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Anatomy & Physiology Workbook

309 Pages · 2008 · 4.18 MB · English

  • Anatomy & Physiology Workbook

    A n a t o m y &


    P h y s i o l o g y


    Wo r k b o o k


    FOR


    DUMmIES‰


    by Janet Rae-Dupree


    and Pat DuPree Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies®


    Published by


    Wiley Publishing, Inc.


    111 River St.


    Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774


    www.wiley.com


    Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana


    Published simultaneously in Canada


    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,


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    OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND


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    Library of Congress Control Number: 2007932378


    ISBN: 978-0-470-16932-2


    Manufactured in the United States of America


    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 About the Authors


    Janet Rae-Dupreehas been covering science and technology in Silicon Valley since 1993 for


    a number of publications, including U.S. News & World Report,BusinessWeek,the San Jose


    Mercury News,and the Silicon Valley/San Jose Business Journal.She was a frequent guest


    on cable channel Tech TV’s “Silicon Spin” technology talk show, and she was part of the


    Pulitzer Prize-winning team at the Los Angeles Times covering the city’s riots in 1992. During


    the 2005–2006 academic year, Janet was a John S. Knight Journalism Fellow at Stanford


    University, where she studied human biology and researched innovation and market transfer.


    She freelances for various publications, working from her home in Half Moon Bay, California,


    where she lives with husband, Dave Dupree, and their 9-year-old son, Matthew (although a


    19-year-old calico cat named Trillian actually rules the roost).


    Pat DuPreetaught anatomy/physiology, biology, medical terminology, and environmental


    science for 24 years at several colleges and universities in Los Angeles County. She holds two


    undergraduate life science degrees and a master’s degree from Auburn University and con-


    ducted cancer research at Southern Research Institute in Birmingham, Alabama, before join-


    ing the Muscogee Health Department in Columbus, Georgia. In 1970, she moved to Redondo


    Beach, California, where she was a university instructor and raised her two sons, Dave


    Dupree and Mark DuPree. Now Pat is retired and lives on lovely Pine Lake in rural Georgia


    with her husband, Dr. James E. DuPree.


    Dedication


    To our loving family — Dave Dupree, Matthew Dupree, and Jim DuPree — for their patience


    and understanding as we pulled this book together and put so many other aspects of our


    lives on hold. To Dave, for being Mr. Fix-It on balky hard drives, recalcitrant computers, and


    fussy printers; for distracting an antsy 8-year-old with baseball, movies, and games; and for


    concocting terrific — and healthy! — home-cooked meals. To Matthew, for understanding


    why Mommy couldn’t drive for every school field trip, attend every Cub Scout den meeting,


    or set up play dates every single day of the week.


    And especially from Pat to Jim for his love, enthusiastic support, assistance, and encourage-


    ment without which she could not have finished this workbook.


    Authors’ Acknowledgments


    We owe gratitude to so many people, but this project has been first and foremost a DuPree


    family affair. We will never be able to thank our spouses enough for their patience and under-


    standing from beginning to end. Dr. James E. DuPree was a constant helpmate to Pat on the


    East coast, providing research, editing, computer assistance, and graphics support as well as


    priceless cheerleading and enthusiasm. Their son David E. Dupree filled the cheerleader role


    on the West coast, keeping the computers and home network up and running, Janet focused


    and on track, and the gaping child-rearing gaps filled while she pushed to get the book done


    in what surely must be record time. And we can’t forget to thank son/grandson Matthew J.


    Dupree for his stalwart patience while Mom and Grandmom focused their attentions on the


    book instead of him.


    We would also like to thank our agent, Matt Wagner, for his tireless efforts, as well as the


    many devoted people at Wiley Publishing, particularly Stacy Kennedy, Chrissy Guthrie (who


    welcomed Sophia Rose Guthrie into the world days after receiving the final manuscript!),


    Stephen Clark, and Elizabeth Rea. Publisher’s Acknowledgments


    We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our Dummies online registration form located at


    www.dummies.com/register/.


    Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:


    Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media Development Composition Services


    Senior Project Editor:Christina Guthrie Project Coordinator: Patrick Redmond


    Project Editor:Stephen R. Clark Layout and Graphics: Stacie Brooks, Carrie A. Cesavice,


    Denny Hager, Stephanie D. Jumper, Julie Trippetti,


    Acquisitions Editor:Stacy Kennedy


    Erin Zeltner


    Senior Copy Editor:Elizabeth Rea


    Special Art: Kathryn Born, M.A.


    Technical Editor: Michael W. Pratt, PC


    Anniversary Logo Design:Richard Pacifico


    Editorial Manager: Christine Meloy Beck


    Proofreaders: Broccoli Information Management,


    Editorial Assistants:Erin Calligan Mooney, Joe Niesen Cynthia Fields, John Greenough


    Cover Photos:© Robin Lynne Gibson/Riser/Getty Images Indexer: Sherry Massey


    Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com)


    Publishing and Editorial for Consumer Dummies


    Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher, Consumer Dummies


    Joyce Pepple, Acquisitions Director, Consumer Dummies


    Kristin A. Cocks, Product Development Director, Consumer Dummies


    Michael Spring, Vice President and Publisher, Travel


    Kelly Regan,Editorial Director, Travel


    Publishing for Technology Dummies


    Andy Cummings,Vice President and Publisher, Dummies Technology/General User


    Composition Services


    Gerry Fahey,Vice President of Production Services


    Debbie Stailey,Director of Composition Services Contents at a Glance


    Introduction.................................................................................1


    Part I: Building Blocks of the Body ...............................................5


    Chapter 1: The Chemistry of Life...............................................................................................................7


    Chapter 2: The Cell: Life’s Basic Building Block.....................................................................................23


    Chapter 3: Divide and Conquer: Cellular Mitosis...................................................................................37


    Chapter 4: The Study of Tissues: Histology............................................................................................47


    Part II: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin.................59


    Chapter 5: A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton....................................................................................61


    Chapter 6: Getting in Gear: The Muscles.................................................................................................93


    Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System.........................................................................113


    Part III: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport ............................127


    Chapter 8: Oxygenating the Machine: The Respiratory System........................................................129


    Chapter 9: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System....................................................................143


    Chapter 10: Spreading the Love: The Circulatory System..................................................................163


    Chapter 11: Keeping Up Your Defenses: The Lymphatic System.......................................................181


    Chapter 12: Filtering Out the Junk: The Urinary System.....................................................................195


    Part IV: Survival of the Species.................................................205


    Chapter 13: Why Ask Y?: The Male Reproductive System..................................................................207


    Chapter 14: Carrying Life Forward: The Female Reproductive System............................................219


    Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go.....................................235


    Chapter 15: Feeling Jumpy: The Nervous System................................................................................237


    Chapter 16: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System.......................................................................265


    Part VI: The Part of Tens...........................................................281


    Chapter 17: Ten Study Tips.....................................................................................................................283


    Chapter 18: Ten (Plus One) Terrific Online Resources........................................................................287


    Index.......................................................................................291 Table of Contents


    Introduction .................................................................................1


    About This Book.........................................................................................................................1


    Conventions Used in This Book...............................................................................................1


    Foolish Assumptions.................................................................................................................2


    How This Book Is Organized.....................................................................................................2


    Part I: Building Blocks of the Body................................................................................2


    Part II: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin...............................................2


    Part III: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport..............................................................3


    Part IV: Survival of the Species.......................................................................................3


    Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go........................................................................3


    Part VI: The Part of Tens.................................................................................................3


    Icons Used in This Book............................................................................................................3


    Where to Go from Here..............................................................................................................4


    Part I: Building Blocks of the Body................................................5


    Chapter 1: The Chemistry of Life..........................................................................................7


    Building from Scratch: Atoms and Elements..........................................................................7


    Compounding Chemical Reactions........................................................................................10


    Cycling through Life: Metabolism..........................................................................................15


    Answers to Questions on Life’s Chemistry...........................................................................21


    Chapter 2: The Cell: Life’s Basic Building Block............................................................23


    Gaining Admission: The Cell Membrane...............................................................................23


    Aiming for the Nucleus............................................................................................................26


    Looking Inside: Organelles and Their Functions..................................................................27


    Putting Together New Proteins..............................................................................................31


    Cycling Along: Grow, Rest, Divide, Die..................................................................................33


    Answers to Questions on the Cell..........................................................................................35


    Chapter 3: Divide and Conquer: Cellular Mitosis...........................................................37


    The Mitotic Process.................................................................................................................37


    Waiting for action: Interphase......................................................................................38


    Sorting out the parts: Prophase...................................................................................38


    Dividing at the equator: Metaphase.............................................................................38


    Packing up to move out: Anaphase..............................................................................38


    Pinching off: Telophase.................................................................................................39


    Splitting up: Cytokinesis................................................................................................39


    What Can Go Wrong.................................................................................................................42


    Answers to Questions on Mitosis..........................................................................................44


    Chapter 4: The Study of Tissues: Histology......................................................................47


    Getting Under Your Skin..........................................................................................................47


    Making a Connection: Connective Tissue.............................................................................50


    Flexing It: Muscle Tissue.........................................................................................................53


    Getting the Signal Across: Nerve Tissue...............................................................................54


    Answers to Questions on Histology......................................................................................56 viii


    Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies


    Part II: Weaving It Together: Bones, Muscles, and Skin .................59


    Chapter 5: A Scaffold to Build On: The Skeleton............................................................61


    Understanding Dem Bones.....................................................................................................61


    Boning Up on Classifications, Structures, and Ossification...............................................63


    Axial Skeleton: Keeping It All in Line.....................................................................................69


    Making a hard head harder...........................................................................................69


    Putting your backbones into it.....................................................................................70


    Appendicular Skeleton: Reaching Beyond Our Girdles.......................................................79


    Arthrology: Articulating the Joints........................................................................................82


    Answers to Questions on the Skeleton.................................................................................87


    Chapter 6: Getting in Gear: The Muscles.........................................................................93


    Flexing Your Muscle Knowledge............................................................................................93


    Classifications: Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal.....................................................................95


    Contracting for a Contraction................................................................................................97


    Pulling Together: Muscles as Organs.....................................................................................99


    Assuming the Right Tone......................................................................................................100


    Leveraging Muscular Power.................................................................................................101


    What’s In a Name? Identifying Muscles...............................................................................104


    Answers to Questions on Muscles.......................................................................................109


    Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System.................................................113


    Dermatology Down Deep......................................................................................................113


    Epidermis: Don’t judge this book by its cover.........................................................114


    Dermis: It’s more than skin deep................................................................................115


    Touching a Nerve in the Integumentary System................................................................119


    Accessorizing with Hair, Nails, and Glands........................................................................120


    Wigging out about hair................................................................................................120


    Nailing the fingers and toes........................................................................................121


    Sweating the details.....................................................................................................121


    Getting an earful...........................................................................................................122


    Answers to Questions on the Skin.......................................................................................125


    Part III: Feed and Fuel: Supply and Transport.............................127


    Chapter 8: Oxygenating the Machine: The Respiratory System................................129


    Breathing In Oxygen, Breathing Out CO ............................................................................129


    2


    Inhaling the Basics about the Respiratory Tract...............................................................132


    Knowing about the nose (and sinuses).....................................................................132


    Dealing with throaty matters......................................................................................134


    Going deep inside the lungs........................................................................................137


    Damaging Air..........................................................................................................................139


    Answers to Questions on the Respiratory System............................................................141


    Chapter 9: Fueling the Functions: The Digestive System............................................143


    Digesting the Basics: It’s Alimentary!..................................................................................143


    Nothing to Spit At: Into the Mouth and Past the Teeth.....................................................145


    Entering the vestibule..................................................................................................146


    Moving along the oral cavity......................................................................................147


    The tongue...........................................................................................................147


    The salivary glands............................................................................................148


    Stomaching the Body’s Fuel..................................................................................................151 ix


    Table of Contents


    Breaking Down the Work of Digestive Enzymes.................................................................154


    Small intestine..............................................................................................................154


    Liver...............................................................................................................................155


    Pancreas........................................................................................................................156


    Large intestine..............................................................................................................157


    Answers to Questions on the Digestive Tract....................................................................159


    Chapter 10: Spreading the Love: The Circulatory System...........................................163


    Moving to the Beat of a Pump..............................................................................................163


    Finding the Key to the Heart’s Chambers...........................................................................166


    The atria........................................................................................................................166


    The ventricles...............................................................................................................167


    Conducting the Heart’s Music..............................................................................................170


    Riding the Network of Blood Vessels...................................................................................172


    Beating from the Start: Fetal Circulation.............................................................................174


    Answers to Questions on the Circulatory System.............................................................178


    Chapter 11: Keeping Up Your Defenses: The Lymphatic System...............................181


    Duct, Duct, Lymph.................................................................................................................181


    Poking at the Nodes...............................................................................................................184


    Having a Spleen-ded Time with the Lymphatic Organs....................................................187


    The spleen.....................................................................................................................188


    T cell central: The thymus gland................................................................................188


    Opening wide and moving along: The tonsils and Peyer’s patches.......................189


    Answers to Questions on the Lymphatic System..............................................................192


    Chapter 12: Filtering Out the Junk: The Urinary System..............................................195


    Examining the Kidneys, the Body’s Filters.........................................................................195


    Going molecular...........................................................................................................196


    Focusing on filtering....................................................................................................196


    Getting Rid of the Waste........................................................................................................199


    Surfing the ureters........................................................................................................199


    Ballooning the bladder................................................................................................199


    The male and female urethras....................................................................................199


    Spelling Relief: Urination.......................................................................................................201


    Answers to Questions on the Urinary System...................................................................203


    Part IV: Survival of the Species..................................................205


    Chapter 13: Why Ask Y?: The Male Reproductive System..........................................207


    Identifying the Parts of the Male Reproductive System....................................................207


    Packaging the Chromosomes for Delivery..........................................................................211


    Answers to Questions on the Male Reproductive System................................................217


    Chapter 14: Carrying Life Forward: The Female Reproductive System....................219


    Identifying the Female Reproductive Parts and Their Functions....................................219


    Making Eggs: A Mite More Meiosis......................................................................................224


    Making Babies: An Introduction to Embryology................................................................226


    Growing from Fetus to Baby.................................................................................................227


    Growing, Changing, and Aging..............................................................................................229


    Answers to Questions on the Female Reproductive System............................................231 x


    Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For Dummies


    Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go......................................235


    Chapter 15: Feeling Jumpy: The Nervous System.........................................................237


    Building from Basics: Neurons, Nerves, Impulses, Synapses...........................................238


    Neurons.........................................................................................................................238


    Nerves............................................................................................................................239


    Impulses........................................................................................................................240


    Synapses........................................................................................................................241


    Minding the Central Nervous System and the Brain.........................................................243


    Spinal cord....................................................................................................................244


    Brain...............................................................................................................................245


    Medulla oblongata..............................................................................................245


    Pons......................................................................................................................245


    Midbrain..............................................................................................................245


    Cerebellum..........................................................................................................246


    Diencephalon......................................................................................................246


    Cerebrum.............................................................................................................246


    Medulla................................................................................................................247


    Ventricles.............................................................................................................247


    Taking Side Streets: The Peripheral Nervous System.......................................................251


    Keep Breathing: The Autonomic Nervous System.............................................................253


    Coming To Your Senses.........................................................................................................255


    Eyes................................................................................................................................256


    Ears................................................................................................................................256


    Answers to Questions on the Nervous System..................................................................261


    Chapter 16: Raging Hormones: The Endocrine System................................................265


    No Bland Glands.....................................................................................................................265


    Mastering the Ringmasters...................................................................................................267


    Supporting Cast of Glandular Characters...........................................................................270


    Topping off the kidneys: The adrenal glands............................................................270


    Thriving with the thyroid............................................................................................271


    Pairing up with the parathyroid.................................................................................271


    Pinging the pineal gland..............................................................................................271


    Thumping the thymus.................................................................................................271


    Pressing the pancreas..................................................................................................272


    Dealing with Stress: Homeostasis........................................................................................274


    Answers to Questions on the Endocrine System...............................................................277


    Part VI: The Part of Tens ...........................................................281


    Chapter 17: Ten Study Tips................................................................................................283


    Chapter 18: Ten (Plus One) Terrific Online Resources.................................................287


    Index .......................................................................................291 Introduction


    W


    hether your aim is to become a physical therapist or a pharmacist, a doctor or an


    acupuncturist, a nutritionist or a personal trainer, a registered nurse or a paramedic,


    a parent or simply a healthy human being — your efforts have to be based on a good under-


    standing of anatomy and physiology. But knowing that the knee bone connects to the thigh


    bone (or does it?) is just the tip of the iceberg. In Anatomy & Physiology Workbook For


    Dummies,you discover intricacies that will leave you agog with wonder. The human body is


    a miraculous biological machine capable of growing, interacting with the world, and even


    reproducing despite any number of environmental odds stacked against it. Understanding


    how the body’s interlaced systems accomplish these feats requires a close look at every-


    thing from chemistry to structural mechanics.


    Early anatomists relied on dissections to study the human body, which is why the Greek


    word anatomiameans “to cut up or dissect.” Anatomical references have been found in


    Egypt dating back to 1600 BC, but it was the Greeks — Hippocrates, in particular — who first


    dissected bodies for medical study around 420 BC. That’s why more than two millennia later


    we still use words based on Greek and Latin roots to identify anatomical structures.


    That’s also part of the reason so much of the study of anatomy and physiology feels like


    learning a foreign language. Truth be told, you areworking with a foreign language, but it’s


    the language of you and the one body you’re ever going to have.


    About This Book


    This workbook isn’t meant to replace a textbook, and it’s certainly not meant to replace going


    to an actual anatomy and physiology class. It works best as a supplement to your ongoing


    education and as a study aid in prepping for exams. That’s why we give you insight into what


    your instructor most likely will emphasize as you move from one body system or structure to


    the next.


    Your coursework most likely will cover things in a different order than we’ve chosen for this


    book. We encourage you to take full advantage of the table of contents and the index to find


    the material addressed in your class. Whatever you do, certainly don’t feel obligated to go


    through this workbook in any particular order. However, please do answer the practice ques-


    tions and check the answers at the end of each chapter because, in addition to answers, we


    clarify why the right answer is the right answer and why the other answers are incorrect;


    wealso provide you with memory tools and other tips whenever possible.


    Conventions Used in This Book


    Half the battle of studying anatomy and physiology is getting comfortable with the jargon. To


    help you navigate through this book, we use the following typographical conventions:


    (cid:1)Italicsare used for emphasis and to highlight new words or terms that are defined in


    the text.


    (cid:1)Boldfaceis used to indicate keywords in bulleted lists or the action parts of numbered


    steps.


    (cid:1)Monofontis used for Web site addresses.


    Please note: To fully download this free PDF,EBook files you need know All free.
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