion .................................................................................... 52


    Appendix A - Ancient Hebrew Alphabet Reconstruction ................ 53


    Appendix B - Learn to Read Ancient Hebrew ................................. 70


    Introduction ............................................................................... 70


    Picture ....................................................................................... 71


    iv Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    English letter .............................................................................. 71


    English name ............................................................................. 71


    Hebrew name ............................................................................. 71


    Hebrew sound ............................................................................ 72


    Hebrew meaning ........................................................................ 72


    Appendix C - History of the Hebrew Script .................................... 96


    Appendix D – Alphabet Charts ..................................................... 119


    Ancient Hebrew ....................................................................... 119


    Modern Hebrew ....................................................................... 120


    Appendix E - Ancient Hebrew Parent Root Dictionary ................. 121


    Purpose of the Lexicon ............................................................. 121


    Cross reference to Strong’s numbers......................................... 121


    How to use the Lexicon ............................................................ 122


    Appendix F – Number Cross References ...................................... 192


    Strong's Number - Ancient Hebrew Number ............................. 192


    Ancient Hebrew Number - Strong's Number ............................. 204


    Bibliography ................................................................................ 216


    Notes ........................................................................................... 220



    v Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    List of Illustrations





    Figure 1 Pre-flood pictograph found in the pre-flood city of Kish...... 6


    Figure 2 The scattering of the descendants of Noah's three sons. ..... 9


    Figure 3 Ancient Shemitic/ Hebrew pictographic inscription on stone


    boulder c. 1500 BCE .............................................................. 10


    Figure 4 Ancient Hebrew inscription on potsherd c. 900 BCE ......... 10


    Figure 5 Moabite inscription on stone c. 900 BCE .......................... 11


    Figure 6 Ammonite inscription on stone c. 900 BCE ..................... 11


    Figure 7 Ugarit cuneiform inscription on clay tablet c. 1400 BCE ... 12


    Figure 8 Aramaic inscription on stone incense altar c. 500 BCE ...... 12


    Figure 9 Aramaic inscription on stone plaque c. 20 CE. .................. 12


    Figure 10 Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls c. 200 BCE 13


    Figure 11 Modern Hebrew script from the Hebrew Bible. ............. 13


    Figure 12 Pictographic Hebrew writings from the Dead Sea Scrolls


    c. 100 BCE ............................................................................. 13


    Figure 13 Samaritan scripts ............................................................ 14


    Figure 14 Greek inscription found on bowl c. 800 BCE .................. 15


    Figure 15 Greek writing on New Testament papyrus c. 200 CE ...... 15


    Figure 16 Egyptian Hieroglyphs from the Book of the Dead c. 1350


    BCE ....................................................................................... 15


    Figure 17 Sumerian Pictograph on clay tablet c. 3000 BCE ........... 16


    Figure 18 Sumerian Cuneiform on clay tablet c. 2500 BCE............. 16


    Figure 19 Hebrew root word systems ............................................. 34


    Figure 20 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c. 1000 BCE .................. 48


    Figure 21 The Ancient Hebrew alphabet c. 1000 BCE (mirror


    image) .................................................................................... 49


    vi Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    Introduction


    ____________________________________







    This book is unique in that it will look at the Biblical


    Hebrew language of the Bible through the eyes of the


    Ancient Hebrews who wrote it. Modern readers often


    ignore the fact that the Bible is an Ancient text and must


    be read as an Ancient text. The definitions of Hebrew


    words, just like any other language, change and evolve


    over time. It is the goal of this work to bring out the


    Ancient Hebrew meanings of words to the student of the


    Bible as never before done.



    The study of the Ancient Hebrew language and alphabet


    begins with an understanding of the Ancient Hebrew


    culture as both are intimately related. The original letters


    of the Hebrew alphabet was actually pictures, or


    pictographs, similar to Egyptian Hieroglyphs. Each


    picture represented an object whose definition is closely


    related to the agricultural lifestyle of the Ancient


    Hebrews. By studying the culture and lifestyle of the


    Ancient Hebrews we can better understand their language.



    In a work such as this, there will undoubtedly be some


    misinterpretation of the Ancient Hebrew culture and


    pictographs. The study of any Ancient culture is like


    putting together a puzzle. We will never have all the


    pieces to the puzzle, but the pieces we do have, we piece


    1 Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    together and attempt to fill in the gaps as efficiently as


    possible. Sometimes the gaps in the puzzle are small and


    easy to fill in based on the pieces around it. At other times


    these gaps are large and difficult to fill in. There is much


    work to be done in this area of language and word study


    and I hope that others, who have the same love for the


    Ancient Hebrew language and culture, will take on the


    challenge of continuing the research needed to piece


    together the puzzle.


    2 Ancient Hebrew Language and Alphabet


    One - The Hebrews


    ____________________________________







    Who were the Hebrews?



    The first person mentioned in the Bible as a "Hebrew" is


    Abraham1.



    "One who had escaped came and reported this


    to Abram the Hebrew". (Genesis 14.13)



    Is Abraham the first Hebrew? The Hebrew word for


    "Hebrew" is yrb[ / eevriy2 and comes from the root word


    rb[ / avar which means, "to cross over". A Hebrew is


    "one who has crossed over". One of Abraham's ancestors


    was Eber3 (rb[).




    1 Known as Abram before God changed his name.


    2 The letter b (beyt) is pronounced as a "b" when at the beginning of a


    word, and usually a "v" within a word.


    3 Genesis 11.16


    3


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
    Found by internet command,site not saved pdf file
You May Also Like

Related PPT Template in the same category.